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Isr J Health Policy Res ; 11(1): 3, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613252


The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the changing role of scientists, clinicians, ethicists, and educators in advocacy as they rapidly translate their findings to inform practice and policy. Critical efforts have been directed towards understanding child well-being, especially with pandemic-related educational disruptions. While school closures were part of early widespread public health measures to curb the spread of COVID-19, they have not been without consequences for all children, and especially for children from disadvantaged backgrounds. In a recent Isr J Health Policy Res perspective, Paltiel and colleagues demonstrate the integral role of academic activism to promote child well-being during the pandemic by highlighting work of the multidisciplinary academic group on children and coronavirus (MACC). In this commentary, we explore parallels to MACC's work in an international context by describing the efforts of a multidisciplinary team at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, United States, to aggregate data, conduct analyses, and offer training tools intended to minimize health and educational inequities for children throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. As both MACC and our work collectively demonstrates, multidisciplinary partnerships and public-facing data-driven initiatives are crucial to advocating for children's equitable access to quality health and education. This will likely not be the last pandemic that children experience in their lifetime. As such, efforts should be made to apply the lessons learned during the current pandemic to strengthen multidisciplinary academic-public partnerships which will continue to play a critical role in the future.

COVID-19 , Child Health , Child , Health Policy , Humans , Israel , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 28(1)2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594329


Vaccination is a global success story, yet UK coverage remains undertarget for a number of diseases. The paediatric emergency department (PED) offers the potential for opportunistic vaccination interventions. OBJECTIVES: To map the Greater Manchester (GM) Child Health Information System network to see if it was a viable source of vaccination data for clinicians working in the PED as a case study. METHODS: Postprimary care vaccination management systems for GM were visualised using a systems mapping approach, with data obtained from the Office for National Statistics and commissioners in the GM Health and Social Care Partnership. RESULTS: Once vaccination data left primary care, it passed through 1 of 10 local child health information services (CHISs), using an assortment of different information technology systems, after which it shed individual identifiers and was aggregated within national systems. None of the existing GM CHISs were accessible to PED practitioners. CONCLUSION: More work needs to be done to explore possible alternative sources of accurate vaccination data during a PED consultation.

Child Health , Emergency Service, Hospital , Child , England , Humans , Information Services , Vaccination
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 34(1): 107-115, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594324


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has ushered in great and rapid change in our society. Although children are somewhat less likely to get infected or have severe symptoms from COVID-19, they are being adversely affected by this global public health emergency in many direct and indirect ways. This review focuses on the major areas in which children and adolescents are suffering, and how pediatricians can anticipate and optimize child healthcare and support as the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath continues. RECENT FINDINGS: This review provides preliminary insights into the physical, psychological, educational, developmental, behavioral, and social health implications of the pandemic on the pediatric population, highlighting both the pandemic's current and potential future impact on children. SUMMARY: The COVID-19 pandemic has and will likely continue to adversely affect many different aspects of children's health and well-being. It is important for pediatricians to be aware of these consequences of COVID-19 and take steps to help their patients now and in the future. Because the virus continues to ravage many parts of the world, continued research is needed to identify and evaluate any additional COVID-related challenges and concerns that adversely impact the growth and development of children.

COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Child Health , Family , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247949, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575332


AIM: In spring 2020, the first Covid-19-related lockdown included the closing of kindergartens and schools. Home schooling, the lack of social contacts with peers and the care of the children at home posed an enormous challenge for many families. METHODS: The present study investigated the leisure behavior of 285 one- to 10-year-old German children at two time points (t1 and t2) during the Covid-19-related lockdown in spring 2020. In the subsample of primary school children (n = 102), we also explored children's attitudes towards schoolwork at home. Analyses focused on the change of behavior from t1 to t2, on differences in these changes depending on socio-economic status (SES), and on associations of behavior with SES, the number of children at home, and the frequency of receiving learning materials from school. RESULTS: While the frequency of playing outside increased significantly from t1 to t2, the frequency of handicrafts, playing board games, indoor sports, and motivation to do schoolwork decreased. The observed changes between t1 and t2 did not differ depending on SES. However, a lower SES was associated with higher media use, less outdoor activity, and (though only marginally significant) a reduced time doing schoolwork and a reduced ability to concentrate on schoolwork at t1. In households with more children, children played outside more often, but were read to less frequently and (though only marginally significant) watched movies and series less frequently. Children receiving learning materials from school on a regular basis spent significantly more time doing schoolwork at home than children receiving materials only irregularly. CONCLUSIONS: A continuing loss of childcare in day-care facilities and schools entails the danger of declining education in the form of (inter)active indoor activities and schoolwork.

