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3.
Libyan J Med ; 16(1): 1910195, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526148

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of corona virus disease (COVID-19) caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 began in Wuhan, China, resulting in respiratory disorders. In January of 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a pandemic owing to its global spread. Because no studies have investigated COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, this study investigated similarities and differences between demographic data during the COVID-19 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective trend analysis was performed to assess demographic data of all laboratory-confirmed MERS and COVID-19 cases. Patients' charts were reviewed for data on demographics, mortality, citizenship, sex ratio, and age groups with descriptive and comparative statistics; the data were analyzed using a non-parametric binomial test and chi-square test. Of all COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia,78%were male patients and 22% were female patients. This proportion of male COVID-19 patients was similar to that of male MERS patients, which also affected male patients more frequently than female patients. The number of COVID-19-positive Saudi cases was lower than that of non-Saudi cases, which were in contrast to that of MERS; COVID-19 appeared to be remarkably similar to MERS with respect to recovered cases. However, the numbers of critical and dead COVID-19 patients have been much lower than those of MERS patients. The largest proportion of COVID-19 and MERS cases (44.05% and 40.8%, respectively) were recorded in the Western region. MERS and COVID-19 exhibited similar threats to the lives of adults and the elderly, despite lower mortality rates during the COVID-19 epidemic. Targeted prevention of and interventions against MERS should be allocated populations according to the areas where they inhabit. However, much more information regarding the dynamics and epidemiology of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia is needed.Abbrevation : MERS: Middle East Respiratory syndrome; COVID-19: Corona Virus Disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Young Adult
5.
Prev Med ; 153: 106852, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525993

ABSTRACT

Limited research has been conducted on the mental health concerns of frontline and essential workers and their children during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States (U.S.). This study examined the association between working on the frontlines in the U.S. during the COVID-19 pandemic (March to July 2020) and personal crisis text concerns (e.g., self-harm, suicidal thoughts, anxiety/stress, and substance abuse) for frontline essential workers and the children of frontline workers. We used a novel data set from a crisis texting service, Crisis Text Line (CTL), that is widely used throughout the U.S. Generalized Estimating Equations examined the individual association between eight specific crisis types (Depression, Stress/Anxiety, Self-Harm, Suicidal Thoughts, Substance Abuse, Isolation, Relationship Issues, and Abuse) and being in frontline work or being a child of a frontline worker during the early phase of the pandemic. Using CTL concerns as a proxy for the prevalence of mental health issues, we found that children of workers, specifically the youngest demographic (13 years and under), females, and non-conforming youth had a higher risk of specific crisis events during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, Hispanic children of workers reported higher rates of stress/anxiety, whereas African American children of workers had higher rates of abuse and depression. Frontline workers had a higher risk of suicidal thoughts, and the risk of crisis events was generally highest for non-binary, transgender, and male users. Increases in CTL usage among frontline workers were noted across 7-28 days after spikes in local COVID-19 cases. The research to date has focused on the mental health of frontline essential workers, but our study highlights troubling trends in psychological stress among children of these workers. Supportive interventions and mental health resources are needed not only for frontline essential workers, but for their children too.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
6.
Clin Immunol ; 230: 108821, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information regarding inborn error of immunity (IEI) as a risk factor for severe COVID-19 is scarce. We aimed to determine if paediatric patients with moderate/severe IEI got COVID-19 at the same level as the general population, and to describe COVID-19 expression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included patients with moderate/severe IEI aged 0-21 years old: cross-sectional study (June2020) to determine the prevalence of COVID-19; prospective study (January2020-January2021) including IEI patients with COVID-19. Assays used: nasopharyngeal swab SARS-CoV-2 PCR and SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins. RESULTS: Seven from sixty-five patients tested positive (prevalence: 10.7% (7%-13%)) after the first SARS-COV-2 wave and 13/15 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 had an asymptomatic/mild course. CONCLUSIONS: In our area, prevalence of COVID-19 in moderate/severe IEI paediatric patients after the first wave was slightly higher than in the general population. The majority of patients presented a benign course, suggesting a possible protective factor related with age despite IEI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Prevalence , Young Adult
7.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 23(12): 80, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525618

