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1.
Clin Immunol ; 237: 108984, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838656

ABSTRACT

The exact etiopathology of chilblains observed during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still unclear. Initially, SARS-CoV-2 appeared as the obvious causing agent, but two years of various investigations have failed to convincingly support its direct implication. Most affected individuals have no detectable virus, no anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and no symptoms of COVID-19. Analyses of skin biopsies similarly failed to unambiguously demonstrate presence of the virus or its genome. In a recent hypothesis, SARS-CoV-2 would cause the lesions before being promptly eliminated by unusually strong type I interferon responses. With others, we feel that environmental factors have not been sufficiently considered, in particular cold exposure related to unprecedented containment measures. The cause of pandemic chilblains remains a stimulating puzzle which warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Chilblains/diagnosis , Chilblains/epidemiology , Chilblains/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/pathology
2.
Dermatol Ther ; 35(5): e15365, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735904

ABSTRACT

During SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, an outbreak of chilblain-like lesions has been developed, even if the relationship with the virus infection is still debated. We report the good results obtained in 12 patients with chilblain lesions and the use of oral cinnarizine, a piperazine derivative with many pharmacological properties among whom antihistaminic and calcium channel blocking activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Cinnarizine , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chilblains/diagnosis , Chilblains/drug therapy , Chilblains/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(9)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713295

ABSTRACT

An increased incidence of chilblains has been observed during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and attributed to viral infection. Direct evidence of this relationship has been limited, however, as most cases do not have molecular evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection with PCR or antibodies. We enrolled a cohort of 23 patients who were diagnosed and managed as having SARS-CoV-2-associated skin eruptions (including 21 pandemic chilblains [PC]) during the first wave of the pandemic in Connecticut. Antibody responses were determined through endpoint titration enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum epitope repertoire analysis. T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 were assessed by T cell receptor sequencing and in vitro SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific peptide stimulation assays. Immunohistochemical and PCR studies of PC biopsies and tissue microarrays for evidence of SARS-CoV-2 were performed. Among patients diagnosed and managed as "covid toes" during the pandemic, we find a percentage of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (9.5%) that approximates background seroprevalence (8.5%) at the time. Immunohistochemistry studies suggest that SARS-CoV-2 staining in PC biopsies may not be from SARS-CoV-2. Our results do not support SARS-CoV-2 as the causative agent of pandemic chilblains; however, our study does not exclude the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 seronegative abortive infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Chilblains/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chilblains/epidemiology , Chilblains/virology , Connecticut/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
4.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 39(2): 243-249, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought innumerable reports of chilblains. The relation between pernio-like acral eruptions and COVID-19 has not been fully elucidated because most reported cases have occurred in patients with negative microbiological tests for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: A retrospective study of 49 cases of chilblains seen during the first year of the pandemic in a children's hospital in Madrid, Spain. The incidence of these skin lesions was correlated with the number of COVID-19 admissions and environmental temperatures. Patients were separated into two groups depending on the day of onset (strict lockdown period vs. outside the lockdown period). RESULTS: Most chilblains cases presented during the first and third waves of the pandemic, paralleling the number of COVID-19 admissions. The first wave coincided with a strict lockdown, and the third wave coincided with the lowest ambient seasonal temperatures of the year. Systemic symptoms preceding chilblains were more frequent in the first wave (45.8% vs. 8.0%, p = .002), as was the co-occurrence with erythema multiforme-like lesions (16.7% vs. 0%, p = .033). Laboratory test and skin biopsies were performed more frequently in the first wave (75.0% vs. 12.0%, p < .001; and 25.0% vs. 0%, p = .007; respectively). Five patients developed recurrent cutaneous symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: An increased incidence of chilblains coincided not only with the two major waves of the pandemic, but also with the strict lockdown period in the first wave and low seasonal temperatures during the third wave. Both increased sedentary behaviors and cold environmental temperatures may have played an additive role in the development of COVID-19-related chilblains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Skin Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chilblains/diagnosis , Chilblains/epidemiology , Chilblains/etiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/diagnosis
5.
Dermatol Ther ; 35(3): e15298, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606649

ABSTRACT

COVID toes or chilblain-like skin lesions represent a widespread and specific skin presentation mostly in the feet that may be attributed to COVID-19 infection. They may last for several months. We conducted this study to investigate chilblain-like lesions in children during the COVID-19 pandemic, any predisposition, location, clinical course, and prognosis. We searched Google Scholar, Scopus, and Medline (PubMed) databases using the following keywords: "Coronavirus" OR "COVID-19" AND "Chilblains" OR "Pernio" OR "Perniosis" OR "Children" OR "Cutaneous" OR "skin." The inclusion criteria were: (a) Studies that described the specific vascular skin lesion. (b) Studies that included patients aged >1 month till 18 years. (c) Case reports, case series, retrospective or prospective cohort studies, case-control studies. A total of 28 articles were included. The total number of children with chiblain-like lesions (CLL) was 433. The mean age of children presenting CLL during the COVID-19 pandemic was estimated as 12.58 ± 2.15. Of note, 53.6% of them were male. The nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were mostly negative for the virus. In conclusion, it is crucial to be familiar with various presentations of COVID-19 infection and their clinical significance to approach the earliest diagnosis, immediate treatment, estimate the prognosis, and finally isolate the patients to prevent spreading. Chilblain-like lesions as a possible cutaneous presentation of COVID-19 in children may last several months with the indolent course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chilblains/diagnosis , Chilblains/epidemiology , Chilblains/etiology , Child , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(3): 380-383, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491858

