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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110132

ABSTRACT

Maternal mental health may be considered a determining factor influencing fetal and child development. An essential factor with potentially negative consequences for a child's psychophysiological development is the presence of maternal distress during pregnancy and the postpartum period. The review is organized and presented to explore and describe the effects of anxiety, stress, and depression in pregnancy and the postpartum period on adverse child developmental outcomes. The neurobiology of maternal distress and the transmission mechanisms at the molecular level to the fetus and child are noted. In addition, the paper discusses the findings of longitudinal studies in which early child development is monitored concerning the presence of maternal distress in pregnancy and the postpartum period. This topic gained importance in the COVID-19 pandemic context, during which a higher frequency of maternal psychological disorders was observed. The need for further interdisciplinary research on the relationship between maternal mental health and fetal/child development was highlighted, especially on the biological mechanisms underlying the transmission of maternal distress to the (unborn) child, to achieve positive developmental outcomes and improve maternal and child well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Child , Female , Humans , Postpartum Period , Child Development , Anxiety Disorders
2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275095, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098741

ABSTRACT

Using data from all those born in a single week in 1958 in Britain we track associations between short pain and chronic pain in mid-life (age 44) and subsequent health, wellbeing and labor market outcomes in later life. We focus on data taken at age 50 in 2008, when the Great Recession hit and then five years later at age 55 in 2013 and again at age 62 in 2021 during the Covid pandemic. We find those suffering both short-term and chronic pain at age 44 continue to report pain and poor general health in their 50s and 60s. However, the associations are much stronger for those with chronic pain. Furthermore, chronic pain at age 44 is associated with a range of poor mental health outcomes, pessimism about the future and joblessness at age 55 whereas short-duration pain at age 44 is not. Pain has strong predictive power for pain later in life: pain in childhood predicts pain in mid-life, even when one controls for pain in early adulthood. Pain appears to reflect other vulnerabilities as we find that chronic pain at age 44 predicts whether or not a respondent has Covid nearly twenty years later.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Pain , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Child Development , Chronic Pain/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Unemployment
4.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(3): 300-306, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055732

ABSTRACT

Background: Nutritional status of under-5 children in India is not promising and lags far behind the WHO Global Nutrition Targets. Although the Integrated Child Development Services has been continuously delivered through Anganwadi centers since 1975, the burden of malnutrition still persists. Objectives: This study was conducted to estimate the knowledge and practice pattern of Anganwadi supervisors and the effect of capacity building through remote supportive supervision during the COVID-19 pandemic in Assam, India. Methods: A cross-sectional before-after study using a mixed methods approach was used to evaluate the knowledge pattern and service delivery of supervisors from each district of Assam. For qualitative assessment, telephone depth interviews were conducted. Results: Knowledge of supervisors in the beginning was 83.43% which improved by 7.97% at the end of the study. The highest burden of SAM children was in Tinsukia and Barpeta districts. On mapping, most districts with lower burden of SAM had supervisors with higher knowledge levels on Infant and Young Child Feeding practices. Qualitative assessment revealed house-to-house visit for ensuring service delivery and use of online platforms and phone calls for counseling. However, community resistance and lack of transport stood as a main challenge. Conclusion: Supportive supervision done remotely during the pandemic to enhance the performance of health workforce was found effective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Development , Capacity Building , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , India , Infant , Pandemics
5.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3414, 2021. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2054528

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyze elements of the follow-up care provided to premature children amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: qualitative study from the perspective of philosophical hermeneutics, interpreting experiences with childcare provided at home. Twelve mothers and 14 children aged two years old were interviewed online via a text messaging application. Data were analyzed by interpreting meanings. Results: weaknesses stood out in the follow-up care provided to children such as gaps of communication, lack of guidance and delayed immunizations, while care intended to meet health demands was interrupted. Vulnerability aspects affecting child development included: social isolation measures that impeded the children from socializing with their peers, increased screen time, the manifestation of demanding behaviors and irritation and the mothers experiencing an overload of responsibilities. The elements that strengthened maternal care included the mothers being attentive to contagion, enjoying greater experience and satisfaction with the maternal role, spending more time with their children, and recognizing respiratory signs and symptoms, especially fever. Conclusion: follow-up care provided to children in stressful situations implies implementing practices that support the wellbeing of children and families, decreasing the likelihood of children being exposed to development deficits, and detecting signs and symptoms timely. The use of nursing call centers can break the invisibility of longitudinal needs and promote health education actions at home.