COVID-19 , Exercise , Learning , Leisure Activities , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child Care , Child Day Care Centers , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Behavior/classification , Humans , Infant , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Schools , Social Class , Social Isolation , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Sports/statistics & numerical data
J Glob Health ; 11: 04071, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575070


Background: This research prioritization aimed to identify major research gaps in maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (MNCAH) to help mitigate the direct and indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We adapted the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative methodology. We defined scope, domains, themes and scoring criteria. We approached diverse global experts via email to submit their research ideas in MNCAH and MNCAH-related cross-cutting/health systems area. We curated the research ideas as research questions (RQs) and sent them to the consenting experts for scoring via the online link. For each RQ, the research priority score (RPS) was calculated as an average of individual criterion scores and ranked based on RPS in each area. Results: We identified top-ranked 10 RQs in each maternal, newborn, and child and adolescent health and 5 in the cross-cutting/health systems area. In maternal health, indirect effects on care, measures to improve care, health risks and outcomes, and preventing and managing SARS-CoV-2 infection/COVID-19 disease were priority RQs. In newborn health, clinical characterization and managing SARS-CoV-2 infection/COVID-19 disease, mode of transmission and interventions to prevent transmission were the focus. For child and adolescent health, top-ranked RQs were indirect effects on care, clinical status and outcomes, interventions to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection/COVID-19 disease, and educational institute-related RQs. The cross-cutting RQs were the effects of the pandemic on availability, access, care-seeking and utilization of MNCAH services and potential solutions. Conclusions: We call on partners, including governments, non-governmental organizations, research institutes, and donors, to address this urgent research agenda.

COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adolescent Health , Child , Child Health , Female , Global Health , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Research , SARS-CoV-2
Dev Psychol ; 57(10): 1667-1680, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527982


The outbreak of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was an unprecedented global public health emergency with a significant psychological toll. This study aimed to understand how specific COVID-19 related stressors contributed to Chinese parents' fear induction practices, and how these practices, in turn, contributed to their children's disease prevention practices during the outbreak and depressive symptoms after the outbreak. Parents (N = 240, Mage = 38.50 years, 75% mothers) with elementary-school-age children (Mage = 9.48 years, 46% girls) in Wenzhou, 1 of the most impacted cities in China, reported on the presence of confirmed or suspected cases in their communities, their frequencies of consuming COVID-19-related information, fear induction practices, and their children's trait anxiety and disease prevention practices during the outbreak (January 28-30, 2020). Child-reported depressive symptoms were collected between March 7-11, 2020; during which there were very few remaining cases and no new confirmed cases or deaths. Parents' higher frequency of virus-related information consumption but not the presence of community infection was associated with their engagement in more fear induction practices, which was in turn associated with children's greater engagement in prevention practices during the outbreak, but more postquarantine depressive symptoms. Child trait anxiety exacerbated the association between parent fear induction and child depressive symptoms. Using fear induction parenting may promote children's willingness to cooperate and participate in disease prevention practices during the crisis but at the cost of children's long-term mental health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

COVID-19 , Parenting , Child , Child Health , Disease Outbreaks , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
Acad Pediatr ; 21(8S): S134-S139, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487557


One in three American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children live in poverty. This rate is higher in some reservation communities. The alarming rates of physical, mental, and social health inequities (eg, poverty) experienced by AI/AN children are symptoms of genocide, a legacy of inhumane Federal Indian policy, and ongoing structural violence. The chronically underfunded Indian Health Service (IHS) is just one example where AI/AN children are not universally guaranteed equitable health care or opportunity to thrive. Poverty is highly predictive of educational achievement, employment opportunities, violence, and ultimately health outcomes. COVID-19 has not only exacerbated physical and mental health inequities experienced by AI/AN communities, but has also intensified the economic consequences of inequity. Thus, it is vital to advocate for programs and policies that are evidence based, incorporate cultural ways of knowing, and dismantle structurally racist policies.

Alaskan Natives , COVID-19 , Indians, North American , Child , Child Health , Humans , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463666


