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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought a new threat to child health and safety. Some studies suggest that social isolation and economic stress have exacerbated child abuse and neglect, whereas other studies argue that orders to stay at home are likely to promote parent-child relationships during this stressful time. Due to a lack of prospective studies including before-during-after lockdown assessments, the impacts of lockdown measures on child maltreatment are unclear. METHODS: This study retrospectively investigated child maltreatment of 2821 Chinese children and adolescents from 12 to 18 (female, 59%) before, during and after lockdown, and identified risk factors. Potential predictors including socio-economic and individual mental health status were collected. RESULTS: During Chinese lockdown, children and adolescents reported that the proportions of decrease (range 18-47.5%) in emotional abuse and neglect, physical abuse and neglect, sexual abuse, and witnessing domestic violence were greater than that of increase (range 5.1-9.1%). Compared with before lockdown (1.6%), the prevalence of sexual abuse significantly increased 8 months (2.9%) after the lifting of lockdown (p = 0.002). Being male, suffering from depression, state anhedonia, and experiencing psychotic symptoms at baseline were associated with increased sexual abuse after lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of lockdown on child maltreatment was beneficial in the short-term but detrimental in the long-term in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Abuse/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
2.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(5): 991-1009, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415699

ABSTRACT

The present study is systematic rapid review on the nature of the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and child maltreatment. Database searches on December 28, 2020, identified 234 unique citations; 12 were ultimately included in our analysis. Included articles measured child maltreatment inclusive of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and child neglect during the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared with the prepandemic period, 5 articles found an increase in child maltreatment, 6 articles found a decrease, and 1 study found no difference. There existed variation in geography of study location, age of child maltreatment victims, and types of child maltreatment assessed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Child Behavior/psychology , Physical Abuse/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Abuse/psychology , Humans , Physical Abuse/psychology , Risk Factors
3.
Child Abuse Negl ; 118: 105156, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The lockdowns occurring across society because of the COVID-19 pandemic have had far-reaching consequences for children and adolescents. One immediate concern was what the impact of the comprehensive disease control measures on rates of violence and abuse against children and adolescents would be. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to establish rates of child abuse and degree of family conflict during the first COVID-19 lockdown spring 2020. Additionally, we aimed to investigate associations between preexisting and concurrent risk factors and abuse during these unique times. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 3545 Norwegian 13- to 16-year-olds participated in this study. A total of 1944 of these had provided data 1 year before the lockdown. METHODS: We used a web survey format to assess abuse exposure and associated risk factors. The survey was administered in schools during school hours in June 2020, shortly after the reopening of schools after the first lockdown. RESULTS: In this sample 8.2% reported psychological abuse during lockdown, 2.4% had experienced physical abuse and 1.4% sexual abuse. For online sexual abuse, the rate was 5.6% during this time period. Adolescents did not report an increase in family conflict. Concurrently perceived family affluence and family risk factors were most strongly associated with physical abuse during lockdown (OR = 11.01(95% CI 5.32-22.84); OR = 5.36 (95% CI 2.69-10.67)), but also other types of child maltreatment. Analyses across assessment points suggested that prior victimization was the most accurate predictor of abuse experiences during lockdown (OR = 3.84 (95% CI 2.85-5.20)). CONCLUSIONS: The negative consequences of the COVID-19 preventative measures struck the adolescent population unevenly. The findings underscore the need for targeted measures to mitigate the negative outcomes of health-related crises for adolescents in risk groups such as those with low family affluence and prior abuse experiences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child Abuse/psychology , Disease Outbreaks , Population Surveillance , Violence/psychology , Adolescent , Bullying/psychology , Child Abuse/trends , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Norway/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Violence/trends
4.
Child Abuse Negl ; 118: 105136, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has had a major impact on child abuse and neglect (CAN) in the U.S. leading to a change in the number of reported screened-in CAN investigations, missed prevention cases, and missed CAN cases. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the deficit number of CAN investigations and resultant estimated number of missed prevention and CAN cases due to the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S. from March 2020 to December 2020. METHODS: Secondary data analyses of administrative child welfare data from January 2013 to December 2020 from New York City, Florida, New Jersey and Wisconsin were conducted. Spline regression modeling controlling for autocorrelation was utilized to explore any significant changes once the pandemic began in March 2020 in the number of screened-in CAN investigations. The seven-year monthly average of screen-in CAN investigations for March through December from 2013 to 2019 was calculated and compared to the numbers of CAN investigations for March 2020 to December 2020. The resultant number of missed prevention cases and CAN cases was estimated for the four jurisdictions and used to approximate the number of missed prevention cases and CAN cases in the U.S., as well as the projected estimation of national lifetime economic costs. RESULTS: Prior to the pandemic, there were insignificant monthly increases of 0.7 CAN investigations in NYC and 6.2 CAN investigations in Florida, a significant monthly increase 4.2 CAN investigations in New Jersey and an insignificant monthly decrease in 0.6 CAN investigations in Wisconsin. Once the pandemic began, there were significant monthly decreases (p < .001) in each of the four jurisdictions, including 1425.6 fewer CAN investigations in NYC, 3548.0 fewer CAN investigations in Florida, 963.0 fewer CAN investigations in New Jersey and 529.1 fewer CAN investigations in Wisconsin. There were an estimated 60,791 fewer CAN investigations in these four jurisdictions from March 2020 to December 2020 of which there were approximately 18,540 missed prevention and CAN cases suggesting up to $4.2 billion in lifetime economic costs. It was estimated that were 623,137 children not investigated for CAN in the U.S. during the same 10-month period. This suggests that there were an estimated 85,993 children were missed for prevention services and about 104,040 children were missed for CAN with a potential lifetime economic impact of up to $48.1 billion in the U.S. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a precipitous drop in CAN investigations where almost 200,000 children are estimated to have been missed for prevention services and CAN in a 10-month period. There are opportunities for the child welfare jurisdictions to work with partner education, public health, social service and other providers to strategically approach this very grave issue in order to mitigate its impact on this very vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child Abuse/psychology , Child Abuse/trends , Child Welfare/psychology , Child Welfare/trends , Child , Family/psychology , Florida/epidemiology , Humans , Male , New Jersey/epidemiology , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology
5.
Child Abuse Negl ; 118: 105132, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors for child abuse and neglect and commonly used reporting mechanisms were highly affected by SARS-Cov-2 pandemic; yet, little is known about the effects of SARS-Cov-2 on rates of child abuse and neglect. OBJECTIVE: To compare overall rates, demographics, types of abuse and acuity of child abuse and neglect encounters seen at one university health system for the 6 months before and after school closings due to the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Data was extracted from a database of billed ICD10 codes for child abuse and neglect including sexual abuse codes. There were 579 encounters for patients <18 years of age and 476 unique patients. METHODS: In addition to ICD10 code and pre/post school closing, each encounter was identified to be inpatient, outpatient and/or emergency department. Demographic data such as age, gender, ethnicity, and race were extracted. Incident rate ratios in addition to descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test, two-sample t-test, or the chi-square test of association were used in the analysis. RESULTS: No significant differences were identified for total rates of child abuse and neglect encounters (p = .08), physical abuse (p = .91) nor child maltreatment (p = .86) codes or in the age (p = .46), gender (p = .58), and race/ethnicity (p = .15) of patient encounters pre- versus post-school closings. The sexual abuse incidence and inpatient encounters increased by 85% (IRR = 1.85, p < .0001; IRR = 1.85, p = .004, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a unique contribution to the existing literature in that we identified a significant increase in the incidence of sexual abuse and higher patient acuity as evidenced by higher rates of inpatient encounters after school closing due to SARS-Cov-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child Abuse/psychology , Child Abuse/trends , Schools/trends , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Child Abuse Negl ; 116(Pt 2): 104990, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is widespread concern that the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the incidence of child maltreatment. However, reports in the scientific literature documenting rates of child maltreatment during this period are scarce. This study was designed to explore whether the incidence of child maltreatment among patients presenting to a pediatric emergency department has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of patients of all ages presenting to a pediatric Emergency Department trauma center, who also had a child abuse report filing or a sentinel injury diagnosis related to their index visit. All such patients who presented to this institution from March through July of 2017 through 2020 were included in the study. RESULTS: Analysis demonstrated an increase in the incidence of child maltreatment in May and June of 2020 and that there was an overall shift in distribution of types of child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a significant increase in the proportion of emotional/psychological abuse (2.52 % before the pandemic to 7.00 % during the pandemic, p ≤ 0.0001) and non-medical neglect (31.5%-40.0%, p ≤ 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: We observed an increase in specific types of child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings highlight the need for increased attention to children at risk for child abuse and neglect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Adolescent , Child , Child Abuse/psychology , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Trauma Centers
10.
Child Abuse Negl ; 116(Pt 2): 104945, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Media outlets have suggested that rates of child maltreatment may increase during the global COVID-19 pandemic. The few empirical studies that have examined pandemic related changes in rates of child maltreatment have relied predominantly on reports of suspected maltreatment. OBJECTIVE: This study examines rates of documented, substantiated child maltreatment resulting in foster care placement, as well as demographic correlates of child maltreatment within the foster care system, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Data were available for all youth in the FL foster care system from January 1, 2001 through June 30, 2020 (i.e., > 304,000 youth; > 1.1 million total placements). METHODS: This study utilizes data from the Florida State Automated Child Welfare Information System (SACWIS). RESULTS: Results revealed a decrease in the number of youths placed in the FL foster care system during the COVID-19 pandemic with the greatest reduction in April, 2020 during the Safer-at-Home Order (24 % fewer youth in 2020 than 2019). In contrast, the percentage of placements into foster care due to maltreatment increased by 3.34 %. Demographic-linked differences were observed in placement rates and exposure to maltreatment. CONCLUSIONS: While prior work suggests that reports of child maltreatment have decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study demonstrates that overall rates of substantiated maltreatment resulting in foster care placement have increased for White youth, while rates of placement of due to inadequate supervision, emotional neglect, and/or parental substance use have decreased for Black youth. Implications for policy and future research are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Foster Home Care , Adolescent , Child , Child Abuse/psychology , Child Welfare/psychology , Child, Preschool , Female , Florida , Foster Home Care/psychology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e042867, 2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807755

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine any change in referral patterns and outcomes in children (0-18) referred for child protection medical examination (CPME) during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with previous years. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study, analysing routinely collected clinical data from CPME reports in a rapid response to the pandemic lockdown. SETTING: Birmingham Community Healthcare NHS Trust, which provides all routine CPME for Birmingham, England, population 1.1 million including 288 000 children. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged under 18 years attending CPME during an 18-week period from late February to late June during the years 2018-2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers of referrals, source of disclosure and outcomes from CPME. RESULTS: There were 78 CPME referrals in 2018, 75 in 2019 and 47 in 2020, this was a 39.7% (95% CI 12.4% to 59.0%) reduction in referrals from 2018 to 2020, and a 37.3% (95% CI 8.6% to 57.4%) reduction from 2019 to 2020. There were fewer CPME referrals initiated by school staff in 2020, 12 (26%) compared with 36 (47%) and 38 (52%) in 2018 and 2019, respectively. In all years 75.9% of children were known to social care prior to CPME, and 94% of CPME concluded that there were significant safeguarding concerns. CONCLUSIONS: School closure due to COVID-19 may have harmed children as child abuse has remained hidden. There needs to be either mandatory attendance at schools in future or viable alternatives found. There may be a significant increase in safeguarding referrals when schools fully reopen as children disclose the abuse they have experienced at home.


Subject(s)
Child Abuse , Child Protective Services , Child Welfare , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , School Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child Abuse/prevention & control , Child Abuse/psychology , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Child Protective Services/methods , Child Protective Services/statistics & numerical data , Child Welfare/statistics & numerical data , Child Welfare/trends , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Social Work/methods , Social Work/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology
13.
Child Abuse Negl ; 110(Pt 2): 104667, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the COVID-19 outbreak at the end of 2019, it has evolved into a global pandemic with tremendous mental health impact besides the threats to people's physical health. OBJECTIVE: The aims were to examine whether exposure to COVID-19 predicts elevated levels of anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms and whether pre-pandemic maltreatment experiences exacerbate this impact on mental health in adolescents. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The survey was conducted online from February 8 st to February 27th, 2020, and the questionnaires were distributed and retrieved through a web-based platform. This study includes a total of 6196 subjects, aged range from 11 to 18 years old. METHODS: Several multivariable linear regressions were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: The largest variance in PTSS and anxiety problems was explained by ACEs, with more pre-pandemic maltreatment experiences predicting more PTSS (effect size beta = 0.16∼0.27), and more anxiety (effect size beta = 0.32∼0.47). Experienced or subjective fear of exposure to COVID-19 predicted statistically significant variance in PTSS and anxiety, and standardized betas ranged from 0.04 to 0.09. Participants who had adverse childhood experiences and had experienced exposure to COVID-19 showed elevated PTSS. CONCLUSIONS: After pre-pandemic maltreatment experiences the impact of exposure to COVID-19 on mental health may be stronger. Scars from the past seem to be vulnerabilities during societal upheaval. We therefore suggest that when exposed to COVID-19 rural adolescents should get prioritized professional family support and mental health counseling in particular when they have experienced family abuse and neglect in childhood, even though such support is more difficult to organize in rural areas.


Subject(s)
Adverse Childhood Experiences/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child Abuse/psychology , Psychology, Adolescent , Adolescent , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Pandemics , Rural Population , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Child Abuse Negl ; 110(Pt 2): 104699, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stress and compromised parenting often place children at risk of abuse and neglect. Child maltreatment has generally been viewed as a highly individualistic problem by focusing on stressors and parenting behaviors that impact individual families. However, because of the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), families across the world are experiencing a new range of stressors that threaten their health, safety, and economic well-being. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic in relation to parental perceived stress and child abuse potential. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Participants included parents (N = 183) with a child under the age of 18 years in the western United States. METHOD: Tests of group differences and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were employed to assess the relationships among demographic characteristics, COVID-19 risk factors, mental health risk factors, protective factors, parental perceived stress, and child abuse potential. RESULTS: Greater COVID-19 related stressors and high anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with higher parental perceived stress. Receipt of financial assistance and high anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with higher child abuse potential. Conversely, greater parental support and perceived control during the pandemic are associated with lower perceived stress and child abuse potential. Results also indicate racial and ethnic differences in COVID-19 related stressors, but not in mental health risk, protective factors, perceived stress, or child abuse potential. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that although families experience elevated stressors from COVID-19, providing parental support and increasing perceived control may be promising intervention targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Parenting/psychology , Parents/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Child , Child Abuse/ethnology , Child Abuse/psychology , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors
15.
Child Abuse Negl ; 110(Pt 2): 104694, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic exposes individuals not only to health-related risks, but also to psychosocial fear and acute stress. Previous studies reveal that individuals who experienced child abuse (CA), especially those who suffer from complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD), are at a higher risk of reacting with fear and stress when faced with stressful life-events. OBJECTIVE: To test whether exposure to CA is implicated in a higher risk of COVID-19-related fear and acute stress, and whether CPTSD intervenes in such processes. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: A convenience sample of 837 adults participated in the study during the first peak of COVID-19 in Israel. METHODS: Participants completed self-report questionnaires, assessing child physical, sexual and emotional abuse, CPTSD (ITQ), COVID-19-related acute stress disorder (COVID-19 ASD; ASDS) and fear of COVID-19. RESULTS: Bivariate analyses showed that participants who experienced CA were higher than participants who did not experience CA in COVID-19 ASD (p = .032), but not in fear of COVID-19 (p = .65). Mediation analyses demonstrated two significant paths: in the first, CA was associated with elevated fear of COVID-19 (effect = .061, .059; p < 0.05) and COVID-19 ASD (effect = .14, .084; p < 0.05) through the mediation of CPTSD; in the second path, when controlling for the mediation of CPTSD, CA was associated with reduced fear of COVID-19 (effect = -.15; p = 0.001), and COVID-19 ASD (effect = -.12; p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: The findings reveal a complex pattern, indicating that CPTSD may be a risk factor for elevated levels of COVID-19 distress among individuals who experienced CA. However, some CA survivors may express reduced COVID-19 distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Child Abuse/psychology , Fear , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Israel , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Self Report , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/complications , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 66(8): 763-769, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670627

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Childhood trauma (CT) has been shown to affect the etiology and clinical features of schizophrenia. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of CT on the age of onset (AoO) and clinical features of the disease by considering factors such as family history, head trauma, birth trauma, alcohol and substance abuse that may affect AoO of the disease. METHODS: The sample comprising 200 patients admitted to the outpatient and inpatient care at the Izmir Katip Çelebi University, Atatürk Education and Research Hospital psychiatry clinic, were included in the study. Socio-demographic information form, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and subscale of Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) were applied. RESULTS: All types of trauma, except physical abuse, were found related to the disease onset age earlier. It was also detected that the factors of head trauma, birth complication, presence of an individual diagnosed with schizophrenia in the family and migration history were not related to AoO of the disease. On the other hand, it was found that physical, emotional and sexual abuses lead to more positive psychotic symptoms, and all types of CT increase the severity of disease and the risk of suicide. CONCLUSION: This study draws attention to the etiological importance of CT in schizophrenia as an environmental factor by showing that it affects AoO of the disease along with symptomatology. Future studies should focus on the pathogenesis of CT in schizophrenia and the interaction between CT and biological and genetic predisposition.


Subject(s)
Child Abuse/psychology , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Suicide/psychology , Adult , Adult Survivors of Child Abuse/psychology , Age of Onset , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia/complications , Schizophrenia/epidemiology , Schizophrenic Psychology
17.
Minerva Pediatr ; 72(3): 226-235, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-625249

ABSTRACT

Although medical literature shows that children are minimally susceptible to 2019-Corona virus disease (COVID-19), they are hit the hardest by psychosocial impact of this pandemic. Being quarantined in homes and institutions may impose greater psychological burden than the physical sufferings caused by the virus. School closure, lack of outdoor activity, aberrant dietary and sleeping habits are likely to disrupt children's usual lifestyle and can potentially promote monotony, distress, impatience, annoyance and varied neuropsychiatric manifestations. Incidences of domestic violence, child abuse, adulterated online contents are on the rise. Children of single parent and frontline workers suffer unique problems. The children from marginalized communities are particularly susceptible to the infection and may suffer from extended ill-consequences of this pandemic, such as child labor, child trafficking, child marriage, sexual exploitation and death etc. Parents, pediatricians, psychologists, social workers, hospital authorities, government and non-governmental organizations have important roles to play to mitigate the psychosocial ill-effects of COVID-19 on children and adolescents. To provide the basic amenities, social security, medical care, and to minimize the educational inequities among the children of the different strata of the society are foremost priorities.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Activities of Daily Living , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child Abuse/psychology , Emergency Responders/psychology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Intellectual Disability/psychology , Life Change Events , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Social Isolation/psychology , Social Marginalization , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
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