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Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(6): 1157-1169, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504878


Pediatric gastroenterologists took on a variety of challenges during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, including learning about a new disease and how to recognize and manage it, prevent its spread among their patients and health professions colleagues, and make decisions about managing patients with chronic gastrointestinal and liver problems in light of the threat. They adapted their practice to accommodate drastically decreased numbers of in-person visits, adopting telehealth technologies, and instituting new protocols to perform endoscopies safely. The workforce pipeline was also affected by the impact of the pandemic on trainee education, clinical experience, research, and job searches.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Welfare/statistics & numerical data , Gastroenterology/organization & administration , Health Equity/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health , Child , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , United States
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(5): 1081-1091, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415700


The COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly across the world in 2020, affecting both adults and, to a lesser extent, children. In this article, the authors describe the neurologic manifestations of COVID-19 in children, including the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, laboratory and imaging findings, and treatment options. The management of patients with concomitant neuroimmunologic disorders and drug interactions between medications used to treat COVID-19 and other neurologic disorders (especially immune-modifying drugs) is also discussed.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Welfare/statistics & numerical data , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Child , Comorbidity , Humans
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(4): S107-S122, 2021 08.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325947


The Subcommittee on the Rights of the Child and the Social Pediatrics Committee of the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría carried out a fieldwork that allowed us to give a voice to our children and adolescents (NNA), during quarantine and social isolation mandatory imposed in our country by the global pandemic COVID-19. The objectives were to analyze the impact on their feelings, emotions and desires; evaluate and compare personal, family and social repercussions pre, intra and post quarantine; and identify support and containment needs. The results of the research allow us to affirm that children have been the most vulnerable and the least listened to. The quarantine has had an enormous individual, social and family impact on children and adolescents and calls for a holistic, committed and joint approach from civil society, families, health professionals, teachers and political authorities.

La Subcomisión de Derechos del Niño y el Comité de Pediatría Social, de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría, realizaron un trabajo de campo que permitiera dar voz a nuestros niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNA) durante la cuarentena y el aislamiento social obligatorio impuestos en nuestro país por la pandemia mundial por la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19). Los objetivos fueron relevar el impacto sobre sus sentimientos, emociones y deseos; evaluar y comparar las repercusiones personales, familiares y sociales antes, durante y después de la cuarentena; e identificar las necesidades de apoyo y contención. Los resultados de la investigación permiten afirmar que los niños han sido los más afectados y los menos escuchados. La cuarentena ha tenido un enorme impacto individual, social y familiar en los NNA, y reclama un abordaje holístico, comprometido y mancomunado de la sociedad civil, las familias, los profesionales de la salud, los docentes y las autoridades políticas.

COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child Welfare/psychology , Emotions , Perception , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Adolescent Health , Argentina , Child , Child Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Human Rights , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Physical Distancing , Qualitative Research
Am J Nurs ; 121(6): 14, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322668
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285389


Objective: Countermeasures introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic produced an environment that placed some children at increased risk of maltreatment at the same time as there were decreased opportunities for identifying and reporting abuse. Unfortunately, coordinated government responses to address child protection since the start of the pandemic have been limited in Canada. As an exploratory study to examine the potential academic evidence base and location of expertise that could have been used to inform COVID-19 pandemic response, we undertook a review of child maltreatment research across three prominent Canadian professional journals in social work, medicine and public health. Methods: We conducted a pre-pandemic, thirteen-year (2006-2019) archival analysis of all articles published in the Canadian Social Work Review (CSWR), the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ) and the Canadian Journal of Public Health (CJPH) and identified the research articles that related directly to child maltreatment, child protection or the child welfare system in Canada. Results: Of 11,824 articles published across the three journals, 20 research papers relating to child maltreatment, child protection or the child welfare system were identified (CJPH = 7; CMAJ = 3; CSWR = 10). There was no obvious pattern in article topics by discipline. Discussion: Taking these three prominent professional journals as a portal into research in these disciplines, we highlight the potential low volume of academic child maltreatment research despite the importance of the topic and irrespective of discipline. We believe that urgent transdisciplinary collaboration and overall awareness raising for child protection is called for at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as beyond in Canada.

COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child Welfare , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(9): 928-938, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274655


Importance: Although children mainly experience mild COVID-19 disease, hospitalization rates are increasing, with limited understanding of underlying factors. There is an established association between race and severe COVID-19 outcomes in adults in England; however, whether a similar association exists in children is unclear. Objective: To investigate the association between race and childhood COVID-19 testing and hospital outcomes. Design, Setting, Participants: In this cohort study, children (0-18 years of age) from participating family practices in England were identified in the QResearch database between January 24 and November 30, 2020. The QResearch database has individually linked patients with national SARS-CoV-2 testing, hospital admission, and mortality data. Exposures: The main characteristic of interest is self-reported race. Other exposures were age, sex, deprivation level, geographic region, household size, and comorbidities (asthma; diabetes; and cardiac, neurologic, and hematologic conditions). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was hospital admission with confirmed COVID-19. Secondary outcomes were SARS-CoV-2-positive test result and any hospital attendance with confirmed COVID-19 and intensive care admission. Results: Of 2 576 353 children (mean [SD] age, 9.23 [5.24] years; 48.8% female), 410 726 (15.9%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and 26 322 (6.4%) tested positive. A total of 1853 children (0.07%) with confirmed COVID-19 attended hospital, 343 (0.01%) were admitted to the hospital, and 73 (0.002%) required intensive care. Testing varied across race. White children had the highest proportion of SARS-CoV-2 tests (223 701/1 311 041 [17.1%]), whereas Asian children (33 213/243 545 [13.6%]), Black children (7727/93 620 [8.3%]), and children of mixed or other races (18 971/147 529 [12.9%]) had lower proportions. Compared with White children, Asian children were more likely to have COVID-19 hospital admissions (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.62; 95% CI, 1.12-2.36), whereas Black children (adjusted OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.90-2.31) and children of mixed or other races (adjusted OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.93-2.10) had comparable hospital admissions. Asian children were more likely to be admitted to intensive care (adjusted OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.07-4.14), and Black children (adjusted OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.08-4.94) and children of mixed or other races (adjusted OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.25-3.65) had longer hospital admissions (≥36 hours). Conclusions and Relevance: In this large population-based study exploring the association between race and childhood COVID-19 testing and hospital outcomes, several race-specific disparities were observed in severe COVID-19 outcomes. However, ascertainment bias and residual confounding in this cohort study should be considered before drawing any further conclusions. Overall, findings of this study have important public health implications internationally.

COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child Welfare/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , England , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Socioeconomic Factors
Child Abuse Negl ; 118: 105136, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252567


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has had a major impact on child abuse and neglect (CAN) in the U.S. leading to a change in the number of reported screened-in CAN investigations, missed prevention cases, and missed CAN cases. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the deficit number of CAN investigations and resultant estimated number of missed prevention and CAN cases due to the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S. from March 2020 to December 2020. METHODS: Secondary data analyses of administrative child welfare data from January 2013 to December 2020 from New York City, Florida, New Jersey and Wisconsin were conducted. Spline regression modeling controlling for autocorrelation was utilized to explore any significant changes once the pandemic began in March 2020 in the number of screened-in CAN investigations. The seven-year monthly average of screen-in CAN investigations for March through December from 2013 to 2019 was calculated and compared to the numbers of CAN investigations for March 2020 to December 2020. The resultant number of missed prevention cases and CAN cases was estimated for the four jurisdictions and used to approximate the number of missed prevention cases and CAN cases in the U.S., as well as the projected estimation of national lifetime economic costs. RESULTS: Prior to the pandemic, there were insignificant monthly increases of 0.7 CAN investigations in NYC and 6.2 CAN investigations in Florida, a significant monthly increase 4.2 CAN investigations in New Jersey and an insignificant monthly decrease in 0.6 CAN investigations in Wisconsin. Once the pandemic began, there were significant monthly decreases (p < .001) in each of the four jurisdictions, including 1425.6 fewer CAN investigations in NYC, 3548.0 fewer CAN investigations in Florida, 963.0 fewer CAN investigations in New Jersey and 529.1 fewer CAN investigations in Wisconsin. There were an estimated 60,791 fewer CAN investigations in these four jurisdictions from March 2020 to December 2020 of which there were approximately 18,540 missed prevention and CAN cases suggesting up to $4.2 billion in lifetime economic costs. It was estimated that were 623,137 children not investigated for CAN in the U.S. during the same 10-month period. This suggests that there were an estimated 85,993 children were missed for prevention services and about 104,040 children were missed for CAN with a potential lifetime economic impact of up to $48.1 billion in the U.S. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a precipitous drop in CAN investigations where almost 200,000 children are estimated to have been missed for prevention services and CAN in a 10-month period. There are opportunities for the child welfare jurisdictions to work with partner education, public health, social service and other providers to strategically approach this very grave issue in order to mitigate its impact on this very vulnerable population.

COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child Abuse/psychology , Child Abuse/trends , Child Welfare/psychology , Child Welfare/trends , Child , Family/psychology , Florida/epidemiology , Humans , Male , New Jersey/epidemiology , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(5): 1103-1118, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240538


Limiting exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has been the major principle guiding public health measures. Masking, social distancing, as well as frequent hand hygiene have been the chief nonpharmaceutical interventions as preventive strategies for all age groups. Advancement in vaccine development and vaccination of large populations offer a glimmer of hope for containing and ending this pandemic. However, until immunization is widespread in the community, masking, social distancing, and frequent handwashing, as well as early detection and isolation of infected persons, should be continued to curb the spread of illness.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Child Welfare/statistics & numerical data , Health Education/methods , Quarantine/standards , Adolescent , Child , Hand Disinfection/standards , Humans , Public Health , Social Isolation
J Sch Health ; 91(7): 555-561, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231145


BACKGROUND: Top public health experts and organizations strongly recommend universal masking for children older than 2 years old during the COVID-19 pandemic, but speculate it may be difficult for young children. This study sought to assess the usage of cloth face masks in grades pre-K-2 and identify associated characteristics and adverse events. It is the first data to assess mask wearing by young children in school. METHODS: This online, prospective, observational, survey in multiple schools within a single school district in a major metropolitan area measured adherence to face covering mandates by students in grades pre-K-2 as measured by percentage of day with appropriate face mask wearing per report via daily teacher surveys for the first 4 weeks of school. RESULTS: The primary outcome was percent of the day that the entire class was wearing their masks appropriately. Of the estimated almost 1000 students and 1048 classroom days reported, the mean percentage of the school day with appropriate mask usage was 76.9%. CONCLUSIONS: For a majority of the day while conducting in-person instruction, children in grades pre-K-2 are able to adhere to mask wearing as a key mitigation strategy for limiting SARS-CoV2 infection spread and possible future use.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Child Welfare/statistics & numerical data , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Masks/statistics & numerical data , School Health Services/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Physical Distancing , Prospective Studies , Students/statistics & numerical data , United States
J Sch Health ; 91(7): 584-591, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223522


BACKGROUND: In 2014, the Hawaii Department of Education (DOE), the only statewide school system in the United States, predominately enrolled children (keiki) from underserved communities and lacked school nurses or a school health program. Chronic absenteeism due to health concerns was identified as a barrier to academic success. METHODS: The DOE and a public university created Hawaii Keiki: Healthy and Ready to Learn (HK), a program to provide school-based services for 170 Title 1 schools in urban and rural settings and build momentum for statewide collective action. HK has maintained support from public and private entities to address student health. RESULTS: This paper describes 5 years of program development, implementation, and continuing challenges. Most recently in 2020-2021, HK pivoted in the face of school campus closings due to COVID-19 with strategic plans, including telehealth, to move forward in this changed school environment. CONCLUSIONS: The HK program has increased awareness of students' needs and is addressing the imperative to build health services within public schools. The multipronged approach of building awareness of need, providing direct services, educating future care providers, and supporting sound policy development, has an impact that goes beyond any one individual area.

Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Child Welfare/statistics & numerical data , Community Networks/organization & administration , Health Promotion/organization & administration , School Health Services/organization & administration , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cooperative Behavior , Hawaii , Humans , Program Evaluation
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e2111103, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206732


Importance: Understanding youth well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic can help appropriately allocate resources and inform policies to support youth. Objective: To examine caregiver-reported changes in the psychological well-being of their children 3 to 4 months after the start of COVID-19 stay-at-home orders, and to examine the association of caregiver-reported COVID-19 exposure and family stressors with caregiver perceptions of child psychological well-being. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study used an anonymous survey distributed via email from June 24 to July 15, 2020, to 350 000 families of students attending public schools in Chicago, Illinois. The a priori hypotheses were that caregivers would report worsening in child psychological well-being during the closure period compared with preclosure and that exposure to COVID-19-related stressors would be associated with a higher probability of worsening child psychological well-being. Data were analyzed from September 10, 2020, to March 15, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were 7 mental health concerns and 5 positive adjustment characteristics reported by caregivers using a retrospective pre-post design. COVID-19 exposure and family stressors were also reported by caregivers. Results: Among 350 000 families invited to participate, 32 217 caregivers (10 827 [39.3%] White, 8320 [30.2%] Latinx, 6168 [22.4%] Black; 2223 [8.1%] with multiple or other races/ethnicities) completed the survey on behalf of 49 397 children in prekindergarten through 12th grade. Child-specific outcomes were reported for 40 723 to 40 852 children depending on the specific question. The frequency of caregiver endorsement of youth mental health concerns ranged from 0.1 percentage point (suicidal ideation or self-harm, reported by 191 caregivers [0.5%] preclosure vs 246 caregivers [0.6%] during closure; P < .001) to 28.3 percentage points (loneliness, reported by 1452 caregivers [3.6%] preclosure vs 13 019 caregivers [31.9%] during closure; P < .001) higher after the end of in-person instruction compared with preclosure. Frequency of caregiver endorsement of youth positive adjustment characteristics ranged from -13.4 percentage points (plans for the future, reported by 18 114 caregivers [44.3%] preclosure vs 12 601 caregivers [30.9%] during closure; P < .001) to -30.9 percentage points (positive peer relationships, reported by 24 666 caregivers [60.4%] preclosure vs 19 130 caregivers [46.8%] during closure; P < .001) lower after the end of in-person instruction. Significant differences in COVID-19 exposure were observed across racial/ethnic (F3,27 534 = 614.8; P < .001) and household income strata (F5,27 506 = 842.0; P < .001). After accounting for covariates, all mental health concerns increased in probability (eg, angry: odds ratio, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.48-1.62]; P < .001) and all the positive adjustment characteristics decreased in probability (eg, hopeful or positive: odds ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.84-0.92]; P < .001) as COVID-19 exposure and family stressors increased. Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study of caregivers during the COVID-19 pandemic, COVID-19 and resulting exposure to stress were associated with worse youth psychological well-being, demonstrating the need for a comprehensive public health approach that prioritizes children's well-being and draws broad public attention to the mental health needs of youth.

COVID-19 , Caregivers/psychology , Child Health , Child Welfare , Parents/psychology , Stress, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Education, Distance , Family Health , Female , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health/standards , Parent-Child Relations , Physical Distancing , Qualitative Research , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
Salud Colect ; 17: e3303, 2021 04 16.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204448


As the COVID-19 pandemic has made visible, childhood is the virus's proverbial south: a world where care is not a value chosen from a place of desire, and where children's voices are silenced at the hands of an ancestral epistemic injustice. Thus, the transformation that human societies are undergoing due to COVID-19 has significantly impacted the rights of children, both at the micro and the macro levels. In Spain - a country that has been particularly hard-hit by the pandemic - we find that both infancy (especially through obstetric violence) and childhood at all its stages fall victim to an adultcentric paradigm based on control and epistemic injustice. This essay analyzes and discusses some of the negative consequences observed in this country related to the care for and the confinement of minors and their families - which has occurred as a result of the pandemic - and considers that the crisis triggered by COVID-19 may be an opportunity to shed light on situations of ancestral injustice towards children.

La infancia es el sur del virus, como ha visibilizado la pandemia de COVID-19: un mundo donde el cuidado no es un valor escogido desde el deseo, y donde la voz infantil es silenciada en virtud de una injusticia epistémica ancestral. Así, la transformación que las sociedades humanas están experimentando debido a la COVID-19 ha impactado significativamente en los derechos de la infancia, a niveles micro y macro. En España, como país especialmente golpeado por la pandemia, encontramos que tanto la primera infancia (a través especialmente de la violencia obstétrica) como ella misma en todas sus fases, están siendo víctimas de un paradigma adultocéntrico de control e injusticia epistémica basales. En este ensayo se analiza y discute algunas de las consecuencias negativas observadas en este país con relación al cuidado y el confinamiento de menores y sus familias, acaecidas a raíz de la pandemia, considerando que la crisis desencadenada por la COVID-19 puede ser una oportunidad para visibilizar situaciones de injusticia ancestral para con la niñez.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Child Health , Child Welfare , Human Rights , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Rearing , Child, Preschool , Health Policy , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Power, Psychological , Spain/epidemiology , Violence
Am J Nurs ; 121(5): 26-37, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191116


ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted the health of children worldwide. Although overall mortality from COVID-19 in children remains low, an associated multisystem inflammatory disorder has emerged. The disorder has been recognized and named multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This comprehensive review describes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, other potential diagnoses, and treatments relevant to MIS-C. The review also includes patient and family education and anticipatory guidance, and discusses nursing implications for nurses working in various roles and settings, including direct care, research, and public health.

COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/nursing , Child , Child Welfare/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/nursing