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews the empirical literature on exposures to disaster or terrorism and their impacts on the health and well-being of children with disabilities and their families since the last published update in 2017. We also review the literature on studies examining the mental health and functioning of children with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Few studies have examined the effects of disaster or terrorism on children with disabilities. Research shows that children with disabilities and their families have higher levels of disaster exposure, lower levels of disaster preparedness, and less recovery support due to longstanding discriminatory practices. Similarly, many reports of the COVID-19 pandemic have documented its negative and disproportionate impacts on children with disabilities and their families. In the setting of climate change, environmental disasters are expected to increase in frequency and severity. Future studies identifying mitigating factors to disasters, including COVID-19; increasing preparedness on an individual, community, and global level; and evaluating post-disaster trauma-informed treatment practices are imperative to support the health and well-being of children with disabilities and their families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Disaster Planning , Disasters , Terrorism , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Can J Public Health ; 112(5): 831-842, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to determine the association between public health preventive measures and children's outdoor time, sleep duration, and screen time during COVID-19. METHODS: A cohort study using repeated measures of exposures and outcomes was conducted in healthy children (0 to 10 years) through The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) COVID-19 Study of Children and Families in Toronto, Canada, between April 14 and July 15, 2020. Parents were asked to complete questionnaires about adherence to public health measures and children's health behaviours. The primary exposure was the average number of days that children practiced public health preventive measures per week. The three outcomes were children's outdoor time, total screen time, and sleep duration during COVID-19. Linear mixed-effects models were fitted using repeated measures of primary exposure and outcomes. RESULTS: This study included 554 observations from 265 children. The mean age of participants was 5.5 years, 47.5% were female and 71.6% had mothers of European ethnicity. Public health preventive measures were associated with shorter outdoor time (-17.2; 95% CI -22.07, -12.40; p < 0.001) and longer total screen time (11.3; 95% CI 3.88, 18.79; p = 0.003) during COVID-19. The association with outdoor time was stronger in younger children (<5 years), and the associations with total screen time were stronger in females and in older children (≥5 years). CONCLUSION: Public health preventive measures during COVID-19 were associated with a negative impact on the health behaviours of Canadian children living in a large metropolitan area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Public Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(46): 1608-1612, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524680

ABSTRACT

Population-based rates of infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) and related health care utilization help determine estimates of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness and averted illnesses, especially since the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant began circulating in June 2021. Among members aged ≥12 years of a large integrated health care delivery system in Oregon and Washington, incidence of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations were calculated by COVID-19 vaccination status, vaccine product, age, race, and ethnicity. Infection after full vaccination was defined as a positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular test result ≥14 days after completion of an authorized COVID-19 vaccination series.* During the July-September 2021 surveillance period, SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred among 4,146 of 137,616 unvaccinated persons (30.1 per 1,000 persons) and 3,009 of 344,848 fully vaccinated persons (8.7 per 1,000). Incidence was higher among unvaccinated persons than among vaccinated persons across all demographic strata. Unvaccinated persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more than twice as likely to receive ED care (18.5%) or to be hospitalized (9.0%) than were vaccinated persons with COVID-19 (8.1% and 3.9%, respectively). The crude mortality rate was also higher among unvaccinated patients (0.43 per 1,000) than in fully vaccinated patients (0.06 per 1,000). These data support CDC recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination, including additional and booster doses, to protect individual persons and communities against COVID-19, including illness and hospitalization caused by the Delta variant (1).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Oregon/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Washington/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(46): 1603-1607, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524679

ABSTRACT

During October 3, 2020-January 9, 2021, North Carolina experienced a 400% increase in daily reported COVID-19 cases (1). To handle the increased number of cases and rapidly notify persons receiving a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result (patients), North Carolina state and local health departments moved from telephone call notification only to telephone call plus automated text and email notification (digital notification) beginning on December 24, 2020. Overall, among 200,258 patients, 142,975 (71%) were notified by telephone call or digital notification within the actionable period (10 days from their diagnosis date)* during January 2021, including at least 112,543 (56%) notified within 24 hours of report to North Carolina state and local health departments, a significantly higher proportion than the 25,905 of 175,979 (15%) notified within 24 hours during the preceding month (p<0.001). Differences in text notification by age, race, and ethnicity were observed. Automated digital notification is a feasible, rapid and efficient method to support timely outreach to patients, provide guidance on how to isolate, access resources, inform close contacts, and increase the efficiency of case investigation staff members.