Malnutrition, in all its forms, during the critical stages of child growth and development can have lifelong impacts on health and well-being. While most forms of malnutrition can be prevented with simple dietary interventions, both undernutrition and overnutrition remain persistent and burdensome challenges for large portions of the global population, especially for young children who are dependent on others for nourishment. In addition to dietary factors, children's health also faces the growing challenges of climate change, environmental degradation, pollution, and infectious disease. Food production and consumption practices both sit at the nexus of these issues, and both must be significantly transformed if we are to achieve the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. Food sources (i.e., animal-source foods vs. plant-source foods), food production practices, the effects of food processing, the impacts of a more globalized food system, and food loss and waste have all been receiving growing attention in health and sustainability research and policy discussions. Much of this work points to recommendations to reduce resource-intensive animal-source foods, heavily processed foods, and foods associated with excessive waste and pollution, while simultaneously increasing plant-source options. However, some of these recommendations require a little more nuance when considered in the context of issues such as global child health. All types of foods can play significant roles in providing essential nutrition for children across the globe, and for improving the well-being and livelihoods of their families and communities. Dairy foods provide a prime example of this need for nuance, as both dairy production practices and consumption patterns vary greatly throughout the world, as do their impacts on child health and food system sustainability. The objective of this narrative review is to highlight the role of dairy in supporting child health in the context of food system sustainability. When considering child health within this context it is recommended to take a holistic approach that considers all four domains of sustainability (health, economics, society, and the environment) to better weigh trade-offs, optimize outcomes, and avoid unintended consequences. To ensure that children have access to nutritious and safe foods within sustainable food systems, special consideration of their needs must be included within the broader food systems transformation narrative.

Child Health , Food Supply , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Food , Humans , Nutritional Status , Sustainable Development
Pediatr Rev ; 42(7): 402-404, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458454

Child Health , Child , Humans
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e052634, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455720


INTRODUCTION: Universal access to preventative healthcare is essential to children's health. Registered nurses (RN) are well positioned to deliver well-child care within primary care settings; however, RN role implementation varies widely in this sector and the scope of literature that examines the influence of organisational attributes on nursing contributions to well-child care is not well understood. The aim of this scoping review is to identify the scope and characteristics of the literature related to organisational attributes that act as barriers to, or facilitators for RN delivery of well-child care within the context of primary care in high-income countries. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Joanna Briggs Institute scoping review methodology will be used to conduct this review. Databases that will be accessed include Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE and Embase. Inclusion criteria includes articles with a focus on RNs who deliver well-child care in primary care settings. Literature that meets this inclusion criteria will be included in the study. Covidence software platform will be used to review citations and full-text articles. Titles, abstracts and full-text articles will be reviewed independently by two reviewers. Any disagreements that arise between the reviewers will be resolved through discussion, or with an additional reviewer. Data will be extracted and organised according to the dimensions outlined in the nursing care organisation conceptual framework (NCOF). Principles of the 'best fit' framework synthesis will guide the data analysis approach and the NCOF will act as the framework for data coding and analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This scoping review will undertake a secondary analysis of data already published and does not require ethical approval. Findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations targeting stakeholders involved in nursing practice and the delivery of well-child care. TRIAL REGISTRATION DETAILS: Braithwaite, S., Tranmer, J., Lukewich, J., & Macdonald, D. (2021, March 31). Protocol for a Scoping Review of the Influence of Organisational Attributes on Registered Nurse Contributions to Well-child Care.

Child Care , Nurses , Child , Child Health , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
Texto & contexto enferm ; 30: e20210058, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1448622


ABSTRACT Objective: to map existing evidence in the literature on the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic on child violence. Method: scope review carried out according to the recommendations of the Joanna Briggs Institute and the international guide PRISMA-ScR in the Databases PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science and LILACS in October 2020. Inclusion criteria were: studies available in full text, online, in the Portuguese, English or Spanish language, published in 2020 and addressing violence against children in the context of the pandemic. The data were submitted to descriptive analysis. Results: 216 articles were found, of which 26 were kept for review. The results were presented in the form of a table and, for their discussion, were summarized in the following axes: Closing schools, increasing risks and reducing reports of violence; Economic changes, parental stress and increased violence against children; Health professionals, protection services and negligence violence against children. Conclusion: he Covid-19 pandemic has had numerous impacts on violence against children. The summary of the findings of this review may contribute to the dissemination of the theme and stimulate actions that favor the identification, notification and monitoring of cases of violence against children as an important part of the responses against the Covid-19 pandemic.

RESUMEN Objetivo: para mapear la evidencia existente en la literatura sobre los impactos de la pandemia Covid-19 en la violencia infantil. Método: revisión del alcance realizada de acuerdo con las recomendaciones del Instituto Joanna Briggs y la guía internacional PRISMA-ScR en las bases de datos PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science y LILACS en octubre de 2020. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: estudios disponibles en texto completo, online, en portugués, Inglés o español, publicado en 2020 y que abordó la violencia infantil en el contexto de la pandemia. Los datos se sometieron a análisis descriptivo. Resultados: se encontraron 216 artículos, de los cuales 26 se conservaron para revisión. Los resultados se presentaron en forma de tabla y, para su discusión, se resumieron en los siguientes ejes: cierre de escuelas, aumento de riesgos y disminución de notificaciones de violencia; Cambios económicos, estrés de los padres y aumento de la violencia infantil; Profesionales de la salud, servicios de protección y negligencia por violencia infantil. Conclusión: la pandemia de Covid-19 tuvo numerosos impactos con respecto a la violencia infantil. La síntesis de los hallazgos de esta revisión puede contribuir a la difusión del tema y fomentar acciones que favorezcan la identificación, notificación y seguimiento de los casos de violencia infantil como parte importante de las respuestas frente a la pandemia Covid-19.

