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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23223, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553757

ABSTRACT

Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) have been widespread in poultry and wild birds throughout the world for many decades. LPAIV infections are usually asymptomatic or cause subclinical symptoms. However, the genetic reassortment of LPAIVs may generate novel viruses with increased virulence and cross-species transmission, posing potential risks to public health. To evaluate the epidemic potential and infection landscape of LPAIVs in Guangxi Province, China, we collected and analyzed throat and cloacal swab samples from chickens, ducks and geese from the live poultry markets on a regular basis from 2016 to 2019. Among the 7,567 samples, 974 (12.87%) were LPAIVs-positive, with 890 single and 84 mixed infections. Higher yearly isolation rates were observed in 2017 and 2018. Additionally, geese had the highest isolation rate, followed by ducks and chickens. Seasonally, spring had the highest isolation rate. Subtype H3, H4, H6 and H9 viruses were detected over prolonged periods, while H1 and H11 viruses were detected transiently. The predominant subtypes in chickens, ducks and geese were H9, H3, and H6, respectively. The 84 mixed infection samples contained 22 combinations. Most mixed infections involved two subtypes, with H3 + H4 as the most common combination. Our study provides important epidemiological data regarding the isolation rates, distributions of prevalent subtypes and mixed infections of LPAIVs. These results will improve our knowledge and ability to control epidemics, guide disease management strategies and provide early awareness of newly emerged AIV reassortants with pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza in Birds/virology , Poultry/virology , Animals , Chickens/virology , China/epidemiology , Ducks/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Geese/virology , Influenza A virus/genetics
2.
Virus Res ; 306: 198566, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475120

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first reported in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread throughout the world. This newly emerging pathogen is highly transmittable and can cause fatal disease. More than 35 million cases have been confirmed, with a fatality rate of about 2.9% to October 9, 2020. However, the original and intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 remain unknown. Here, 3160 poultry samples collected from 14 provinces of China between September and December 2019 were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. All the samples were SARS-CoV-2 negative, but 593 avian coronaviruses were detected, including 485 avian infectious bronchitis viruses, 72 duck coronaviruses, and 36 pigeon coronaviruses, with positivity rates of 15.35%, 2.28%, and 1.14%, respectively. Our surveillance demonstrates the diversity of avian coronaviruses in China, with higher prevalence rates in some regions. Furthermore, the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 originated from a known avian-origin coronavirus can be preliminarily ruled out. More surveillance of and research into avian coronaviruses are required to better understand the diversity, distribution, cross-species transmission, and clinical significance of these viruses.


Subject(s)
Bird Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Genetic Variation , Animals , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Chickens/virology , China/epidemiology , Columbidae/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Ducks/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Geese/virology , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444334

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a group of enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses and can cause deadly diseases in animals and humans. Cell entry is the first and essential step of successful virus infection and can be divided into two ongoing steps: cell binding and membrane fusion. Over the past two decades, stimulated by the global outbreak of SARS-CoV and pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, numerous efforts have been made in the CoV research. As a result, significant progress has been achieved in our understanding of the cell entry process. Here, we review the current knowledge of this essential process, including the viral and host components involved in cell binding and membrane fusion, molecular mechanisms of their interactions, and the sites of virus entry. We highlight the recent findings of host restriction factors that inhibit CoVs entry. This knowledge not only enhances our understanding of the cell entry process, pathogenesis, tissue tropism, host range, and interspecies-transmission of CoVs but also provides a theoretical basis to design effective preventive and therapeutic strategies to control CoVs infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment , Virus Internalization , Animals , Cats/virology , Cattle/virology , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Dogs/virology , Livestock/virology , Membrane Fusion/physiology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine/virology , Viral Tropism/physiology
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254605, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367703

