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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21342, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493216

ABSTRACT

Community-wide lockdowns in response to COVID-19 influenced many families, but the developmental cascade for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be especially detrimental. Our objective was to evaluate behavioral patterns of risk and resilience for children with ASD across parent-report assessments before (from November 2019 to February 2020), during (March 2020 to May 2020), and after (June 2020 to November 2020) an extended COVID-19 lockdown. In 2020, our study Mobile-based care for children with ASD using remote experience sampling method (mCARE) was inactive data collection before COVID-19 emerged as a health crisis in Bangladesh. Here we deployed "Cohort Studies", where we had in total 300 children with ASD (150 test group and 150 control group) to collect behavioral data. Our data collection continued through an extended COVID-19 lockdown and captured parent reports of 30 different behavioral parameters (e.g., self-injurious behaviors, aggression, sleep problems, daily living skills, and communication) across 150 children with ASD (test group). Based on the children's condition, 4-6 behavioral parameters were assessed through the study. A total of 56,290 behavioral data points was collected (an average of 152.19 per week) from parent cell phones using the mCARE platform. Children and their families were exposed to an extended COVID-19 lockdown. The main outcomes used for this study were generated from parent reports child behaviors within the mCARE platform. Behaviors included of child social skills, communication use, problematic behaviors, sensory sensitivities, daily living, and play. COVID-19 lockdowns for children with autism and their families are not universally negative but supports in the areas of "Problematic Behavior" could serve to mitigate future risk.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Phone Use , Child Behavior/psychology , Child Care/methods , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Activities of Daily Living , Aggression , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Communication , Female , Humans , Male , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Sleep , Social Skills
2.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(5): 991-1009, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415699

ABSTRACT

The present study is systematic rapid review on the nature of the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and child maltreatment. Database searches on December 28, 2020, identified 234 unique citations; 12 were ultimately included in our analysis. Included articles measured child maltreatment inclusive of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and child neglect during the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared with the prepandemic period, 5 articles found an increase in child maltreatment, 6 articles found a decrease, and 1 study found no difference. There existed variation in geography of study location, age of child maltreatment victims, and types of child maltreatment assessed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Child Behavior/psychology , Physical Abuse/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Abuse/psychology , Humans , Physical Abuse/psychology , Risk Factors
3.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 42(7): 532-539, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406509

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how sociodemographic characteristics and various aspects of parent well-being, family functioning, parent-child relationship, and child characteristics are related to psychological functioning in children aged 9 to 12 years during the COVID-19 lockdown. METHOD: Participants included 144 children aged 9 to 12 years and their parents who lived in the province of Quebec, Canada, during the COVID-19 mandatory lockdown. Parents and children were administered a phone-based survey in which various child, parent, parent-child, and family characteristics were assessed. RESULTS: Results showed that higher internalizing problems in children were related to greater depressive symptoms in parents, lower attachment security to parents, and greater aversion to aloneness in children. Results on externalizing behavior problems showed that more problems were associated with more family dysfunction and chaos and lower attachment security to parents. Finally, results on children's anxiety toward COVID-19 showed that more anxiety was associated with greater parental anxiety toward COVID-19 and more child aversion to aloneness. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that even during an unusual and stressful context such as a pandemic, proximal variables such as the attachment relationship that have been known to be closely associated with adaptation are significantly related to child psychological functioning. Such observations are important because they highlight factors that may accentuate child vulnerability in times of a pandemic and shed light on potential intervention targets.