Subject(s)
Automation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electronic Mail , Text Messaging , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Notification/methods , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , North Carolina/epidemiology , Time Factors , Young Adult
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 228, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524595

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the COVID-19 pandemic causes biological diagnostic problems that remain relevant in low-income countries in general and in Cameroon in particular. Rapids tests that reliably detect SARS-CoV-2 virus antigen present themselves as an important alternative in several contexts. The objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of two rapid diagnostic tests BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS and BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS, compared to each other and to the AmpliQuick® SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. Methods: a cross-sectional and comparative study was carried out from April 27 to May 29, 2021 in the city of Douala in Cameroon. The samples consisted of nasopharyngeal swabs received at the molecular biology laboratory of the Douala Gyneco-obstetric and pediatric hospital, whatever their origin. The socio-demographic parameters (age, profession, football players, travelers, others), marital status, nationality), comorbidity and known status of COVID-19, were recorded on the collection sites. The main collection sites were the Deïdo Health District and the Douala Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital. We performed the diagnosis of COVID-19 using the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS and RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS compared to each other and to the AmpliQuick® SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test on each sample. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 17 software. To determine the sensitivity of the two RDTs, the Bayesian latent class model was performed on the median with a 95% confidence interval with p<0.05 as the significant level. An ethical clearance was sought and obtained from the University of Douala Institutional Ethics Committee. Results: a total of 1813 participants were included in our study, with a predominance of men (1226, 68.68 %) and the most represented age group was that of 31 to 40 years (568, 31.33 %). Most of the participants were married (888, 53.46%) and only a few had a known COVID-19 status (75, 5.47%). The two rapid tests on our study population show much closed COVID-19 prevalence values, respectively 2.03 for BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS and 2.17 for BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS. RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS showed higher sensitivity 94.1% vs. 87.5% for RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS with almost identical specificity 98.9% for RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS vs. 98.7% for RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS compared to AmpliQuick® SARS-CoV-2. BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS RDT showed a negative predictive value of 99.9% compared to BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS RDT. There is a 99.9% agreement between the RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS and the RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS. Conclusion: the RDT BIOSYNEX®COVID-19 Ag + BSS and RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS can be used for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 and can have an important contribution in the context of mass screenings and screening in remote areas.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cameroon , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1240, 2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and the associated economic recession has increased parental psychosocial stress and mental health challenges. This has adversely impacted child development and wellbeing, particularly for children from priority populations (culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) and rural/regional communities) who are at an already increased risk of health inequality. The increased mental health and psychosocial needs were compounded by the closure of in-person preventive and health promotion programs resulting in health organisations embracing technology and online services. Watch Me Grow- Electronic (WMG-E) - developmental surveillance platform- exemplifies one such service. WMG-E was developed to monitor child development and guide parents towards more detailed assessments when risk is identified. This Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) aims to expand WMG-E as a digital navigation tool by also incorporating parents' mental health and psychosocial needs. Children and families needing additional assessments and supports will be electronically directed to relevant resources in the 'care-as-usual' group. In contrast, the intervention group will receive continuity of care, with additional in-person assessment and 'warm hand over' by a 'service navigator' to ensure their needs are met. METHODS: Using an RCT we will determine: (1) parental engagement with developmental surveillance; (2) access to services for those with mental health and social care needs; and (3) uptake of service recommendations. Three hundred parents/carers of children aged 6 months to 3 years (recruited from a culturally diverse, or rural/regional site) will be randomly allocated to the 'care-as-usual' or 'intervention' group. A mixed methods implementation evaluation will be completed, with semi-structured interviews to ascertain the acceptability, feasibility and impact of the WMG-E platform and service navigator. CONCLUSIONS: Using WMG-E is expected to: normalise and de-stigmatise mental health and psychosocial screening; increase parental engagement and service use; and result in the early identification and management of child developmental needs, parental mental health, and family psychosocial needs. If effective, digital solutions such as WMG-E to engage and empower parents alongside a service navigator for vulnerable families needing additional support, will have significant practice and policy implications in the pandemic/post pandemic period. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial (Protocol No. 1.0, Version 3.1) was registered with ANZCTR (registration number: ACTRN12621000766819 ) on July 21st, 2021 and reporting of the trial results will be according to recommendations in the CONSORT Statement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Development , Child , Electronics , Humans , Mental Health , Parents , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 88(4): 384-388, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we scaled up telemedicine and rideshare services for clinic and laboratory visits for pediatric and adolescent patients with HIV. SETTING: HIV subspecialty program for patients aged 0-24 years at Children's National Hospital, Washington, DC. METHODS: Using the χ2 and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, we compared demographics, visit and laboratory data, and rideshare usage among patients who scheduled telemedicine at least once (telemedicine) versus those who never scheduled telemedicine (no-telemedicine) during the pandemic (April-September 2020). We compared the number and proportion of scheduled and completed clinic visits before the pandemic (April-September 2019) with those during the pandemic. RESULTS: We analyzed 178 pediatric and adolescent patients with HIV (median age 17.9 years, 89.3% Black, 48.9% male patients, 78.7% perinatally infected), of whom 70.2% and 28.6% used telemedicine and rideshare, respectively. Telemedicine patients scheduled more visits (236 vs 179, P < 0.0001) and completed a similar proportion of visits (81.8% vs 86.0%, P = 0.3805) compared with no-telemedicine patients. Laboratory testing rates (81.3% versus 98.5%, P = 0.0005) were lower in telemedicine patients compared with no-telemedicine patients. Rideshare usage (12.4% versus 26.5%, P = 0.0068) was lower in telemedicine versus no-telemedicine patients. During the pandemic, most of the patients (81.0%) had HIV RNA <200 copies/mL. The total number of completed visits and the proportion of visits completed were similar before and during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Most of the pediatric and adolescent patients with HIV used telemedicine and maintained HIV RNA <200 copies/mL during the pandemic. Despite rideshare usage, laboratory testing rates were lower with telemedicine compared with in-person visits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Pandemics , Telemedicine , Transportation of Patients , Adolescent , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/virology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Satisfaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Rev Mal Respir ; 38(9): 936-941, 2021 Nov.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521503