ABSTRACT

The re-emergence of virulent strains of the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) leads to significant economic losses of poultry industry in Pakistan during last few years. This disease causes the infection of bursa, which leads to major immune losses. A total number of 30 samples from five IBD outbreaks during the period of 2019-20 were collected from different areas of Faisalabad district, Pakistan and assayed by targeting the IBD virus VP2 region through RT-PCR. Among all the outbreaks, almost 80% of poultry birds were found positive for the IBDV. The bursa tissues were collected from the infected birds and histopathological examination of samples revealed severe lymphocytic depletion, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and necrosis of the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Positive samples were subjected to re-isolation and molecular characterization of IBDV. The Pakistan IBDV genes were subjected to DNA sequencing to determine the virus nucleotide sequences. The sequences of 100 Serotype-I IBDVs showing nearest homology were compared and identified with the study sequence. The construction of the phylogenetic tree for nucleotide sequences was accomplished by the neighbor-joining method in MEGA-6 with reference strains. The VP2 segment reassortment of IBDVs carrying segment A were identified as one important type of circulating strains in Pakistan. The findings indicated the molecular features of the Pakistan IBDV strains playing a role in the evolution of new strains of the virus, which will contribute to the vaccine selection and effective prevention of the disease.


Subject(s)
Birnaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Infectious bursal disease virus/pathogenicity , Poultry/virology , Vaccines/pharmacology , Animals , Birnaviridae Infections/veterinary , Birnaviridae Infections/virology , Bursa of Fabricius/pathology , Bursa of Fabricius/virology , Chickens/virology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Humans , Infectious bursal disease virus/genetics , Pakistan/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/virology , Viral Structural Proteins/genetics , Viral Structural Proteins/immunology
5.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272136

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) are evolving continuously via genetic drift and genetic recombination, making disease prevention and control difficult. In this study, we undertook genetic and pathogenic characterization of recombinant IBVs isolated from chickens in South Korea between 2003 and 2019. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 46 IBV isolates belonged to GI-19, which includes nephropathogenic IBVs. Ten isolates formed a new cluster, the genomic sequences of which were different from those of reference sequences. Recombination events in the S1 gene were identified, with putative parental strains identified as QX-like, KM91-like, and GI-15. Recombination detection methods identified three patterns (rGI-19-I, rGI-19-II, and rGI-19-III). To better understand the pathogenicity of recombinant IBVs, we compared the pathogenicity of GI-19 with that of the rGI-19s. The results suggest that rGI-19s may be more likely to cause trachea infections than GI-19, whereas rGI-19s were less pathogenic in the kidney. Additionally, the pathogenicity of rGI-19s varied according to the genotype of the major parent. These results indicate that genetic recombination between heterologous strains belonging to different genotypes has occurred, resulting in the emergence of new recombinant IBVs in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Chickens/virology , Genotype , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Phylogeny , Recombination, Genetic , Animals , Genomics , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Virulence
6.
Mol Cells ; 44(6): 377-383, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289259

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To understand the identity, functional characteristics and therapeutic targets of the virus and the diseases, appropriate infection models that recapitulate the in vivo pathophysiology of the viral infection are necessary. This article reviews the various infection models, including Vero cells, human cell lines, organoids, and animal models, and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. This knowledge will be helpful for establishing an efficient system for defense against emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Models, Theoretical , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cats , Cell Line, Tumor , Chickens/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops/virology , Cricetinae , Dogs , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Mice , Organoids/immunology , Organoids/pathology , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Swine/virology , Vero Cells
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 254: 109014, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107294

ABSTRACT

TW-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) with high pathogenicity is becoming the predominant IBV type circulating in China. To develop vaccines against TW-like IBV strains and investigate the critical genes associated with their virulence, GD strain was attenuated by 140 serial passages in specific-pathogen-free embryonated eggs and the safety and efficacy of the attenuated GD strain (aGD) were examined. The genome sequences of GD and aGD were also compared and the effects of mutations in the S gene were observed. The results revealed that aGD strain showed no obvious pathogenicity with superior protective efficacy against TW-like and QX-like virulent IBV strains. The genomes of strains aGD and GD shared high similarity (99.87 %) and most of the mutations occurred in S gene. Recombinant IBV strain rGDaGD-S, in which the S gene was replaced with the corresponding regions from aGD, showed decreased pathogenicity compared with its parental strain. In conclusion, attenuated TW-like IBV strain aGD is a potential vaccine candidate and the S gene is responsible for its attenuation. Our research has laid the foundation for future exploration of the attenuating molecular mechanism of IBV.


Subject(s)
Chickens/virology , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Animals , Chick Embryo , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Poultry Diseases/virology , Reverse Genetics/methods , Serial Passage , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
8.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100435, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087033

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic represents a global threat, and the interaction between the virus and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the primary entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, is a key determinant of the range of hosts that can be infected by the virus. However, the mechanisms underpinning ACE2-mediated viral entry across species remains unclear. Using infection assay, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2 entry mediated by ACE2 of 11 different animal species. We discovered that ACE2 of Rhinolophus sinicus (Chinese rufous horseshoe bat), Felis catus (domestic cat), Canis lupus familiaris (dog), Sus scrofa (wild pig), Capra hircus (goat), and Manis javanica (Malayan pangolin) facilitated SARS-CoV-2 entry into nonsusceptible cells. Moreover, ACE2 of the pangolin also mediated SARS-CoV-2 entry, adding credence to the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 may have originated from pangolins. However, the ACE2 proteins of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (greater horseshoe bat), Gallus gallus (red junglefowl), Notechis scutatus (mainland tiger snake), or Mus musculus (house mouse) did not facilitate SARS-CoV-2 entry. In addition, a natural isoform of the ACE2 protein of Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey) with the Y217N mutation was resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection, highlighting the possible impact of this ACE2 mutation on SARS-CoV-2 studies in rhesus monkeys. We further demonstrated that the Y217 residue of ACE2 is a critical determinant for the ability of ACE2 to mediate SARS-CoV-2 entry. Overall, these results clarify that SARS-CoV-2 can use the ACE2 receptors of multiple animal species and show that tracking the natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 is complex.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cats , Chickens/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Dogs , Elapidae/virology , Eutheria/virology , Gene Expression , Goats/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Macaca mulatta/virology , Mice , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Secondary , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Species Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Swine/virology , Virus Internalization
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108579, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826358

ABSTRACT

In China, variants of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) evolve continually and diverse recombinant strains have been reported. Here, an IBV strain, designated as ck/CH/LJX/2017/07 (referred as JX17) was isolated from chicken vaccinated with H120 and 4/91 in Jiangxi, China, in 2017. Sequence analysis reveals of the S1 gene of JX17 the highest nucleotide identity of 98.15% with that of GI-7 genotype TW2575/98 strain. Furthermore, whole genome analysis among JX17 and other 18 IBV strains demonstrates that JX17 has the highest nucleotide identity of 95.94% with GI-19 genotype YX10 strain. Among all genes of JX17 except the S1 gene, the N gene and 3' UTR have the highest identity to GI-13 genotype 4/91 strain and the rest genes are the most identical to GI-19 genotype YX10 strain. Analyzed by the RDP and SimPlot, the recombination of JX17 strain was shown to occur in regions which include 5'-terminal S1 gene (20,344 to 22,447 nt), most N gene and 3' UTR (26,163 to 27,648 nt). The pathogenicity study shows that JX17 is a natural low virulent IBV variant which caused respiratory symptoms but no death. Taken together, these results indicate that IBV strains continue to evolve through genetic recombination and three prevalent genotypes in China including QX, TW and 4/91 have started to recombine.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Genome, Viral , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Reassortant Viruses/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Animals , Chickens/virology , China , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genotype , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reassortant Viruses/pathogenicity , Whole Genome Sequencing
10.
Infect Genet Evol ; 80: 104177, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824480

ABSTRACT

The presence of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was identified for the first time in the poultry population in Poland at the end of the 1960s. From this time a few waves of epidemics caused by different IBV variants spread across the country. In order to gain more insight into the molecular epidemiology of IBV in Poland, in the present study the S1 coding region of 34 IBV isolates and nearly whole genome of 10 strains collected over a period of 38 years was characterized. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains belonged to five recently established IBV lineages: GI-1, GI-12, GI-13, GI-19 and GI-23. Additionally, two strains from 1989 and 1997 formed a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree categorized as unique early Polish variants, and one strain was revealed to be the recombinant of these and GI-1 lineage viruses. Irrespective of year of isolation and S1-dependent genotype, the genome sequences of Polish IBV strains showed the presence of six genes and 13 ORFs: 5'UTR-1a-1b-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-6b-3'UTR, however their individual genes and putative proteins had different lengths. The phylogenetic analyses performed on the genome of ten Polish IBV strains revealed that they cluster into different groups. The Polish GI-1, GI-19 and GI-23 strains cluster with other similar viruses of these lineages, with the exception of the two strains from 1989 and 1997 which are different. It seems that in Poland in the 1980s and 1990s IBV strains with a unique genome backbone circulated in the field, which were then replaced by other strains belonging to other IBV lineages with a genome backbone specific to these lineages. The recombination analysis showed that some Polish strains resulted from a recombination event involving different IBV lineages, most frequently GI-13 and GI-19.


Subject(s)
Chickens/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Animals , Genome, Viral , Genomics/methods , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , Poland/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/history , Recombination, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
11.
J Virol ; 94(2)2020 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-822990

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infects ciliated epithelial cells in the chicken respiratory tract. While some IBV strains replicate locally, others can disseminate to various organs, including the kidney. Here, we elucidate the determinants for kidney tropism by studying interactions between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral attachment protein spike from two IBV strains with different tropisms. Recombinantly produced RBDs from the nephropathogenic IBV strain QX and from the nonnephropathogenic strain M41 bound to the epithelial cells of the trachea. In contrast, only QX-RBD binds more extensively to cells of the digestive tract, urogenital tract, and kidneys. While removal of sialic acids from tissues prevented binding of all proteins to all tissues, binding of QX-RBD to trachea and kidney could not be blocked by preincubation with synthetic alpha-2,3-linked sialic acids. The lack of binding of QX-RBD to a previously identified IBV-M41 receptor was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), demonstrating that tissue binding of QX-RBD is dependent on a different sialylated glycan receptor. Using chimeric RBD proteins, we discovered that the region encompassing amino acids 99 to 159 of QX-RBD was required to establish kidney binding. In particular, QX-RBD amino acids 110 to 112 (KIP) were sufficient to render IBV-M41 with the ability to bind to kidney, while the reciprocal mutations in IBV-QX abolished kidney binding completely. Structural analysis of both RBDs suggests that the receptor-binding site for QX is located at a different location on the spike than that of M41.IMPORTANCE Infectious bronchitis virus is the causative agent of infectious bronchitis in chickens. Upon infection of chicken flocks, the poultry industry faces substantial economic losses by diminished egg quality and increased morbidity and mortality of infected animals. While all IBV strains infect the chicken respiratory tract via the ciliated epithelial layer of the trachea, some strains can also replicate in the kidneys, dividing IBV into the following two pathotypes: nonnephropathogenic (example, IBV-M41) and nephropathogenic viruses (including IBV-QX). Here, we set out to identify the determinants for the extended nephropathogenic tropism of IBV-QX. Our data reveal that each pathotype makes use of a different sialylated glycan ligand, with binding sites on opposite sides of the attachment protein. This knowledge should facilitate the design of antivirals to prevent coronavirus infections in the field.


Subject(s)
Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Kidney/virology , Mutation, Missense , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Tropism/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Chickens/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Protein Domains , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
Cytokine ; 127: 154961, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-822511

ABSTRACT

Some of the respiratory viral infections in chickens pose a significant threat to the poultry industry and public health. In response to viral infections, host innate responses provide the first line of defense against viruses, which often act even before the establishment of the infection. Host cells sense the presence of viral components through germinal encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The engagement of PRRs with pathogen-associated molecular patterns leads to the induction of pro-inflammatory and interferon productions. Induced antiviral responses play a critical role in the outcome of the infections. In order to improve current strategies for control of viral infections or to advance new strategies aimed against viral infections, a deep understanding of host-virus interaction and induction of antiviral responses is required. In this review, we summarized recent progress in understanding innate antiviral responses in chickens with a focus on the avian influenza virus and infectious bronchitis virus.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Infectious bronchitis virus/drug effects , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Influenza in Birds/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Influenza in Birds/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
13.
Arch Virol ; 165(3): 703-707, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832787

ABSTRACT

Using viral metagenomics, the complete genome sequence of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain (named ahysx-1) from a fecal sample from a healthy chicken in Anhui province, China, was determined. The genome sequence of ahysx-1 was found to be very similar to that of IBV strain ck/CH/LLN/131040 (KX252787), except for the spike gene region, which is similar to that of a turkey coronavirus strain (EU022526), suggesting that ahysx-1 is a recombinant. Recombination analysis and phylogenetic analysis based on the genomic sequences of ahysx-1 and other related strains confirmed that ahysx-1 appears to be a recombinant resulting from a recombination event that occurred between a chicken coronavirus and a turkey coronavirus. Further studies need to be performed to determine whether this recombinant IBV strain is pathogenic and whether it is transmitted between chickens and turkeys.


Subject(s)
Chickens/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Genome, Viral , Metagenomics , Phylogeny , Turkeys/virology
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(2): 884-893, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797115

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes respiratory diseases in chickens and poses an economic threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Despite vaccine use, there have been field outbreaks of IBV in Taiwan. This study aimed to characterize the emerging IBV variants circulating in Taiwan. The analysis of the structural protein genes showed that these variants emerged through frequent recombination events among Taiwan strains, China strains, Japan strains and vaccine strains. Cross-neutralization tests revealed that two of the variants exhibited novel serotypes. Clinicopathological assessment showed that two of the variants caused high fatality rates of 67% and 20% in one-day-old SPF chicks, and all the variants possessed multiorgan tropisms, including trachea, proventriculus and urogenital tissues. Furthermore, the commercial live-attenuated Mass-type vaccine conferred poor protection against these variants. This study identified novel genotypes, serotypes and pathotypes of emerging IBV variants circulating in Taiwan. There is an urgent need for effective countermeasures against these variant strains.


Subject(s)
Bronchitis/veterinary , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Poultry Diseases/virology , Animals , Bronchitis/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Genetic Variation , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Proventriculus/virology , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Taiwan/epidemiology , Trachea/virology , Viral Tropism
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 1-29, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728129

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs), enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses, are characterized by club-like spikes that project from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome, and a unique replication strategy. CoVs cause a variety of diseases in mammals and birds ranging from enteritis in cows and pigs, and upper respiratory tract and kidney disease in chickens to lethal human respiratory infections. Most recently, the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019, is the cause of a catastrophic pandemic, COVID-19, with more than 8 million infections diagnosed worldwide by mid-June 2020. Here we provide a brief introduction to CoVs discussing their replication, pathogenicity, and current prevention and treatment strategies. We will also discuss the outbreaks of the highly pathogenic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which are relevant for understanding COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Animal Diseases/virology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Animal Diseases/diagnosis , Animal Diseases/epidemiology , Animal Diseases/prevention & control , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cattle , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine , Virion , Virus Replication
16.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(8)2020 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-708422

ABSTRACT

The coronaviruses are a large family of enveloped RNA viruses that commonly cause gastrointestinal or respiratory illnesses in the infected host. Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen of chickens that can affect the kidneys and reproductive systems resulting in bird mortality and decreased reproductivity. The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are activated in response to viral infections and represent a class of cellular restriction factors that restrict the replication of many viral pathogens. Here, we characterize the relative mRNA expression of the chicken IFITM genes in response to IBV infection, in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro using the pathogenic M41-CK strain, the nephropathogenic QX strain and the nonpathogenic Beaudette strain. In vivo we demonstrate a significant upregulation of chIFITM1, 2, 3 and 5 in M41-CK- and QX-infected trachea two days post-infection. In vitro infection with Beaudette, M41-CK and QX results in a significant upregulation of chIFITM1, 2 and 3 at 24 h post-infection. We confirmed a differential innate response following infection with distinct IBV strains and believe that our data provide new insights into the possible role of chIFITMs in early IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Chickens/genetics , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Organ Culture Techniques , Poultry Diseases/etiology , Poultry Diseases/genetics , Poultry Diseases/virology , Viral Load , Viral Tropism
17.
Euro Surveill ; 25(25)2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-649992

ABSTRACT

The advent of COVID-19, has posed a risk that human respiratory samples containing human influenza viruses may also contain SARS-CoV-2. This potential risk may lead to SARS-CoV-2 contaminating conventional influenza vaccine production platforms as respiratory samples are used to directly inoculate embryonated hen's eggs and continuous cell lines that are used to isolate and produce influenza vaccines. We investigated the ability of these substrates to propagate SARS-CoV-2 and found that neither could support SARS-CoV-2 replication.


Subject(s)
Chickens/immunology , Coronavirus/physiology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Virus Cultivation/methods , Virus Replication , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dogs , Eggs , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
18.
Vet Res Commun ; 44(3-4): 101-110, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639440

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 in mainland China with subsequent human to human transmission worldwide had taken up the shape of a devastating pandemic. The ability of the virus to infect multiple species other than humans has currently been reported in experimental conditions. Non-human primates, felines, ferrets, rodents and host of other animals could previously be infected in experimental conditions with SARS-CoV and recently with SARS-CoV-2, both virus using Angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 receptor for cellular entry. The variations in sequence homology of ACE2 receptor across species is identified as one of the factors determining virulence and pathogenicity in animals. The infection in experimental animals with SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 on most occasions are asymptomatic, however, the virus could multiply within the respiratory tract and extra-pulmonary organs in most of the species. Here, we discuss about the pathogenicity, transmission, variations in angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 receptor-binding across species and host pathogen interactions of SARS and SARS-CoV-2 in laboratory animals used in research.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/veterinary , Animals , COVID-19 , Callithrix/virology , Cats/virology , Chickens/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops/virology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cricetinae/virology , Ferrets/virology , Macaca fascicularis/virology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Rodentia/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Swine/virology
19.
Virus Res ; 285: 198002, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165136

ABSTRACT

In the present study, an IBV strain I0305/19 was isolated from a diseased commercial broiler flock in 2019 in China with high morbidity and mortality. The isolate I0305/19 was clustered together with viruses in sublineage D of GI-19 lineage on the basis of the complete S1 sequence analysis. Isolate I0305/19 and other GI-19 viruses isolated in China have the amino acid sequence MIA at positions 110-112 in the S protein. Further analysis based on the complete genomic sequence showed that the isolate emerged through at least four recombination events between GI-19 ck/CH/LJS/120848- and GI-13 4/91-like strains, in which the S gene was found to be similar to that of the GI-19 ck/CH/LJS/120848-like strain. Pathological assessment showed the isolate was a nephropathogenic IBV strain that caused high morbidity of 100 % and mortality of 80 % in 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks. The isolate I0305/19 exhibited broader tropisms in different tissues, including tracheas, lungs, bursa of Fabricius, spleen, liver, kidneys, proventriculus, small intestines, large intestines, cecum, and cecal tonsils. Furthermore, subpopulations of the virus were found in tissues of infected chickens; this finding is important in understanding how the virulent IBV strains can potentially replicate and evolve to cause disease. This information is also valuable for understanding the mechanisms of replication and evolution of other coronaviruses such as the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Chickens/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Poultry Diseases/virology , Recombination, Genetic , Viral Tropism , Animals , China , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Phylogeny , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Replication
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