Subject(s)
Behavioral Symptoms/psychology , COVID-19 , Child Behavior/psychology , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Psychosocial Functioning , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Object Attachment , Quebec
5.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 325-334, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368915

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic transformed the context and delivery of early childhood education, yet little is known about its impact on exclusionary discipline (e.g., suspension, expulsion), which nationally representative evidence has shown disproportionately impacts Black boys. Using one experiment, we test how preschool providers respond to three hypothetical vignettes about a Black boy's behaviors. Participants (N = 60) were randomly assigned to read vignettes set in either distance learning or in-person classroom contexts. Then, participants completed measures about discipline and COVID-19. Results indicated there was an interaction between context and the sequence of vignettes on providers' troubled feelings and endorsements of discipline. Providers showed heightened troubled feelings and endorsements of discipline severity in the distance learning context, as compared to an in-person context, as vignettes progressed. Additionally, the more providers feared COVID-19, the more they felt troubled over the course of the vignettes across conditions. Practitioners can use this research to inform consultative interventions that mitigate discipline by directly addressing providers' pandemic fears and classroom contexts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Behavior/psychology , Education, Distance , Racism/psychology , School Teachers/psychology , Social Interaction , Students/psychology , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Schools
6.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 277-284, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358345

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine whether restrictions put in place during the COVID-19 pandemic affected the social and psychological well-being of early adolescent schoolchildren. Participants were 309 youth (51% female, average age = 12.38 years) enrolled in the sixth, seventh, or eighth grades of a single middle school located in northeastern Pennsylvania, a state that took a moderately proactive approach to the pandemic. Employing a cross-sectional design, students in three instructional conditions (100% in-person, hybrid, 100% online) were compared on nine outcome measures (perceived parental support, perceived parental knowledge, peer deviance, neutralization, cognitive impulsivity, depression, delinquency, bullying victimization, and bullying perpetration). There were no significant between-groups differences, although there was a borderline significant effect for depression (100% online > 100% in-person, p = .06). A second set of analyses employed a longitudinal design and compared 174 children who completed the test battery in November 2019, 3 months before the start of the pandemic, and then again in November 2020, 9 months after the start of the pandemic. Three out of nine outcomes displayed significant change: A small reduction in parental support and modest increments in neutralization beliefs and cognitive impulsivity. Although there were no statistically significant differences between the three instructional conditions and only a handful of relatively small and predictable longitudinal changes between November 2019 and November 2020, there were a fair number of individual students who experienced moderate (≥ 50%) increases in depression (17.6%), cognitive impulsivity (15.8%), and bullying victimization (11.7%). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19 , Child Behavior/psychology , Depression/psychology , Juvenile Delinquency/psychology , Schools , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11713, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258599

ABSTRACT

In Spain, in order to control COVID-19 transmission, one of the strictest confinement measures in the world for children and teenagers has been implemented. From 14 March to 26 April 2020 underage Spaniards were not allowed to leave their homes, except for reasons of force majeure. This could have consequences on their mental health in both the short and the long term. Thus, the aim of the present study was to explore the consequences of confinement on the mental health of Spanish children and teenagers, at the time when minors had been locked down in their homes between 8 and 10 days. The sample was composed of 590 confined Spanish children and teenagers between 8 and 18 years old. The scales of Depression, Self-esteem, Anxiety, Problems with Emotional Regulation, Rage Control Problems, Integration and Social Competence, Somatic Complaints, Rebellious Behaviour, as well as Awareness of the Problems of the Assessment System for Children and Adolescents (SENA) were used. The results revealed that, during confinement, children and adolescents showed emotional and behavioural alterations. This study, as far as we know, is the first one to explore the psychological consequences of lockdown in minors while it was taking place, with them being the ones directly assessed.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19 , Child Behavior/psychology , Mental Health , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Quarantine , Self Concept , Sex Factors , Social Isolation , Spain/epidemiology
8.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(3): 170-176, 2021 06.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242312