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: "Anti-pollution" masks are a form of personal protective equipment intended to ensure filtration of ambient particulate air pollution. STATE OF THE ART: Although according to tests performed in the lab, their filtration power is high, the filtering efficiency of these masks in real conditions of use, that is to say, during physical effort, is generally lower than that established in the laboratory and this information is rarely available on commercial products on sale. Clinical studies, which are rarely double-blind, demonstrate a lower incidence of symptoms and a somewhat better cardiac performance when exercise is performed while wearing a mask. For short-term use, the tolerance of these masks is fair. PERSPECTIVES: There is room for technical improvements in mask design improved fitting to the face, lowering inspiratory resistance and dead space, as well as preventing the accumulation of humidity on the mask. Manufacturers should include information in their packaging on the filtering power and design masks usable by children. Clinical studies should be performed to assess the long-term safety and effectiveness of mask in susceptible populations, especially people with asthma. CONCLUSION: Anti-pollution filtering face piece respirators have a theoretical high filtering power towards particles, but their efficiency in real-life conditions is more limited. Because such devices may confer to users a false sense of protection, the French agency on environment and health do not support their use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Child , Filtration , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 36(9): 2627-2638, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is responsible for the 2019 novel coronavirus disease pandemic. Despite the vast research about the adult population, there has been little data collected on acute kidney injury (AKI) epidemiology, associated risk factors, treatments, and mortality in pediatric COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. AKI is a severe complication of COVID-19 among children and adolescents. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane Center Trials to find all published literature related to AKI in COVID-19 patients, including incidence and outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies reporting the outcomes of interest were included. Across all studies, the overall sample size of COVID positive children was 1,247 and the median age of this population was 9.1 years old. Among COVID positive pediatric patients, there was an AKI incidence of 30.51%, with only 0.56% of these patients receiving KRT. The mortality was 2.55% among all COVID positive pediatric patients. The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) among COVID positive patients was 74.29%. CONCLUSION: AKI has shown to be a negative prognostic factor in adult patients with COVID-19 and now also in the pediatric cohort with high incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, our findings show a strong comparison in epidemiology between adult and pediatric COVID-19 patients; however, they need to be confirmed with additional data and studies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
16.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 86(5): 28-34, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518846

ABSTRACT

The information about hearing status of patients who have had a COVID-19 is scattered. There are no studies among children population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hearing function in children after coronavirus infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 87 children aged from 5 months to 17 years who have had a new coronavirus infection were examined in three cities of Russia (St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk and Surgut). Audiologic examination depended on the age and included: otoscopy, TEOAE and DPOAE, ABR, impedansometry, pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry in quiet and noise. Fisher, LittlEARS and PEACH questionnaires were used as well. An evaluation of central auditory processing was performed in case of indications. RESULTS: In 80 children (92%) otoscopy didn't revealed any problems. All children had type A tympanogram. Acoustic reflex was registered in 49 children (56%), wasn't registered on 1-2 frequencies in 27 (31%) children, was registered on only 1 frequency or wasn't registered at all in 11 (13%) children. OAE was present in 83 (95%) children. Audiometric thresholds in all children were within a normal range. Speech intelligibility in quiet and noise in most cases was normal. 7 children with poor speech intelligibility or low Fisher questionnaire results got an extended examination. Binaural fusion speech test, dichotic test, RuMatrix test, gap detection test data showed no signs of central auditory processing disorders. CONCLUSION: There are no cases of hearing loss or central auditory processing disorders were found in children after new coronavirus infection. Due to variety of symptoms and long-term consequences of COVID-19 further hearing examination is required in this group of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Auditory Threshold , Child , Hearing , Humans , Noise , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 726491, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518568

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The roles of some indicators in the prognosis of patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) remain unclear and controversial. This study aimed to explore the epidemiologic characteristics of and prognostic factors for COVID-19 to provide updated recommendations for its prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods: For this retrospective study, demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data were extracted from the medical records of patients admitted to the Maternal and Child Hospital of Hubei Province (Optical Valley) with COVID-19 between February 19, 2020, and March 19, 2020. The primary outcome was the prognosis that was determined at discharge as mentioned in the medical records. Descriptive statistics, univariate analyses, and stepwise logistic regression analysis were used for data analysis. Results: Of the 1,765 patients included, 93.1% were cured and the mortality was 1.8%. Univariate analyses identified 63 factors significantly associated with COVID-19 prognosis. Logistic regression analysis revealed that a poorer prognosis was associated with undergoing resuscitation, complex disease manifestations, consultation with outside specialists, elevated basophil or lymphocyte counts, an albumin (ALB)/globulin (A/G) ratio > 2.4, and elevated levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or creatinine. Patients had a better prognosis if the following conditions were met: dry cough reported as an initial symptom, fatigue as a clinical manifestation, and a diagnosis based on laboratory testing. Conclusion: To prevent clinical deterioration, clinicians should provide special care to patients who underwent resuscitation, with a critical disease, or requiring consultation with outside specialists. Extra attention should be paid to patients with high basophil or lymphocyte counts, a high A/G ratio, and elevated AST or creatinine levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Cough , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 725980, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518567

ABSTRACT

Background: Information on the intention of parents of children with special diseases to vaccinate their children against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is scarce. Methods: In this survey, all participants (n = 914) were enrolled from a tertiary children's hospital between September 2020 and April 2021. A face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted to collect information on the special diseases of children and parental attitudes about the COVID-19 vaccine. We compared the demographic and disease factors between the group of parents who were willing to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 and the group who were unwilling to vaccinate. Results: Among 941 children, 58.1% (n = 547) were boys. The Mean age was 1.4 (SD 1.9) years. If the COVID-19 vaccine becomes available for the child, 470 (49.9%) of parents were willing to provide vaccination for their children. The less the education levels of the father or mother, the more likely they were to vaccinate their children (P = 0.003, P = 0.007). However, more intentions to vaccinate were provided in parents of children with COVID-19 prevention and control education (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our findings provided evidence that some parents are willing to vaccinate their children with special diseases against COVID-19. Professional knowledge about COVID-19 prevention and control may contribute to increased parental intention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , China , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mothers , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
19.
Orv Hetil ; 162(46): 1842-1847, 2021 11 14.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518389

