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3.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 42(7): 602-604, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517918

ABSTRACT

CASE: Billy is a 2.6-year-old boy who presented for evaluation in the developmental-behavioral pediatrics (DBP) clinic 2 weeks before the onset of pandemic-related clinic restrictions. Billy had received early intervention for the past year because of speech and fine motor delays. Billy's parents requested the evaluation in the DBP clinic because his delayed speech and disruptive behaviors had raised concern that he may have autism spectrum disorder. Owing to the onset of the pandemic, subsequent visits were completed through telehealth with a developmental-behavioral pediatrician, psychologist, behavioral clinician, and social workers who developed a collaborative plan of care. Billy was diagnosed with global developmental delay, significant tantrums, and impulsivity but did not meet the criteria for autism spectrum disorder.Billy lives with his parents and 2 sisters in a rural area, 3 hours from the DBP clinic. Both of his parents have been treated for depression in the past and reported that school was difficult for them. His sisters, ages 5 and 6 years, receive speech/language therapy but have not required additional special education services. His family has endured recent stressors including a flooding event that caused significant damage to their home, financial difficulties, and the recent unexpected death of a close family member. Billy's disruptive behaviors have resulted in difficulty finding and maintaining child care, further contributing to parental stress and dysfunction in the home.Despite assistance from the social worker, additional developmental and behavioral support services near the family's home were not identified. Therefore, services were offered to Billy and his parents through telehealth. Billy's parents began behavioral parent training with a clinician embedded within the DBP clinic and, with direct support from his parents, Billy began receiving supplemental speech/language and occupational therapies through telehealth. Through recurrent engagement with Billy's parents and frequent communication among the behavioral clinician, developmental-behavioral pediatrician, psychologist, and social worker, Billy was able to make significant developmental progress, and his parents reported improved ability to manage his difficult behaviors.How can telehealth be used to help families navigate complex systems and obtain optimal care and support?


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Behavior Disorders/therapy , Child Health Services , Mental Health Services , Telemedicine , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(Suppl 1): 547, 2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited existing approaches to generate estimates from Routine Health Information Systems (RHIS) data, despite the growing interest to these data. We calculated and assessed the consistency of maternal and child health service coverage estimates from RHIS data, using census-based and health service-based denominators in Sierra Leone. METHODS: We used Sierra Leone 2016 RHIS data to calculate coverage of first antenatal care contact (ANC1), institutional delivery and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus 3 (DPT3) immunization service provision. For each indicator, national and district level coverages were calculated using denominators derived from two census-based and three health service-based methods. We compared the coverage estimates from RHIS data to estimates from MICS 2017. We considered the agreement adequate when estimates from RHIS fell within the 95% confidence interval of the survey estimate. RESULTS: We found an overall poor consistency of the coverage estimates calculated from the census-based methods. ANC1 and institutional delivery coverage estimates from these methods were greater than 100% in about half of the fourteen districts, and only 3 of the 14 districts had estimates consistent with the survey data. Health service-based methods generated better estimates. For institutional delivery coverage, five districts met the agreement criteria using BCG service-based method. We found better agreement for DPT3 coverage estimates using DPT1 service-based method as national coverage was close to survey data, and estimates were consistent for 8 out of 14 districts. DPT3 estimates were consistent in almost half of the districts (6/14) using ANC1 service-based method. CONCLUSION: The study highlighted the challenge in determining an appropriate denominator for RHIS-based coverage estimates. Systematic and transparent data quality check and correction, as well as rigorous approaches to determining denominators are key considerations to generate accurate coverage statistics using RHIS data.