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: From an infectious perspective, children and adolescents were not highly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, social isolation measures have deeply changed their lifestyle, which is believed to have a psychological impact on them. The objective was to assess the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the emotional health of children and adolescents attending primary or secondary school. POPULATION AND METHODS: Parents of children and adolescents from San Carlos de Bariloche participated in the study. Adults' perception of the emotional and behavioral impact of lockdown on children and adolescents, changes in sleeping habits, screen use, sports-related activities, eating, and medical consultations, was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 267 parents were included. Of them, 96.3 % noticed emotional and behavioral changes. The most common ones were that their children were more bored (76.8 %), more irritable (59.2 %), more reluctant (56.9 %), and angrier (54.7 %). It was observed that they woke up and went to bed later, and slept 30 minutes more. Moreover, leisure screen use increased by 3 hours on weekdays. Time dedicated to physical activities did not change, but the type of activities did: swimming and team sports were replaced by biking, walking, and skiing. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 lockdown affected the emotional health and habits of children and adolescents. Boredom, irritability, and reluctance were more present during lockdown. The possibility of doing outdoor physical activities allowed them to keep practicing sports.


Introducción. Los jóvenes no fueron muy afectados desde el punto de vista infeccioso por la pandemia de COVID-19. Sin embargo, las medidas de aislamiento social modificaron de manera profunda su estilo de vida, y se cree que esto los afecta psicológicamente. El objetivo fue evaluar el impacto del aislamiento por COVID-19 en la salud emocional de jóvenes en escolaridad primaria o secundaria. Población y métodos. Participaron del estudio padres de jóvenes de San Carlos de Bariloche. Se evaluó la percepción del adulto sobre el impacto emocional y de comportamiento del aislamiento sobre el joven, cambio de hábitos de sueño, uso de pantallas, actividades deportivas y alimentación y de asistencia a consulta médica. Resultados. Se incluyeron 267 padres. El 96,3 % observó cambios emocionales y de comportamiento. Los más frecuentes fueron que estaban más aburridos (el 76,8 %), irritables (el 59,2 %), desganados (el 56,9 %) y enojados (el 54,7 %). Se observó que se levantaban y acostaban más tarde y dormían 30 minutos más. Además, el uso de pantallas por esparcimiento aumentó 3 horas durante los días hábiles. El tiempo dedicado a la actividad física no varió, pero sí cambió el tipo de actividades: la natación y los deportes de equipo fueron reemplazados por ciclismo, caminatas y esquí. Conclusiones. El aislamiento por COVID-19 impactó sobre la salud emocional y los hábitos de los jóvenes. El aburrimiento, la irritabilidad y el desgano estuvieron más presentes durante el aislamiento. La posibilidad de realizar actividades al aire libre permitió que continuaran practicando deportes.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child Health/trends , Education, Distance , Mental Health/trends , Physical Distancing , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Behavior/psychology , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parents , Prospective Studies , Psychology, Adolescent , Psychology, Child , Schools , Young Adult
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 608358, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094225

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed individuals' lifestyles to a great extent, particularly in Italy. Although many concerns about it have been highlighted, its impact on children and adolescents has scarcely been examined. The purpose of this study was to explore behavioral consequences and coping strategies related to the pandemic among families in Italy, by focusing on developmental ages from the caregivers' perspective, 3 weeks into quarantine. An exploratory cross-sectional online survey was conducted over 14 days. Google Forms was employed to conduct the survey. Demographic variables and pre-existing Psychological Weaknesses (PsW) were asked. Adults' sleep difficulties (SleepScore) and coping strategies during quarantine were assessed. Behavioral changes related to quarantine of both subjects completing the form (COVIDStress) and their children (when present) were questioned. Of the 6,871 respondents, we selected 6,800 valid questionnaires; 3,245 declared children aged under 18 years of age (caregivers). PsWs were recognizable in 64.9% among non-caregivers and in 61.5% of caregivers, with a mean PsW score of 1.42 ± 1.26 and 1.30 ± 1.25 over 3 points, respectively. The 95.5% of the non-caregivers and the 96.5% of caregivers presented behavioral changes with a mean COVIDStress of 3.85 ± 1.82 and 4.09 ± 1.79 over 8, respectively (p<0.001). Sleep difficulties were present in the 61.6% of the non-caregivers and in the 64.4% of the caregivers (p < 0.001), who showed higher SleepScores (2.41 ± 1.26 against 2.57 ± 1.38 points over 6, p < 0.001). COVIDStress (and SleepScore) strongly correlated with PsW (p < 0.001). Caregivers observed behavioral changes in their children in the 64.3% of the <6 years old and in 72.5% of 6-18 years old. Caregivers' discomfort related to quarantine (COVIDStress, SleepScore) was strongly associated to behavioral changes in both age groups of <6 and 6-18 (p < 0.001). Presence of caregivers' coping strategies was less associated to behavioral changes in the <6 sample (p = 0.001) but not in the 6-18 (p = 0.06). The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted families in Italy with regard to behavioral changes, especially in high-risk categories with PsWs and caregivers, especially the ones with children aged <6 years. While coping strategies functioned as protective factors, a wide array of stress symptoms had implications for children's and adolescents' behaviors. It is recommended that public children welfare strategies be implemented, especially for higher-psychosocial-risk categories.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19/psychology , Child Behavior , Family/psychology , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Behavior/psychology , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
12.
Psychol Trauma ; 13(4): 486-495, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065814

ABSTRACT

Objective: Internalizing and externalizing problems are prevalent in disaster-exposed children but few studies have investigated these problems in relation to parental factors. This study examined how parental worry and family-based disaster education related to children's internalizing and externalizing problems during the outbreak of COVID-19 in China. Method: Parents reported parental worry, family-based disaster education and their children's (5-8-year-old young elementary schoolchildren [n = 245] and 245 9-13-year-old early adolescents [n = 245]) internalizing and externalizing problems. Results: Data analysis showed that (a) across ages, parental worry related to children's internalizing and externalizing problems significantly and positively; (b) the significant and negative relationships between family-based disaster education and internalizing and externalizing problems were only supported in young elementary schoolchildren; and (c) high level of parent worry attenuated the negative link between family-based disaster education and young elementary schoolchildren's internalizing problems. Conclusion: This study expands our knowledge about relationships between parental worry and children's disaster-related well-being, and highlights the importance of adapting family-based disaster education to different ages. Data suggest that parents of young elementary schoolchildren and early adolescents both should avoid showing excessive worry in front of their children during the pandemic to help reduce their children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Effective family-based disaster education can mitigate young elementary schoolchildren's emotional distress and behavioral problems, the effect of which may be maximized if parents can avoid being overly worried. Parents of early adolescents should support their children in acquiring pandemic-related information independently and encourage them to seek support outside the family. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Child Behavior/psychology , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Problem Behavior/psychology , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Disasters , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Parenting/psychology
13.
Sleep Med ; 78: 108-114, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989230

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sleep habits of school-going children before and during school closure in the national lockdown period (called 'Circuit Breaker' or CB in Singapore) due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Cross-sectional, anonymous, online, population-based survey questionnaire was administered to parents aged 21 years and above with children aged between 3 and 16 years attending pre-school, primary or secondary school (equivalent to kindergarten, middle and-high school) and residing in Singapore. Sleep duration in relation to various daily activities including academic activities, physical exercise, and screen time was evaluated pre-CB and during CB. RESULTS: Data from 593 participants were analyzed. Pre-CB, the overall mean (SD) sleep duration of the study population was 9.01 (1.18) hours on weekdays and 9.99 (0.94) hours on weekends. During CB, mean (SD) sleep duration overall was 9.63 (1.18) hours. Although children generally went to bed later (mean 0.65 h later), they woke up even later during CB (mean 1.27 h later), resulting in longer sleep duration (mean increase of 0.35 h). This was most evident in secondary school children (mean increase of 0.70 h). Children attending private schools (which had later start times) had increased sleep duration (mean 10.01 (SD 0.89) hours pre-CB and 10.05 (SD 0.93) hours during CB) compared to public schools (mean 9.05 (SD 0.91) pre-CB and 9.49 (SD 1.22) hours during CB). CONCLUSIONS: School closure from the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in longer sleep duration in school-going children. Early school/academic activity start times had a significant impact on limiting children's sleep duration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Behavior/psychology , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Internet Use/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Sleep , Social Environment
15.
Child Care Health Dev ; 47(1): 128-135, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-936678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdown is one of the prevalent tools that are used to control the spread of COVID-19 virus in India. Under the circumstances created during lockdown period, children are deprived from the social interaction and companionship; because of which, they are susceptible to psychiatric disorders. Therefore, in this study, efforts were to understand the impacts of lockdown on the mental status of the children of India and their specific causes. STUDY DESIGN: It is a questionnaire-based study. METHODS: A web-based questionnaire was prepared, and 400 parents from four districts of Punjab, India, namely, Ludhiana, Sahibzada Ajit Singh (SAS) Nagar, Sangrur and Ferozepur, were telephonically interviewed. Further, the information collected from the interviews was statistically analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. RESULTS: Findings from this study revealed that 73.15% and 51.25% of the children were having signs of increased irritation and anger, respectively; 18.7% and 17.6% of the parents also mentioned the symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively, among their children, which were also augmented by the changes in their diet, sleep, weight and more usage of the electronic equipment. Children (~76.3%) persistently urge to go outdoors and play with their friends; therefore, they could lag in social development. Further, observations from Pearson's correlation revealed that during lockdown, children's mental health is significantly related to the area of their house, number of children in the family, qualification of their mother and socio-economic status of their family. CONCLUSIONS: This study made it evident that the mental health of the children residing in Punjab, India, was compromised during the lockdown period induced by the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings of this study may also trigger the international authorities to frame the guidelines of lockdown in the interest of mental health of their native children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Child Behavior/psychology , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Anger , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India , Irritable Mood , Male , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Pediatr Obes ; 16(4): e12731, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic could have affected lifestyle behaviours of children, however evidence about it is emerging and yet scarce. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of the COVID-19 confinement on lifestyle behaviours in Spanish children, and to assess the influence of social vulnerabilities on changes in lifestyle behaviours. METHODS: Physical activity (PA), screen time, sleep time, adherence to the Mediterranean diet (KIDMED) and sociodemographic information were longitudinally assessed before (N = 291, 12.1 ± 2.4 years, 47.8% girls) and during the COVID-19 confinement (N = 113, 12.0 ± 2.6 years, 48.7% girls) by online questionnaires. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 confinement, PA (-91 ± 55 min/d, P < .001) and screen time (±2.6 h/d, P < .001) worsened, whereas the KIDMED score improved (0.5 ± 2.2 points, P < .02). The decrease of PA was higher in children with mother of non-Spanish origin (-1.8 ± 0.2 vs -1.5 ± 0.1 h/d, P < .04) or with non-university studies (-1.7 ± 0.1 vs -1.3 ± 0.1 h/d, P < .005) in comparison to their counterparts. CONCLUSION: This study evidence the negative impact of the COVID-19 confinement on PA levels and sedentary behaviours of Spanish children. These findings should be taken into account to design and implement public health strategies for preserving children´s health during and after the pandemic, particularly, in children with social vulnerabilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Child Behavior/psychology , Health Behavior , Life Style , Quarantine/psychology , Child , Cohort Studies , Diet, Mediterranean/psychology , Diet, Mediterranean/statistics & numerical data , Exercise/psychology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Sleep , Spain , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 30(9): 1401-1412, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737902

ABSTRACT

Italy has been the first nation outside of Asia to face the COVID-19 outbreak. To limit viral transmission of infection, by March 10th, 2020, the Italian Government has ordered a national lockdown, which established home confinement, home (smart) working, and temporary closure of non-essential businesses and schools. The present study investigated how these restrictive measures impacted mothers and their pre-school children's behavioral habits (i.e., sleep timing and quality, subjective time experience) and psychological well-being (i.e., emotion regulation, self-regulation capacity). An online survey was administered to 245 mothers with pre-school children (from 2 to 5 years). Mothers were asked to fill the survey thinking both on their habits, behaviors, and emotions and on those of their children during the quarantine, and retrospectively, before the national lockdown (i.e., in late February). A general worsening of sleep quality and distortion of time experience in both mothers and children, as well as increasing emotional symptoms and self-regulation difficulties in children, was observed. Moreover, even when the interplay between the behavioral and psychological factors was investigated, the factor that seems to mostly impact both mothers' and children's psychological well-being was their sleep quality. Overall, central institutions urgently need to implementing special programs for families, including not only psychological support to sustain families with working parents and ameliorating children's management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Behavior , Communicable Disease Control , Mothers , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child Behavior/psychology , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Mothers/psychology , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Perception
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113429, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726822

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown has brought about a sense of fear and anxiety around the globe. This phenomenon has led to short term as well as long term psychosocial and mental health implications for children and adolescents. The quality and magnitude of impact on minors is determined by many vulnerability factors like developmental age, educational status, pre-existing mental health condition, being economically underprivileged or being quarantined due to infection or fear of infection. AIMS: This paper is aimed at narratively reviewing various articles related to mental-health aspects of children and adolescents impacted by COVID-19 pandemic and enforcement of nationwide or regional lockdowns to prevent further spread of infection. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a review and collected articles and advisories on mental health aspects of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. We selected articles and thematically organized them. We put up their major findings under the thematic areas of impact on young children, school and college going students, children and adolescents with mental health challenges, economically underprivileged children, impact due to quarantine and separation from parents and the advisories of international organizations. We have also provided recommendations to the above. CONCLUSION: There is a pressing need for planning longitudinal and developmental studies, and implementing evidence based elaborative plan of action to cater to the psycho social and mental health needs of the vulnerable children and adolescents during pandemic as well as post pandemic. There is a need to ameliorate children and adolescents' access to mental health support services geared towards providing measures for developing healthy coping mechanisms during the current crisis. For this innovative child and adolescent mental health policies policies with direct and digital collaborative networks of psychiatrists, psychologists, paediatricians, and community volunteers are deemed necessary.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19 , Child , Child Behavior/psychology , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Health/trends , Mental Health Services/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , Parents/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Psychiatry/methods , Psychiatry/trends , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Eur J Pediatr ; 179(8): 1267-1270, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209734

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that asymptomatic people can transmit the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and become important sources of COVID-19. To reduce the role of asymptomatic or poorly symptomatic people in COVID-19, universal use of face masks in addition to hand hygiene and safety distance seems extremely useful. Consequently, preparing the healthy child to use face masks is strongly needed. To obtain maximal compliance, reasons for mask wearing without attempts of removing must be clearly explained. Moreover, child's will must not be forced.Conclusion: On the basis of clinical findings, we think that the universal use of facial masks seems necessary when people have to go out in their everyday lives. In addition to the availability of masks of different sizes capable of adapting perfectly to the face, it is necessary that the use of masks in children is preceded by a strong parental work and school lessons on this issue and other hygiene topics with the main aim to obtain child cooperation. What is Known: • Asymptomatic people can transmit and become important sources of COVID-19. • Asymptomatic cases are common also in pediatrics. What is New: • Universal use of face masks for success against COVID-19 seems necessary also in pediatric age when people have to go out in their everyday lives. • In addition to the availability of masks of different sizes capable of adapting perfectly to the face, it is necessary that the use of masks in children is preceded by a strong parental work and school lessons with the main aim to obtain child cooperation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Child Behavior/psychology , Child Health , Child Welfare , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Parenting , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Psychology, Child , SARS-CoV-2
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