Objetivo: analisar os elementos relacionados ao seguimento da saúde da criança com histórico de prematuridade em meio à pandemia da COVID-19. Método: estudo qualitativo na perspectiva da hermenêutica filosófica, conduzido pelo movimento interpretativo das experiências de cuidado da criança em casa. Participaram 12 mães e 14 crianças de dois anos de idade, com entrevistas on-line por mensagem de texto instantânea e análise de dados por interpretação de sentidos. Resultados: destacaram-se elementos frágeis ao seguimento da saúde da criança: lacunas na comunicação, ausência de orientações, atraso vacinal, demandas de cuidados interrompidas; elementos vulneráveis ao desenvolvimento infantil: distanciamento social impeditivo ao convívio entre pares, aumento do uso de telas, comportamentos de irritação e reivindicações, sobrecarga das atribuições maternas; e elementos fortalecedores dos cuidados maternos: atenção ao contágio, experiência e satisfação no papel materno, ampliação do tempo de convívio com a criança, reconhecimento de sinais e sintomas respiratórios, principalmente febris. Conclusão: o seguimento da saúde das crianças em situações estressoras implica ampliar práticas sustentadoras ao bem-estar infantil e familiar, reduzir chances de expor crianças aos prejuízos no desenvolvimento e detectar oportunamente sinais e sintomas. O teleatendimento de enfermagem pode quebrar a invisibilidade das necessidades longitudinais e alavancar as ações de educação em saúde em domicílio.


Objetivo: analizar elementos del seguimiento de la salud del niño con historial de prematuridad en medio de la pandemia de la COVID-19. Método: estudio cualitativo en la perspectiva de la hermenéutica filosófica, conducido por el movimiento interpretativo de las experiencias de cuidado del niño en el hogar. Participaron 12 madres y 14 niños de 2 años de edad, con entrevistas online por mensaje de texto instantáneo y análisis de datos por interpretación de sentidos. Resultados: se destacaron elementos frágiles al seguimiento de la salud del niño: lagunas en la comunicación, ausencia de orientaciones, atraso de vacunación, demandas de cuidados interrumpidas; elementos vulnerables al desarrollo infantil: distanciamiento social impeditivo a la convivencia entre pares, aumento del uso de pantallas, comportamientos de irritación y reivindicaciones, sobrecarga de las atribuciones maternas; y elementos fortalecedores de los cuidados maternos: atención al contagio, experiencia y satisfacción en el papel materno, ampliación del tiempo de convivencia con el niño, reconocimiento de señales y síntomas respiratorios, principalmente febriles. Conclusión: el seguimiento de la salud de los niños en situaciones estresantes implica ampliar prácticas sustentadoras al bienestar infantil y familiar, reducir posibilidades de exponer niños a los perjuicios en el desarrollo y detectar oportunamente señales y síntomas. Los servicios remotos de enfermería pueden quebrar la invisibilidad de las necesidades longitudinales y apalancar las acciones de educación en salud a domicilio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child Care , Child Development , Telemedicine , COVID-19
6.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 56: e20220196, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risk and protective factors to the development of children under three years of age during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Cross-sectional, quantitative study carried out in three early childhood education centers in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in October 2020. The data were collected with an online questionnaire. Risk and protection factors were measured with the Primeira Infância Para Adultos Saudáveis (Early Childhood For Healthy Adults) instrument and the children's development status was measured using the Caregiver Reported Early Development Instruments - CREDI. RESULTS: The study included 108 parents and guardians of children up to three years of age. Living with grandparents and participating in cash transfer programs were protective factors for child development. The family being headed by a woman posed a significant risk factor for child development. CONCLUSION: Intersectoral actions to support families headed by women and access to cash transfer programs are essential for promoting equity opportunities for the development in early childhood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child Development , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Protective Factors
8.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(10): 1040-1045, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013278