RESUMO Objetivo: mapear evidências existentes na literatura sobre os impactos da pandemia de Covid-19 na violência infantil. Método: revisão de escopo realizada conforme as recomendações do Joanna Briggs Institute e do guia internacional PRISMA-ScR nas bases de dados PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science e LILACS no mês de outubro de 2020. Os critérios de inclusão foram: estudos disponíveis em texto completo, online, nos idiomas português, inglês ou espanhol, publicados em 2020 e que abordassem a violência infantil no contexto da pandemia. Os dados foram submetidos à análise descritiva. Resultados: foram encontrados 216 artigos, dos quais 26 foram mantidos para a revisão. Os resultados foram apresentados em forma de quadro e, para a sua discussão, foram sintetizadas nos seguintes eixos: fechamento de escolas, aumento de riscos e diminuição das notificações de violência; Mudanças econômicas, estresse parental e aumento da violência infantil; Profissionais de saúde, serviços de proteção e negligência para com a violência infantil. Conclusão: a pandemia de Covid-19 trouxe inúmeros impactos no que concerne à violência infantil. A síntese dos achados desta revisão poderá contribuir para a divulgação do tema e estimular as ações que favoreçam a identificação, a notificação e o acompanhamento dos casos de violência infantil como parte importante das respostas contra a pandemia de Covid-19.

Humans , Child , Primary Health Care , Child Abuse , Child Health , Domestic Violence , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257516, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438349


BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization's "Coordinated Global Research Roadmap: 2019 Novel Coronavirus" outlined the need for research that focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women and children. More than one year after the first reported case significant knowledge gaps remain, highlighting the need for a coordinated approach. To address this need, the Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Working Group (MNCH WG) of the COVID-19 Clinical Research Coalition conducted an international survey to identify global research priorities for COVID-19 in maternal, reproductive and child health. METHOD: This project was undertaken using a modified Delphi method. An electronic questionnaire was disseminated to clinicians and researchers in three different languages (English, French and Spanish) via MNCH WG affiliated networks. Respondents were asked to select the five most urgent research priorities among a list of 17 identified by the MNCH WG. Analysis of questionnaire data was undertaken to identify key similarities and differences among respondents according to questionnaire language, location and specialty. Following elimination of the seven lowest ranking priorities, the questionnaire was recirculated to the original pool of respondents. Thematic analysis of final questionnaire data was undertaken by the MNCH WG from which four priority research themes emerged. RESULTS: Questionnaire 1 was completed by 225 respondents from 29 countries. Questionnaire 2 was returned by 49 respondents. The four priority research themes which emerged from the analysis were 1) access to healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic, 2) the direct and 3) indirect effects of COVID-19 on pregnant and breastfeeding women and children and 4) the transmission of COVID-19 and protection from infection. CONCLUSION: The results of these questionnaires indicated a high level of concordance among continents and specialties regarding priority research themes. This prioritized list of research uncertainties, developed to specifically highlight the most urgent clinical needs as perceived by healthcare professionals and researchers, could help funding organizations and researchers to answer the most pressing questions for clinicians and public health professionals during the pandemic. It is hoped that these identified priority research themes can help focus the discussion regarding the allocation of limited resources to enhance COVID-19 research in MNCH globally.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Health , Maternal Health , Pandemics , Reproductive Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604219, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430753


Objectives: Children's mental health and wellbeing declined during the first COVID-19 lockdown (Spring 2020), particularly among those from disadvantaged settings. We compared mental health and wellbeing of school-aged children observed pre-pandemic in 2018 and after the first lockdown was lifted and schools reopened in Fall 2020. Methods: In 2018, we surveyed 476 grade 4-6 students (9-12 years old) from 11 schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities in Northern Canada that participate in a school-based health promotion program targeting healthy lifestyle behaviours and mental wellbeing. In November-December 2020, we surveyed 467 grade 4-6 students in the same schools. The 12 questions in the mental health and wellbeing domain were grouped based on correlation and examined using multivariable logistic regression. Results: There were no notable changes pre-pandemic vs. post-lockdown in responses to each of the 12 questions or any of the sub-groupings. Conclusion: Supporting schools to implement health promotion programs may help mitigate the impact of the pandemic on children's mental health and wellbeing. The findings align with recent calls for schools to remain open as long as possible during the pandemic response.

COVID-19 , Child Health , Communicable Disease Control , Mental Health , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Poverty Areas , Schools/organization & administration , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires