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1.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e31, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819637

ABSTRACT

In Ethiopia, the magnitude of violence against girls during COVID-19 in the study area is not known. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the violence and associated factors during COVID-19 pandemic among Gondar city secondary school girls in North West Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2021. Data were collected from four public and two private Gondar city secondary schools. Investigators used stratified simple random sampling to select participants and the investigators used roster of the students at selected schools. Investigators collected the data using self-reported history of experiencing violence (victimisation). Investigators analysed data using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression. Investigators invited a total of 371 sampled female students to complete self-administered questionnaires. The proportion of girls who experienced violence was 42.05% and psychological violence was the highest form of violence. Having a father who attended informal education (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.08-3.51), ever use of social media 1.65 (AOR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.02-2.69), ever watching sexually explicit material (AOR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.24-3.36) and use of a substance (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.17-3.15) were significantly associated variables with violence. Almost for every five girls, more than two of them experienced violence during the COVID-19 lockdown. The prevalence of violence might be under reported due to desirability bias. Therefore, it is better to create awareness towards violence among substance users, fathers with informal education and social media including user females.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Data Collection , Education/statistics & numerical data , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Students , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(5): 991-1009, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415699

ABSTRACT

The present study is systematic rapid review on the nature of the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and child maltreatment. Database searches on December 28, 2020, identified 234 unique citations; 12 were ultimately included in our analysis. Included articles measured child maltreatment inclusive of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and child neglect during the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared with the prepandemic period, 5 articles found an increase in child maltreatment, 6 articles found a decrease, and 1 study found no difference. There existed variation in geography of study location, age of child maltreatment victims, and types of child maltreatment assessed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Child Behavior/psychology , Physical Abuse/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Abuse/psychology , Humans , Physical Abuse/psychology , Risk Factors
4.
Child Abuse Negl ; 120: 105212, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the lives of children and parents, raising concerns about child maltreatment. OBJECTIVE: We examined the prevalence of abusive parenting behavior during the pandemic of the COVID-19 and its relations with physical, psychological, and social factors and positive parenting behavior. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: An online survey was performed during the COVID-19 state of emergency in Japan. Participants were 5344 parents of children aged 0-17 years. METHODS: We conducted an anonymous online survey using multiple platforms, including websites of child-related organizations and social networking services (SNS). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with abusive behavior. RESULTS: One-fifth of parents reported abusive behaviors, whereas over 80% of parents reported positive parenting behaviors (e.g., empathizing with a child). Abusive parenting behaviors were associated with longer screen time (6+ hours per day: OR, 1.44; 95%CI, 1.05-1.98), poor maternal mental health (K6 = 13+: OR, 2.23; 95%CI, 1.71-2.89), and the occurrence of domestic violence (OR, 4.54; 95%CI, 3.47-5.95). Positive parenting behaviors, especially showing empathy, were associated with lower risks of abusive behaviors (OR, 0.51: 95%CI, 0.39-0.66). CONCLUSIONS: Positive parenting behavior is essential to the prevention of child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Parenting/psychology , Parents/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Child Maltreat ; 27(2): 156-162, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273210

ABSTRACT

Previous studies on the impact of COVID-19 indicate that pandemic-related distress increases risks for child maltreatment, although data on the scope of this problem are still scarce. Here, we assessed whether parents with toddlers (n = 206) more often used harsh discipline during the lockdown in the Netherlands compared to a matched parent sample collected prior to the pandemic (n = 1,030). Parents were matched on background characteristics using propensity score matching. We found that harsh parenting levels were significantly elevated compared to pre-pandemic levels. Harsh parenting behaviors with a low prevalence before COVID-19 increased most strongly: shaking, calling names, and calling the child stupid. These results suggest that parental tolerance for children's disobedience is lower under the adverse circumstances of COVID-19 and, as a result, abusive parenting responses are more difficult to inhibit. Thus, a lockdown seems to increase risks for child maltreatment, underscoring the need for effective support strategies for at-risk families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Parenting , Quarantine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Infant , Netherlands/epidemiology , Parents , Quarantine/psychology
7.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(6): 429-438, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and exacerbating factors of violence against women and children in Germany during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a representative online survey with partnered women (18-65 years) between 22 April and 8 May 2020, when participants had been under lockdown for a month. We determined the prevalence of several forms of violence within the previous month using both direct elicitation and a list experiment. We conducted a multivariable logistic regression to assess the impact of pandemic-associated risk factors. FINDINGS: Of our 3818 survey respondents, 118 (3.09%; 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.54 to 3.64) reported incidents of physical conflict, 293 (7.67%; 95% CI: 6.83 to 8.52) reported emotional abuse, and 97 (6.58%; 95% CI: 5.31 to 7.85) of 1474 respondents with children reported child corporal punishment. We estimated that 3.57% (95% CI: -0.33 to 7.46) had non-consensual intercourse with their partner. Our regression analysis revealed an increased risk of physical conflict with home quarantine (odds ratio, OR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.56 to 3.61), financial worries (OR: 1.60; 95% CI: 0.98 to 2.61), poor mental health (OR: 3.41; 95% CI: 2.12 to 5.50) and young (< 10 years) children (OR: 2.48; 95% CI: 1.32 to 4.64); we obtained similar results for other forms of violence. Awareness and use of pertinent support services was low. CONCLUSION: Our findings of an increased risk of domestic violence during the pandemic should prompt policy-makers to improve the safety of women and children. Interventions to alleviate risks factors and extend support services are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Communication , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Quarantine , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
9.
Child Abuse Negl ; 116(Pt 2): 105078, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has become a worldwide pandemic impacting child protection services (CPSs) in many countries. With quarantine and social distancing restrictions, school closures, and recreational venues suspended or providing reduced access, the social safety net for violence prevention has been disrupted significantly. Impacts include the concerns of underreporting and increased risk of child abuse and neglect, as well as challenges in operating CPSs and keeping their workforce safe. OBJECTIVE: The current discussion paper explored the impact of COVID-19 on child maltreatment reports and CPS responses by comparing countries using available population data. METHOD: Information was gathered from researchers in eight countries, including contextual information about the country's demographics and economic situation, key elements of the CPS, and the CPS response to COVID-19. Where available, information about other factors affecting children was also collected. These data informed a discussion about between-country similarities and differences. RESULTS: COVID-19 had significant impact on the operation of every CPS, whether in high- income or low-income countries. Most systems encountered some degree of service disruption or change. Risk factors for children appeared to increase while there were often substantial deficits in CPS responses, and in most countries there was at a temporary decrease in CM reports despite the increased risks to children. CONCLUSIONS: The initial data presented and discussed among the international teams pointed to the way COVID-19 has hampered CPS responses and the protection of children more generally in most jurisdictions, highlighting that children appear to have been at greater risk for maltreatment during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Child Protective Services , Adult , Australia , Brazil , COVID-19/psychology , Canada , Child , Child Abuse/prevention & control , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Child Protective Services/statistics & numerical data , Colombia , Female , Germany , Humans , Income , Israel , Male , Poverty , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa
11.
Child Abuse Negl ; 116(Pt 2): 104990, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is widespread concern that the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the incidence of child maltreatment. However, reports in the scientific literature documenting rates of child maltreatment during this period are scarce. This study was designed to explore whether the incidence of child maltreatment among patients presenting to a pediatric emergency department has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of patients of all ages presenting to a pediatric Emergency Department trauma center, who also had a child abuse report filing or a sentinel injury diagnosis related to their index visit. All such patients who presented to this institution from March through July of 2017 through 2020 were included in the study. RESULTS: Analysis demonstrated an increase in the incidence of child maltreatment in May and June of 2020 and that there was an overall shift in distribution of types of child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a significant increase in the proportion of emotional/psychological abuse (2.52 % before the pandemic to 7.00 % during the pandemic, p ≤ 0.0001) and non-medical neglect (31.5%-40.0%, p ≤ 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: We observed an increase in specific types of child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings highlight the need for increased attention to children at risk for child abuse and neglect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Adolescent , Child , Child Abuse/psychology , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Trauma Centers
12.
Med Sci Law ; 61(3): 208-214, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076071

ABSTRACT

Child labour is a global phenomenon occurring predominantly in countries with lower socioeconomic status and resources. Societal and familial poverty, loss or incapacitation/illness of parents, lack of social security and protection, and ignorance about the value of, or limited access to, education are among the myriad reasons for the involvement of children in the workforce. Child labour is a barrier to the development of individual children and their society and economy. Global estimates indicate that 152 million children (64 million girls and 88 million boys) are working, accounting for almost one in 10 of all children worldwide. Currently the COVID-19 health pandemic and the resulting economic and labour market consequences are having a major impact on people's lives and livelihoods. Unfortunately, impoverished families and their children are often the first to suffer, which may push many more vulnerable children into child labour situations. Child labour in India is more prevalent than in many other countries, with approximately 10 million children actively engaged in, or seeking, work. This paper focuses on the issue of child labour, its causes and its ill effects. Further, it also reviews the international legal framework relating to child labour and legislative issues in India. There is clearly an urgent need for this issue to be effectively addressed and resolved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Child Labor/statistics & numerical data , Social Conditions , Child , Female , Humans , India , Male , Poverty , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069809

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Children are widely recognized as a vulnerable population during disasters and emergencies. The COVID-19 pandemic, like a natural disaster, brought uncertainties and instability to the economic development of the society and social distancing, which might lead to child maltreatment. This study aims to investigate whether job loss, income reduction and parenting affect child maltreatment. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 600 randomly sampled parents aged 18 years or older who had and lived with a child under 10 years old in Hong Kong between 29 May to 16 June 2020. Participants were recruited from a random list of mobile phone numbers of a panel of parents. Of 779 recruited target parents, 600 parents completed the survey successfully via a web-based system after obtaining their online consent for participating in the survey. Results: Income reduction was found significantly associated with severe (OR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.06, 10.25) and very severe physical assaults (OR = 7.69, 95% CI = 2.24, 26.41) towards children. Job loss or large income reduction were also significantly associated with severe (OR= 3.68, 95% CI = 1.33, 10.19) and very severe physical assaults (OR = 4.05, 95% CI = 1.17, 14.08) towards children. However, income reduction (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.15, 0.53) and job loss (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.28, 0.76) were significantly associated with less psychological aggression. Exposure to intimate partner violence between parents is a very strong and significant factor associated with all types of child maltreatment. Having higher levels of difficulty in discussing COVID-19 with children was significantly associated with more corporal punishment (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.34), whereas having higher level of confidence in managing preventive COVID-19 behaviors with children was negatively associated with corporal punishment (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76, 0.99) and very severe physical assaults (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58, 0.93). Conclusions: Income instability such as income reduction and job loss amplified the risk of severe and very severe child physical assaults but protected children from psychological aggression. Also, confidence in teaching COVID-19 and managing preventive COVID-19 behaviors with children was significantly negatively associated with corporal punishment during pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Income , Pandemics , Physical Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Parenting , Punishment , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Child Maltreat ; 26(2): 139-151, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060386

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic upended the country, with enormous economic and social shifts. Given the increased contact from families living in virtual confinement coupled with massive economic disarray, the Covid-19 pandemic may have created the ideal conditions to witness a rise in children's experience of abuse and neglect. Yet such a rise will be difficult to calculate given the drop in official mechanisms to track its incidence. The current investigation utilized two studies conducted early in the pandemic to evaluate maltreatment risk. In the first cross-sectional study, parents (n = 405) reported increased physical and verbal conflict and neglect which were associated with their perceived stress and loneliness. In the second study, parents (n = 106) enrolled in a longitudinal study reported increased parent-child conflict, which was associated with concurrent child abuse risk, with several links to employment loss, food insecurity, and loneliness; findings also demonstrated increases in abuse risk and psychological aggression relative to pre-pandemic levels. Findings are discussed in the context of a reactive welfare system rather than a pro-active public-health oriented approach to child maltreatment, connecting with families through multiple avenues. Innovative approaches will be needed to reach children faced with maltreatment to gauge its scope and impact in the pandemic's aftermath.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Southeastern United States/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Child Abuse Negl ; 116(Pt 2): 104897, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic could increase violence against children at home. However, collecting empirical data on violence is challenging due to ethical, safety, and data quality concerns. OBJECTIVE: This study estimated the anticipated effect of COVID-19 on violent discipline at home using multivariable predictive regression models. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 1-14 years and household members from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) conducted in Nigeria, Mongolia, and Suriname before the COVID-19 pandemic were included. METHODS: A conceptual model of how the COVID-19 pandemic could affect risk factors for violent discipline was developed. Country specific multivariable linear models were used to estimate the association between selected variables from MICS and a violent discipline score which captured the average combination of violent disciplinary methods used in the home. A review of the literature informed the development of quantitative assumptions about how COVID-19 would impact the selected variables under a "high restrictions" pandemic scenario, approximating conditions expected during a period of intense response measures, and a "lower restrictions" scenario with easing of COVID-19 restrictions but with sustained economic impacts. These assumptions were used to estimate changes in violent discipline scores. RESULTS: Under a "high restrictions" scenario there would be a 35%-46% increase in violent discipline scores in Nigeria, Mongolia and Suriname, and under a "lower restrictions" scenario there would be between a 4%-6% increase in violent discipline scores in these countries. CONCLUSION: Policy makers need to plan for increases in violent discipline during successive waves of lockdowns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Adolescent , Adult , Aggression , Child , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Punishment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Suriname/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 57(2): 188-191, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969474

ABSTRACT

Globally, COVID-19 lockdown measures have exposed children to more sexual, physical and emotional abuse and neglect. Although the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have long-lasting adverse psychological effects on children, there have been comparatively few studies on children's health as compared with adults, particularly in low-income countries. Uganda implemented one of the most stringent lockdowns with bans on transportation and gatherings as well as the closure of schools, stores and places of worship. In order to address the dearth of information in less developed regions, the article aims to provide an insight into the increased cases of child abuse in Uganda during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data and information were primarily compiled from government and child welfare organisation open-source databases. The psychosocial impacts of COVID-19 have greatly disrupted the living conditions of children, limiting their access to basic needs such as food and health care. In addition, there is a lack of social support, thus putting children at an increased risk of different forms of child abuse. Since the implementation of the COVID-19 lockdown in Uganda, there has been a rise in the incidence of child abuse. Increased cases of physical and sexual abuse against children have been reported in different parts of the country as well as increased cases of child labour. To strengthen child protection during the COVID-19 pandemic, this article highlights a need for multi-level stakeholder cooperation to ensure increased funding, increased community awareness and sensitisation, early detection and effective management and referral of child abuse cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Child , Child Abuse/diagnosis , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Child Labor , Databases, Factual , Delayed Diagnosis , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pandemics , Social Support , Uganda
20.
Child Abuse Negl ; 116(Pt 2): 104863, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-956977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to risk factors for child abuse and neglect and disrupted conventional abuse surveillance. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess how counts of criminal charges have been affected by COVID-19 social distancing measures and related policy changes. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: This study used publicly available court filings pertaining to child abuse and neglect from Jan 1, 2010 to June 30, 2020. METHODS: Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) algorithms were constructed with case data from January 2010 to January 2020 to forecast trends in criminal charges for February to June 2020. These forecasted values were then compared to actual charges filed for this time period. RESULTS: Criminal cases filed between February and June 2020, had an overall 25.7 percent lower average than forecasted. All individual months had progressively lower cases than forecasted with the exception of March. June had the largest deviation from forecasted with 60.1 percent fewer cases than predicted. CONCLUSIONS: Although risk factors for child abuse have increased due to COVID-19, these findings demonstrate a declining trend in child abuse charges. Rather than a decreasing incidence of child abuse and neglect, it is more likely that less cases are being reported. The results warrant immediate action and further investigation in order to address the dangers this pandemic poses for children in abusive situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Adult , Algorithms , Biobehavioral Sciences , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Abuse/legislation & jurisprudence , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Filing , Forecasting , Humans , Oklahoma , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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