Subject(s)
Child Health Services , Health Information Systems , Maternal Health Services , Child , Female , Health Facilities , Humans , Pregnancy , Sierra Leone/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 31(7): 464-474, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429159

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To describe the development of a protocol and practical tool for the safe delivery of telemental health (TMH) services to the home. The COVID-19 pandemic forced providers to rapidly transition their outpatient practices to home-based TMH (HB-TMH) without existing protocols or tools to guide them. This experience underscored the need for a standardized privacy and safety tool as HB-TMH is expected to continue as a resource during future crises as well as to become a component of the routine mental health care landscape. Methods: The authors represent a subset of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Telemental Health Consortium. They met weekly through videoconferencing to review published safety standards of care, existing TMH guidelines for clinic-based and home-based services, and their own institutional protocols. They agreed on three domains foundational to the delivery of HB-TMH: environmental safety, clinical safety, and disposition planning. Through multiple iterations, they agreed upon a final Privacy and Safety Protocol for HB-TMH. The protocol was then operationalized into the Privacy and Safety Assessment Tool (PSA Tool) based on two keystone medical safety constructs: the World Health Organization (WHO) Surgical Safety Checklist/Time-Out and the Checklist Manifesto. Results: The PSA Tool comprised four modules: (1) Screening for Safety for HB-TMH; (2) Assessment for Safety During the HB-TMH Initial Visit; (3) End of the Initial Visit and Disposition Planning; and (4) the TMH Time-Out and Reassessment during subsequent visits. A sample workflow guides implementation. Conclusions: The Privacy and Safety Protocol and PSA Tool aim to prepare providers for the private and safe delivery of HB-TMH. Its modular format can be adapted to each site's resources. Going forward, the PSA Tool should help to facilitate the integration of HB-TMH into the routine mental health care landscape.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health Services/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Child Health Services/organization & administration , Clinical Protocols/standards , Home Care Services , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Patient Safety , Privacy , Telemedicine , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Computer Communication Networks/standards , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Home Care Services/ethics , Home Care Services/standards , Home Care Services/trends , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/ethics , Telemedicine/methods , United States
8.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 42(7): 602-604, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377987

ABSTRACT

CASE: Billy is a 2.6-year-old boy who presented for evaluation in the developmental-behavioral pediatrics (DBP) clinic 2 weeks before the onset of pandemic-related clinic restrictions. Billy had received early intervention for the past year because of speech and fine motor delays. Billy's parents requested the evaluation in the DBP clinic because his delayed speech and disruptive behaviors had raised concern that he may have autism spectrum disorder. Owing to the onset of the pandemic, subsequent visits were completed through telehealth with a developmental-behavioral pediatrician, psychologist, behavioral clinician, and social workers who developed a collaborative plan of care. Billy was diagnosed with global developmental delay, significant tantrums, and impulsivity but did not meet the criteria for autism spectrum disorder.Billy lives with his parents and 2 sisters in a rural area, 3 hours from the DBP clinic. Both of his parents have been treated for depression in the past and reported that school was difficult for them. His sisters, ages 5 and 6 years, receive speech/language therapy but have not required additional special education services. His family has endured recent stressors including a flooding event that caused significant damage to their home, financial difficulties, and the recent unexpected death of a close family member. Billy's disruptive behaviors have resulted in difficulty finding and maintaining child care, further contributing to parental stress and dysfunction in the home.Despite assistance from the social worker, additional developmental and behavioral support services near the family's home were not identified. Therefore, services were offered to Billy and his parents through telehealth. Billy's parents began behavioral parent training with a clinician embedded within the DBP clinic and, with direct support from his parents, Billy began receiving supplemental speech/language and occupational therapies through telehealth. Through recurrent engagement with Billy's parents and frequent communication among the behavioral clinician, developmental-behavioral pediatrician, psychologist, and social worker, Billy was able to make significant developmental progress, and his parents reported improved ability to manage his difficult behaviors.How can telehealth be used to help families navigate complex systems and obtain optimal care and support?


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Behavior Disorders/therapy , Child Health Services , Mental Health Services , Telemedicine , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 860, 2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic has so far infected more than 30 million people in the world, having major impact on global health with collateral damage. In Mozambique, a public state of emergency was declared at the end of March 2020. This has limited people's movements and reduced public services, leading to a decrease in the number of people accessing health care facilities. An implementation research project, The Alert Community for a Prepared Hospital, has been promoting access to maternal and child health care, in Natikiri, Nampula, for the last four years. Nampula has the second highest incidence of Covid-19. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of Covid-19 pandemic Government restrictions on access to maternal and child healthcare services. We compared health centres in Nampula city with healthcare centres in our research catchment area. We wanted to see if our previous research interventions have led to a more resilient response from the community. METHODS: Mixed-methods research, descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective, using a review of patient visit documentation. We compared maternal and child health care unit statistical indicators from March-May 2019 to the same time-period in 2020. We tested for significant changes in access to maternal and child health services, using KrushKall Wallis, One-way Anova and mean and standard deviation tests. We compared interviews with health professionals, traditional birth attendants and patients in the two areas. We gathered data from a comparable city health centre and the main city referral hospital. The Marrere health centre and Marrere General Hospital were the two Alert Community for a Prepared Hospital intervention sites. RESULTS: Comparing 2019 quantitative maternal health services access indicators with those from 2020, showed decreases in most important indicators: family planning visits and elective C-sections dropped 28%; first antenatal visit occurring in the first trimester dropped 26%; hospital deliveries dropped a statistically significant 4% (p = 0.046), while home deliveries rose 74%; children vaccinated down 20%. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated the negative collateral effects of Covid-19 pandemic Government restrictions, on access to maternal and child healthcare services, and highlighted the need to improve the health information system in Mozambique.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health Services , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Mozambique/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Health Policy Plan ; 36(7): 1140-1151, 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276172

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus-19 pandemic and its secondary effects threaten the continuity of essential health services delivery, which may lead to worsened population health and a protracted public health crisis. We quantify such disruptions, focusing on maternal and child health, in eight sub-Saharan countries. Service volumes are extracted from administrative systems for 63 954 facilities in eight countries: Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Somalia. Using an interrupted time series design and an ordinary least squares regression model with facility-level fixed effects, we analyze data from January 2018 to February 2020 to predict what service utilization levels would have been in March-July 2020 in the absence of the pandemic, accounting for both secular trends and seasonality. Estimates of disruption are derived by comparing the predicted and observed service utilization levels during the pandemic period. All countries experienced service disruptions for at least 1 month, but the magnitude and duration of the disruptions vary. Outpatient consultations and child vaccinations were the most commonly affected services and fell by the largest margins. We estimate a cumulative shortfall of 5 149 491 outpatient consultations and 328 961 third-dose pentavalent vaccinations during the 5 months in these eight countries. Decreases in maternal health service utilization are less generalized, although significant declines in institutional deliveries, antenatal care and postnatal care were detected in some countries. There is a need to better understand the factors determining the magnitude and duration of such disruptions in order to design interventions that would respond to the shortfall in care. Service delivery modifications need to be both highly contextualized and integrated as a core component of future epidemic response and planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health Services , Maternal Health Services , Child , Female , Humans , Mali , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Glob Health Promot ; 28(1): 75-78, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269844

ABSTRACT

Unaccompanied minors (UMs) are children under 18 who arrive on the territory of a foreign country without the care of a guardian. In many countries their access to social and health care services depends on their legal recognition as minors. For instance, in France, high rejection rates of minor status place unprotected UMs in social precarity, such that in Paris, civil society organizations (CSOs) have stepped in to offer social, medical, and psychological care to unprotected UMs. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic however, CSOs had to adapt their care provision.We review promising CSO-led initiatives to ensure continuity of care for this population. In doing so, we highlight how, by promoting UMs' healthy behaviors in the context of the pandemic, continued social interactions between CSO members and unprotected UMs may have contributed to disease prevention among UMs. In addition, CSOs have continued to advocate for sheltering unprotected UMs, calling on public authorities to take action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Advocacy , Child Health Services , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Transients and Migrants , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Paris
14.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(7): 1025-1030, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226231

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This paper describes the effect that the COVID-19 pandemic, and subsequent shift from in-person to virtual (video-based) home visiting, had on the Los Angeles County Welcome Baby Home Visiting Program. DESCRIPTION: The Welcome Baby (WB) Program is a voluntary, universal home visiting program for expectant women and women with infants in Los Angeles County implemented in 14 hospitals in Los Angeles County. Oversight of the program is managed by LA Best Babies Network (LABBN) and funded by First 5 LA. The COVID-19 pandemic forced Welcome Baby Home visitors to shift from in-person home visits to virtual visits, which had an impact on programmatic outcomes. ASSESSMENT: LABBN manages a database utilized by WB sites. In assessing data trends before and during the pandemic, shifting to virtual visits resulted in an increase in both missed visits and completed visits, and a decrease in overall visit length. Completion of required assessments and overall client program completion were not affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: The Welcome Baby sites across Los Angeles County were able to successfully migrate in-person visits to a virtual platform, proving that virtual visits are possible and do provide some programmatic benefits. However, the long-term efficacy of virtual visits remains to be seen, and further research is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Health Services , House Calls , Maternal Health Services , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Program Evaluation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Videoconferencing
15.
Acta Paediatr ; 110(9): 2559-2566, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223464

ABSTRACT

AIM: Routine immunisation programmes are at risk of disruption due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate the resilience of the Swedish national immunisation programme for children up to the age of five years during the early stages of the pandemic. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, web-based survey of regional child health offices in Sweden between 10 September and 9 October 2020. It explored the organisation of child health services during the early stages of the pandemic, focusing on routine child immunisation. RESULTS: All 21 Swedish regional child health offices responded. They stated that child immunisation had been prioritised, communication with families had been intensified and there was greater flexibility at all organisational levels of child health services. In addition, the vaccine supply was sustained and child health centres remained open. However, there were periodic staff shortages, increased numbers of health visits cancelled by parents and most parent education groups were paused. CONCLUSION: The Swedish immunisation programme was resilient during the early COVID-19 pandemic, thanks to sustainable organisation co-ordinated by Sweden's network of regional child health offices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health Services , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunization Programs , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden/epidemiology
16.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251382, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The presence of COVID-19 has led to the disruption of health systems globally, including essential reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) services. This study aimed to assess the challenges faced by women who used RMNCH services in Nigeria's epicentre, their satisfaction with care received during the COVID-19 pandemic and the factors associated with their satisfaction. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Lagos, southwest Nigeria among 1,241 women of reproductive age who had just received RMNCH services at one of twenty-two health facilities across the primary, secondary and tertiary tiers of health care. The respondents were selected via multi-stage sampling and face to face exit interviews were conducted by trained interviewers. Client satisfaction was assessed across four sub-scales: health care delivery, health facility, interpersonal aspects of care and access to services. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the relationship between personal characteristics and client satisfaction. RESULTS: About 43.51% of respondents had at least one challenge in accessing RMNCH services since the COVID-19 outbreak. Close to a third (31.91%) could not access service because they could not leave their houses during the lockdown and 18.13% could not access service because there was no transportation. The mean clients' satisfaction score among the respondents was 43.25 (SD: 6.28) out of a possible score of 57. Satisfaction scores for the interpersonal aspects of care were statistically significantly lower in the PHCs and general hospitals compared to teaching hospitals. Being over 30 years of age was significantly associated with an increased clients' satisfaction score (ß = 1.80, 95%CI: 1.10-2.50). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 lockdown posed challenges to accessing RMNCH services for a significant proportion of women surveyed. Although overall satisfaction with care was fairly high, there is a need to provide tailored COVID-19 sensitive inter-personal care to clients at all levels of care.


Subject(s)
Child Health Services , Maternal Health Services , Patient Satisfaction , Reproductive Health Services , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
18.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(4): e148-e149, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211973
20.
Clin Obstet Gynecol ; 64(2): 398-406, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203757

ABSTRACT

Mobile applications and telehealth services are being used to unprecedented degrees in maternal and child care, with uncertain impact on population health outcomes. In this article, we will review the role of the COVID-19 pandemic in accelerating large scale implementation of telehealth services, known and anticipated impacts on maternal and child health and related inequities, and potential strategies to optimize outcomes at the population level.


Subject(s)
Child Health Services , Child Health , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Maternal Health Services , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. , Child , Child Health Services/organization & administration , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Health Services/organization & administration , Minority Groups , Mobile Applications , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pregnancy , Social Determinants of Health , Telemedicine/organization & administration , United States
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