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted an unprecedented need to rapidly investigate the potential consequences for maternal mental health, infant and child development, and the mother-infant relationship. Observations: Globally, the mental health of pregnant and postpartum individuals has worsened during the pandemic regardless of infection status, and these concerning changes have disproportionally affected racial and ethnic minoritized people from underserved populations. Early indicators of infant neurobehavioral outcomes suggest that while in utero exposure to a maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection is likely negligible, limited data are available regarding the neurodevelopmental consequences for the generation of infants born during the pandemic. High maternal depression and grief during the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with lower levels of self-reported maternal-infant bonding. Yet nearly all published reports of child neurodevelopmental outcomes and dyadic functioning in the context of the pandemic rely on self-reported and parent-reported measures, which are subject to bias. Conclusions and Relevance: In the context of prior research, and considering the paucity of research on infant neurodevelopment following prenatal SARS-CoV-2 exposure and birth during the pandemic, robust scientific investigation is needed to detect indicators of compromised early outcomes that could inform widespread assessment and accessible intervention. We simultaneously caution against reflexive apprehension regarding the generation of children born during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Development , Female , Humans , Infant , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Psychoanal Q ; 91(2): 273-291, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017068

ABSTRACT

The author explores the unconscious meanings of the physical absence of the three-dimensional world of people and how these play a critical role in children's reactions to restrictions in human contact during the COVID-19 pandemic. When children are deprived of the corporeality of loved ones, the children's continuously emerging and unstable self-and-other arrangements may trap normative feelings of envy, jealousy, hatred, rivalry, love, and idealization. During lockdowns, there is no place where these raw emotions can be tested, so they remain untempered by the real presence of others and by interactivity with them, feeding aggression that is turned back against the child with frightening ferocity. How do children who must reside in such abstinence during a pandemic pull themselves up the ladder of growth when others whom they rely upon to help them discover who they are, are not there? A description of an observation of a young child attending a Zoom classroom is included, with accompanying commentary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Development , Pandemics , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Emotions , Humans
10.
Child Care Health Dev ; 48(6): 1122-1133, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001618

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Changes to income and employment are key social determinants of health that have impacted many families during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research aimed to understand how changes to employment and income influenced family environments that contribute to early childhood development and health. METHODS: A concurrent triangulation mixed method design was used through a cross-sectional survey on early impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic involving families with young children in the Canadian Maritime provinces (n = 2158). Analyses included multivariate regression models to examine whether changes to employment and income predicted changes to Family access to resources and social support, parenting Abilities and self-care at home, and home Routines and Environments (FARE Change Scale). Content analysis was used to identify themes from the open-ended questions. RESULTS: Changes to employment and income early in the pandemic like no longer working but continued to receive salary, working fewer hours for the same salary earned before the pandemic, no longer working nor receiving salary, working fewer hours resulting in salary reduction, essential worker status and household income were significant predictors of FARE Change Scale when ethnicity/cultural background and province of residence are controlled (P < .05). Themes provided a description of family impacts, including shifting employment and income, finding time and capacity, feelings of guilt and the creation of new routines. CONCLUSION: Our study provides insight on the implications of public health restrictions, such as the importance of increased time for parents (through reduced work hours) and access to resources and social support to support child development and health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child Development , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans
11.
J Nutr ; 152(8): 1803-1804, 2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992231

Subject(s)
Child Development , Adult , Child , Humans
12.
Int J Epidemiol ; 51(3): e95-e107, 2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967889
13.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(8): 701-702, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950049
14.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604804, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924197

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The study aimed to assess and compare the global development in six-month-old infants before and during the pandemic restrictive social distancing measures. Methods: This cross-sectional nested study involved infants assessed through the Griffiths Scales of Child Development (GSCD) between September 2019 and April 2021. Infants were classified in a pre-COVID or a COVID group, considering the evaluation date and the restrictive measures in place. GSCD subscales and General Development Scores (GDS) were calculated and compared. Results: One hundred and four healthy term-born infants were evaluated. GDS in the COVID group (n:70; median: 94; IQR: 90-100) appeared significantly lower than in the pre-COVID group (n:34; median: 98; IQR: 97-103; p < 0.001). Language and personal-social-emotional subareas scores appeared the most affected. A decreasing trend of GDS along with the severity of restriction was observed. Conclusion: A reduction in infant development scores was observed during pandemic social distancing. Further studies are needed to systematize these findings and to address effective public health policies for infants and families during long-term forced isolation periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Development , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant
15.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269420, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Child growth in populations is commonly characterised by cross-sectional surveys. These require data collection from large samples of individuals across age ranges spanning 1-20 years. Such surveys are expensive and impossible in restrictive situations, such as, e.g. the COVID pandemic or limited size of isolated communities. A method allowing description of child growth based on small samples is needed. METHODS: Small samples of data (N~50) for boys and girls 6-20 years old from different socio-economic situations in Africa and Europe were randomly extracted from surveys of thousands of children. Data included arm circumference, hip width, grip strength, height and weight. Polynomial regressions of these measurements on age were explored. FINDINGS: Polynomial curves based on small samples correlated well (r = 0.97 to 1.00) with results of surveys of thousands of children from same communities and correctly reflected sexual dimorphism and socio-economic differences. CONCLUSIONS: Fitting of curvilinear regressions to small data samples allows expeditious assessment of child growth in a number of characteristics when situations change rapidly, resources are limited and access to children is restricted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Development , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Sample Size , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
Infant Ment Health J ; 43(4): 624-637, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872162

ABSTRACT

Early relational health between caregivers and children is foundational for child health and well-being. Children and caregivers are also embedded within multiple systems and sectors, or a "child-serving ecosystem", that shapes child development. Although the COVID-19 pandemic has made this embeddedness abundantly clear, systems remain siloed and lack coordination. Fostering relational health amongst layers of this ecosystem may be a way to systematically support young children and families who are facing adversity. We integrate theory, examples, and empirical findings to develop a conceptual model informed by infant mental health and public health frameworks that illustrates how relational health across the child-serving ecosystem may promote child health and well-being at a population level. Our model articulates what relational health looks like across levels of this ecosystem from primary caregiver-child relationships, to secondary relationships between caregivers and child-serving systems, to tertiary relationships among systems that shape child outcomes directly and indirectly. We posit that positive relational health across levels is critical for promoting child health and well-being broadly. We provide examples of evidence-based approaches that address primary, secondary, and tertiary relational health, and suggest ways to promote relational health through cross-sector training and psychoeducation in the science of early development. This model conceptualizes relational health across the child-serving ecosystem and can serve as a template for promoting child health and well-being in the context of adversity.


La salud de la temprana relación entre quienes prestan cuidado y los niños es fundamental para la salud y el bienestar del niño. Los niños y quienes les cuidan forman parte de múltiples sistemas y sectores, o un "ecosistema de servicio al niño," que moldea el desarrollo del niño. Aunque la pandemia del COVID-19 ha demostrado abundante y claramente esta pertenencia, los sistemas permanecen aislados y les hace falta coordinación. Fomentar la salud de la relación entre las capas del ecosistema pudiera ser una manera de apoyar sistemáticamente a los niños pequeños y familias que se enfrentan con situaciones adversas. Presentamos un modelo conceptual con base en marcos de trabajo de la salud mental infantil y la salud pública que ilustra cómo la salud de la relación a lo largo del ecosistema de servicio al niño pudiera promover el desarrollo del niño al nivel de grupo de población. Nuestro modelo articula cómo aparece la salud de la relación a lo largo de los niveles del ecosistema desde las relaciones entre quien presta el cuidado primario y el niño, hasta las relaciones secundarias entre quienes prestan el cuidado y loa sistemas de servicio al niño, y las relaciones terciarias entre sistemas que amoldan directa e indirectamente los resultados en el niño. Una positiva salud de la relación a través de todos los niveles es esencial para promover la salud y el bienestar del niño de manera amplia. Describimos ejemplos específicos de salud de la relación primaria, secundaria y terciaria, y sugerimos maneras de promover la salud de la relación a través del entrenamiento intersectorial y la educación sicológica dentro de la ciencia del desarrollo temprano. Este modelo conceptualiza la salud de la relación a lo largo del ecosistema de servicio al niño y puede ser un esquema patrón para promover el desarrollo del niño dentro del contexto de situaciones adversas.


La Santé Relationnelle Précoce entre les personnes prenant soin des enfants et les enfants est fondamentale pour la santé de l'enfant et son bien-être. Les enfants et les personnes prenant soin d'eux sont encastrés dans de multiples systèmes et des secteurs, ou un « écosystème ¼ servant l'enfant qui forme le développement de l'enfant. Bien que la pandémie du Covid19 ait rendu cet encastrement très clair, les systèmes demeurent compartimentés et manquent de coordination. Cultiver la santé relationnelle au sein des couches de l'écosystème pourrait s'avérer être une manière de soutenir des jeunes enfants et les familles faisant face aux obstacles. Nous présentons un modèle conceptuel informé par les structures de la santé mentale du nourrisson et de la santé publique qui illustre la manière dont la santé relationnelle au travers de l'écosystème servant les enfants peut promouvoir le développement de l'enfant au niveau de la population. Notre modèle articule ce à quoi la santé relationnelle ressemble au travers des niveaux de l'écosystème, des relations entre la personne principale qui s'occupe de l'enfant et l'enfant aux relations secondaires entre les personnes prenant soin de l'enfant et les systèmes servant l'enfant, jusqu'aux relations tertiaires entres les systèmes qui donnent forme aux résultats directement et indirectement. Une santé relationnelle positive au travers de tous les niveaux est critique pour la promotion de la santé de l'enfant et de son bien-être en général. Nous décrivons des exemples spécifiques de santé relationnelle primaire, secondaire et tertiaire, et suggérons des manières de promouvoir la santé relationnelle au travers de la formation entre secteurs et de la psychoéducation dans la science du développement précoce. Ce modèle conceptualise la santé relationnelle au travers de l'écosystème servant l'enfant et peut servir de modèle pour la promotion du développement de l'enfant dans le contexte de l'adversité.


Subject(s)
Child Development , Health Promotion , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Child, Preschool , Ecosystem , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Humans , Infant , Models, Organizational , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations
20.
Can J Public Health ; 113(1): 23-35, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727044

ABSTRACT

The Secretary General of the United Nations described the impact of COVID-19-related school closures as a "generational catastrophe." What will be the legacy of the 2020-2021 pandemic-related disruptions in 5, 10, 20 years from now, as regards education and well-being of children and youth? Addressing the disproportionate impact on those growing up in socio-economically disadvantaged areas or on those with pre-existing learning challenges is key to sustainable recovery. This commentary builds on the four literature reviews presented in this Special Section on a Pandemic Recovery Plan for Children and proposes strategies to understand and attenuate the impact of pandemic-related lockdown measures. Importantly, we need a monitoring strategy to assess indicators of child development in three areas of functioning: education and learning, health, and well-being (or mental health). Surveillance needs to begin in the critical prenatal period (with prenatal care to expectant parents), and extend to the end of formal high school/college education. Based on child development indicators, a stepped strategy for intervention, ranging from all-encompassing population-based health and education promotion initiatives to targeted prevention programs and targeted remedial/therapeutic interventions, can be offered. As proposed in the UN plan for recovery, ensuring healthy present and future generations involves a concerted and intensive intersectoral effort from the education, health, psychosocial services, and scientific communities.


RéSUMé: Selon les Nations Unis, les perturbations scolaires associées à la pandémie de COVID-19 pourraient mener à une « catastrophe générationnelle ¼ en gaspillant un potentiel humain incalculable, sapant des décennies de progrès et exacerbant des inégalités bien ancrées. Le déploiement du vaccin chez les moins de 12 ans n'a pas débuté avant la rentrée scolaire 2021, ce qui laisse présager de nombreuses perturbations pour cette 3e année scolaire pandémique. Quel sera le legs des perturbations entrainées par la pandémie de COVID-19 en matière d'éducation et de bien-être dans 5, 10, ou 20 ans? Une relance durable dépendra des mesures prises pour prévenir l'impact négatif disproportionné sur les enfants/adolescents de milieux socioéconomiques défavorisés et ceux qui ont des défis d'apprentissage préexistants. Ce commentaire propose des stratégies pour comprendre et atténuer l'impact des perturbations pandémiques en se fondant sur les quatre articles de la présente « Section spéciale sur un plan de relance pour les enfants suite à la pandémie ¼. Trois lignes d'action prioritaires émergent à la lumière des connaissances scientifiques actuelles. Premièrement, le contexte pandémique met en évidence la nécessité d'accéder à données intersectorielles (éducation, santé, services psychosociaux) permettant de distinguer les conséquences à court et à long terme. Deuxièmement, il faut être prêt à déployer une stratégie interventionnelle par étape, avec des interventions universelles en promotion, jusqu'aux interventions plus ciblées et intensives. Troisièmement, il faudra mettre en place des programmes particuliers pour les enfants/adolescents de milieux défavorisés et pour ceux qui présentent des facteurs de risque personnels (défis de santé mentale, retards d'apprentissage). À titre d'exemple, le tutorat scolaire devrait être facilement accessible dans tous les milieux défavorisés. Tel que proposé dans le plan de relance de l'ONU, un effort concerté, intensif et intersectoriel de la part des sciences de l'éducation, de la santé, et des services psychosociaux sera nécessaire pour assurer la santé et l'éducation des générations présentes et futures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Child Development , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
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