ABSTRACT

Összefoglaló. Manapság, a COVID-19-járvány közepette, a megfelelo kézmosás segít megelozni vagy legalábbis lassítani a fertozo betegségek, például a SARS-CoV-2-fertozés terjedését. A kézmosás rutinjának megfelelo oktatás multilaterális tevékenységet igényel, amely a fiatalok ismeretén, egészségmagatartásán, attitudjein, tapasztalatain és motivációján alapul. A TANTUdSZ Ifjúsági Egészségnevelési Program kortársoktató pedagógiai és egészségtudományi egyetemi karok hallgatóival, valamint középiskolai kortárssegítokkel és mintegy 3000, magyarországi óvodás, általános és középiskolás diák bevonásával valósult meg, különbözo egészségfejlesztési területeken. A vizsgálatok egyik célja az oktatási program hatékonyságának értékelése érdekében a gyermekek kézhigiénés ismereteinek és készségeinek elemzése és összehasonlítása volt a beavatkozások elott és után. A jelen közleményben ismertetett longitudinális felmérés alsó tagozatos tanulók (n = 165) kézmosási készségének és attitudváltozásainak rövid és hosszú távú változását értékeli három idopontban. A mérések önkitöltos, anonim kérdoívvel és kéziszkenner-technológiával (Semmelweis Scanner) készültek, mely utóbbi mérési eszköz a különbözo kézterületek tisztaságát kvantitatív és digitális értékelésekkel detektálta. A beavatkozás eredményes volt mind rövid, mind hosszú távon a bemeneti (kezdeti) mérésekhez képest. Az eredmények azonban különbséget mutattak a gyakorlati készségek elsajátításának folyamatában. Jelentos elorelépés történt a kézmosás attitudjének változásában. Az életkor-specifikus egészségfejlesztési oktatási programokban, különösen a gyermekpopulációban, hangsúlyt kell fektetni az elméleti, a gyakorlati ismeretek, valamint az egészségmagatartás hosszú távú megorzésére is. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(46): 1842-1847. Summary. Presently, in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, proper hand washing helps prevent or at least slow the spread of infectious diseases such as SARS-CoV-2 infection. Proper education in hand washing routines requires multilateral action based on young people's knowledge, health behaviors, attitudes, experiences, and motivations. The TANTUdSZ Youth Health Education Program was implemented with students of contemporary teaching faculties of pedagogical and health sciences as well as with secondary school peer helpers and with the involvement of about 3000 pre-school, primary and secondary school students in Hungary in various fields of health development. One of the aims of the studies was to analyze and compare children's hand hygiene knowledge and skills before and after the pedagogical interventions in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational program. The longitudinal survey described in this paper assesses the short- and long-term changes of primary school students' (from class 1 to 4; n = 165) hand washing skills and the attitudinal changes in their health behaviors at three time points. Measurements were performed using a self-completion, anonymous questionnaire and hand-held scanner technology (Semmelweis Scanner), the latter measuring device detecting the purity of different hand areas with quantitative and digital evaluations. The educational intervention was effective in both short and long term compared to input (initial) measurements. However, the results showed a difference in the process of acquiring practical skills. There has been a significant progress in changing attitudes to hand washing. Age-specific health promotion education programs, especially in the pediatric population, should also focus on the long-term preservation of theoretical, practical knowledge, and health behaviors. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(46): 1842-1847.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Adolescent , Attitude , Child , Humans , Hungary , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 8(4)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518339

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) is a severe immune-mediated disorder. We aim to report the neurologic features of children with PIMS-TS. METHODS: We identified children presenting to a large children's hospital with PIMS-TS from March to June 2020 and performed a retrospective medical note review, identifying clinical and investigative features alongside short-term outcome of children presenting with neurologic symptoms. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients with PIMS-TS were identified, 9 (12%) had neurologic involvement: altered conciseness (3), behavioral changes (3), focal neurology deficits (2), persistent headaches (2), hallucinations (2), excessive sleepiness (1), and new-onset focal seizures (1). Four patients had cranial images abnormalities. At 3-month follow-up, 1 child had died, 1 had hemiparesis, 3 had behavioral changes, and 4 completely recovered. Systemic inflammatory and prothrombotic markers were higher in patients with neurologic involvement (mean highest CRP 267 vs 202 mg/L, p = 0.05; procalcitonin 30.65 vs 13.11 µg/L, p = 0.04; fibrinogen 7.04 vs 6.17 g/L, p = 0.07; d-dimers 19.68 vs 7.35 mg/L, p = 0.005). Among patients with neurologic involvement, these markers were higher in those without full recovery at 3 months (ferritin 2284 vs 283 µg/L, p = 0.05; d-dimers 30.34 vs 6.37 mg/L, p = 0.04). Patients with and without neurologic involvement shared similar risk factors for PIMS-TS (Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic ethnicity 78% vs 70%, obese/overweight 56% vs 42%). CONCLUSIONS: Broad neurologic features were found in 12% patients with PIMS-TS. By 3-month follow-up, half of these surviving children had recovered fully without neurologic impairment. Significantly higher systemic inflammatory markers were identified in children with neurologic involvement and in those who had not recovered fully.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Behavior Disorders/epidemiology , Child Behavior Disorders/etiology , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Inflammation/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/psychology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology
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