ABSTRACT

More than 40 million people have been infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 since the first infection was reported in December 2019 from Wuhan, China. Multiple reports of cutaneous manifestations of the virus have been described, including a pernio-like eruption, recently termed "COVID toes." We have reviewed the published case series on "COVID toes" in addition to studies identifying possible pathogenic mechanisms behind the eruption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Exanthema , Chilblains/diagnosis , Chilblains/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Toes
7.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(2): 285-291, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446539

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous cases of chilblains have been reported. However, in most cases, RT-PCR or serology did not confirm SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hypotheses have been raised about an interferon-mediated immunological response to SARS-CoV-2, leading to effective clearance of the SARS-CoV-2 without the involvement of humoral immunity. Our objective was to explore the association between chilblains and exposure to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In this multicentre case-control study, cases were the 102 individuals referred to five referral hospitals for chilblains occurring during the first lockdown (March to May 2020). Controls were recruited from healthy volunteers' files held by the same hospitals. All members of their households were included, resulting in 77 case households (262 individuals) and 74 control households (230 individuals). Household exposure to SARS-CoV-2 during the first lockdown was categorized as high, intermediate or low, using a pre-established algorithm based on individual data on symptoms, high-risk contacts, activities outside the home and RT-PCR testing. Participants were offered a SARS-CoV-2 serological test. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, the association between chilblains and viral exposure was estimated at OR 3.3, 95% CI (1.4-7.3) for an intermediate household exposure, and 6.9 (2.5-19.5) for a high household exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Out of 57 case households tested, six (11%) had positive serology for SARS-CoV-2, whereas all control households tested (n = 50) were seronegative (p = 0.03). The effect of potential misclassification on exposure has been assessed in a bias analysis. DISCUSSION: This case-control study demonstrates the association between chilblains occurring during the lockdown and household exposure to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Case-Control Studies , Chilblains/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 101(12): adv00614, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405390

ABSTRACT

Numerous cases of chilblains have been observed in the course if the COVID-19 pandemic. The aims of this study were to provide comprehensive follow-up data for patients reporting chilblains, and to determine the risk factors for incomplete recovery. Patients referred to 5 hospitals in France between March and May 2020 for chilblains were surveyed on December 2020. A teleconsultation was offered. Among 82 patients reporting chilblains, 27 (33%) reported complete recovery, 33 (40%) had recurrences of chilblains after their hands and feet had returned to normal, and 22 (27%) developed persistent acral manifestations, mostly acrocyanosis, with or without further recurrences of chilblains. Most recurrences of chilblains occurred during the following autumn and winter. A past history of chilblains was not associated with recurrences or persistent acral manifestations. Women had a significantly higher risk of developing recurrences or persistent acral manifestations (odds ratio 1.30; 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.59). In conclusion, two-thirds of patients reporting chilblains at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic experienced persistent or recurrent acral manifestations after a 10-month follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Biopsy , Chilblains/diagnosis , Chilblains/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
JAMA Dermatol ; 157(8): 947-953, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279331

ABSTRACT

Importance: Beginning in March 2020, case reports and case series linked the COVID-19 pandemic with an increased occurrence of chilblains, but this association has not been evaluated in an epidemiologic study. Objective: To assess whether a correlation exists between COVID-19 incidence and chilblains incidence. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California system from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2020; health plan members of all ages were included. Exposure: COVID-19 incidence in 207 location-months, representing 23 geographic locations in northern California across 9 months. Main Outcome and Measures: Chilblains incidence was the main outcome. The association of chilblains incidence with COVID-19 incidence across the 207 location-months was measured using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results: Of 780 patients with chilblains reported during the pandemic, 464 were female (59.5%); mean (SD) age was 36.8 (21.8) years. COVID-19 incidence was correlated with chilblains incidence at 207 location-months (Spearman coefficient 0.18; P = .01). However, only 17 of 456 (3.7%) patients with chilblains tested during the pandemic were positive for SARS-CoV-2, and only 9 of 456 (2.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 within 6 weeks of the chilblains diagnosis. Test results of 1 of 97 (1.0%) patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. Latinx patients were disproportionately affected by COVID-19 but not by chilblains. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that in northern California, the incidence of chilblains increased during the pandemic but was correlated weakly with the incidence of COVID-19 across 207 location-months. These findings may have resulted from a causal role of COVID-19, increased care-seeking by patients with chilblains during the pandemic, or changes in behavior during shelter in place.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chilblains/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , California/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
14.
J Cutan Med Surg ; 25(6): 627-633, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183484

ABSTRACT

Reports of chilblain-like lesions (CLL) coinciding with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been described in the literature, but this phenomenon has not been critically summarized. The aim of this paper is to summarize reports of CLL coinciding with SARS-CoV-2 infection to clarify the prevalence, clinical relevance, and prognostic value of these lesions. A literature search was conducted using the Embase, Pubmed, and Scopus databases from December 2019 to June 16, 2020 using the search terms ("COVID-19" OR "coronavirus" OR "2019-nCoV" OR "SARS-CoV-2") AND ("chilblain-like" OR "COVID toes" OR "acral"). Papers that described skin changes in patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 were included. A total of 31 papers were summarized, representing 813 cases of CLL. Available data suggests an equal gender distribution, mean age of 21 years, and median age of 14 years. Mild extracutaneous symptoms were reported in 53% of cases and 47% were asymptomatic. CLL occurred an average of 16 days after extracutaneous symptoms. Patients with CLL were positive for SARS-CoV-2 in 15% of cases. Lesions were mainly described as asymptomatic and/or pruritic erythematous to violaceous acral macules and plaques. Partial or complete resolution occurred in 85% of cases in a mean of 13 days. The most common histologic findings were perivascular and perieccrine superficial and deep lymphocytic infiltrates. Although a causal relationship between CLL and SARS-CoV-2 has not been confirmed, the temporal association and 15% positive SARS-CoV-2 rate in affected individuals should not be ignored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chilblains/epidemiology , Chilblains/physiopathology , Chilblains/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Toes/blood supply , Toes/physiopathology , Young Adult
16.
Dermatol Ther ; 34(3): e14951, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142879

ABSTRACT

Perniosis/chilblains are the acral inflammatory skin lesions developing in susceptible individuals as an abnormal reaction to cold. In the absence of a discernible cause, it is labeled as idiopathic perniosis (IP). With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, there was an upsurge of reports of chilblain like lesions (CLL) especially in young patients possibly implicated to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Twelve clinically suspected and histopathologically confirmed cases of IP seen from November 2019 through February 2020 were retrospectively recruited. Clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathological characteristics of these were reviewed and compared with CLL reported in the literature. Mean age of patients was 26.58 ± 15.18 years with an equal male to female ratio. Characteristic histopathology findings were spongiosis (100%), dermal edema (100%), perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate (100%) with peri-eccrine accentuation (66.7%), keratinocyte necrosis (50%), focal basal vacuolar damage (58.3%), and lymphocytic vasculitis (58.3%). Significant dermoscopy findings were variable background color ranging from dull red and violaceous to copper red and brown orange, coiled vessels (44.4%) and orange-red structureless areas (63.9%). Lesions over palms and soles preferentially had white dots/clods and lines (38.9%). There appears no exclusive histopathological as well as dermoscopy features of CLL and IP, yet certain clues can be appreciated. Keratinocyte necrosis and severe dermal edema favors IP, whereas fibrin thrombi with involvement of both superficial and deep dermal vessels favor CLL. Dermoscopically presence of irregular, linear or branching vessels, red/purple dots and clods and gray brown reticule supports CLL while white dots/clods and lines supports IP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Adolescent , Adult , Chilblains/diagnosis , Chilblains/epidemiology , Child , Cluster Analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
20.
Int J Dermatol ; 60(5): 547-553, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061116

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since COVID-19 has become a pandemic, extensive literature has been produced. The commonest symptoms of COVID-19 disease are fever, cough, anosmia, and lymphocytopenia. However, other apparently less common clinical symptoms have been described, including skin lesions. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate skin involvement in COVID-19. METHODS: The authors performed a systematic review of literature, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). The search was reiterated until May 06, 2020. RESULTS: Overall, 1593 patients (M/F ratio: 1 : 9) with suspect of COVID-19 were examined. The mean age was 37.8 (range 0-91) years. Among the analyzed patients, 84 (5.3%) were pediatrics (<18 years). Chilblains are very common among skin lesions and represent almost half of all skin lesions reported (46%); in 75% of patients with cutaneous manifestation, the latter presented before other typical clinical manifestation of COVID-19. Vasculitis or thrombosis was identified in almost 70% of patients who suffered from skin manifestations. CONCLUSION: The present study highlights the importance of skin involvement in COVID-19. Limbs should be examined to eventually foresee the onset of further typical symptoms. Chilblains can be considered typical features. Studies with higher scientific evidence are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Skin Diseases/virology , Chilblains/epidemiology , Chilblains/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Skin Diseases/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/virology , Vasculitis/epidemiology , Vasculitis/virology
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