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1.
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 26(4): 167-175, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112834

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: On March 11, 2020 the WHO announced a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Lockdown restrictions, compromised access to medical care and fear of potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2 have forced patients with non-COVID-19 illnesses such as type 1 diabetes (T1D) to stay home. This situation can lead to delay in T1D diagnosis and insulin treatment resulting in rapid progression to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and therefore increased risk of complications and death.  . AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of DKA at the onset of T1D in children diagnosed in our department during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown from March 2020 till May 2020 in comparison to corresponding period of the previous year. . MATERIAL AND METHODS: We collected data of children with newly diagnosed T1D. DKA was defined according to ISPAD guidelines. . RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 34 children in group 2020 and 52 in group 2019 with an average age 9.90 ±4.9 vs. 9.59±4.7 years with mean HbA1c 12.9 ±2.4 vs. 11.5 ±2.2%, respectively. The incidence of DKA was higher by 12% in group 2020 vs. 2019 (52.94% vs 40.38%; p = 0.276).  Regarding the DKA severity (2020 vs. 2019) 32.35% vs. 11.54% were severe (p = 0.026), 17.65 vs. 13% were moderate (p = 0.759), and 2.94 vs. 15.38% were mild (p = 0.081). None of the analyzed patients were COVID-19 positive. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown changes in society and health care system, the DKA rate has increased by 12 percentage points with more severe cases noted in children with newly diagnosed T1D. Regular education of the whole society about the symptoms of diabetes could contribute to faster diagnosis of T1D and reduction of DKA prevalence. .


Subject(s)
/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Poland/epidemiology , Prevalence , Quarantine/trends , Risk Factors
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112723

ABSTRACT

Evidence of short-term impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on family life is emerging. Continued research can shed light on potential longer-term impacts. An online survey of U.S. parents with 4- to 8-year-old children (n = 1000) was administered in October 2020. The survey examined parent-reported impacts of COVID-19 on lifestyle (e.g., work, child-care, grocery shopping), as well as current family food acquisition and eating behaviors (e.g., cooking, restaurant use). Descriptive statistics were calculated, incorporating sampling weights based on sociodemographics. In terms of COVID-19 impacts, parents reported increases in working from home, decreased work hours, and increased child care and instruction, with most children attending school or receiving care at home. Parents reported increased home cooking and online grocery shopping; only 33% reported increased take-out or delivery from restaurants. About half of parents reported that their child dined at restaurants, 62% reported getting take-out, and 57% reported delivery from restaurants at least 2-3 times per month. About half viewed dining at restaurants as safe, while take-out and delivery were seen as safe by around three-quarters. Approximately two-thirds reported recent food insecurity. These nationally-representative results illustrate possible longer-lasting shifts in family life, with the potential to impact health and well-being. Sociodemographic differences and research and policy implications are discussed.


Subject(s)
Feeding Behavior , Pandemics , Child , Child, Preschool , Cooking , Humans , Parents , Restaurants
7.
Am J Bioeth ; 21(3): 94-97, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093436

Subject(s)
Racism , Child , Humans , Pandemics
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e044384, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe evolution, epidemiology and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in subjects tested at or admitted to hospitals in North West London. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: London North West Healthcare NHS Trust (LNWH). PARTICIPANTS: Patients tested and/or admitted for COVID-19 at LNWH during March and April 2020 MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive and analytical epidemiology of demographic and clinical outcomes (intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation and mortality) of those who tested positive for COVID-19. RESULTS: The outbreak began in the first week of March 2020 and reached a peak by the end of March and first week of April. In the study period, 6183 tests were performed in on 4981 people. Of the 2086 laboratory confirmed COVID-19 cases, 1901 were admitted to hospital. Older age group, men and those of black or Asian minority ethnic (BAME) group were predominantly affected (p<0.05). These groups also had more severe infection resulting in ICU admission and need for mechanical ventilation (p<0.05). However, in a multivariate analysis, only increasing age was independently associated with increased risk of death (p<0.05). Mortality rate was 26.9% in hospitalised patients. CONCLUSION: The findings confirm that men, BAME and older population were most commonly and severely affected groups. Only older age was independently associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , Young Adult
10.
Malar J ; 20(1): 88, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a serious health threat in the Amazonas Region of Peru and approximately 95% of the cases, mainly Plasmodium vivax, are found in native communities of The Rio Santiago District, Condorcanqui Province. In 2019, more than one thousand malaria cases were reported, with an unusual number of Plasmodium falciparum autochthonous cases. The present study aims to report this P. falciparum outbreak while describing the epidemiology of malaria and the risk factors associated in the native communities of Amazonas, Peru. METHODS: The DIRESA-Amazonas in collaboration with the Condorcanqui Health Network and the Institute of Tropical Diseases of the UNTRM carried out a malaria Active Case Detection (ACD III) between January 31st and February 10th of 2020. A total of 2718 (47.4%) individuals from 21 native communities grouped in eight sanitary districts, were screened for malaria infections. Each participant was screened for malaria using microscopy. Follow-up surveys were conducted for all malaria positive individuals to collect socio-demographic data. Spatial clustering of infection risk was calculated using a generalized linear model (GLM). Analysis of risk considered factors such as gender, age, type of infection, symptomatology, and parasitaemia. RESULTS: The study suggests that the P. falciparum index case was imported from Loreto and later spread to other communities of Rio Santiago during 2019. The ACD III reported 220 (8.1%) malaria cases, 46 P. falciparum, 168 P. vivax and 6 mixed infections. SaTScan analysis detected a cluster of high infection risk in Middle Rio Santiago and a particular high P. falciparum infection risk cluster in Upper Rio Santiago. Interestingly, the evaluation of different risk factors showed significant associations between low parasitaemia and P. falciparum asymptomatic cases. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a P. falciparum outbreak in native communities of Condorcanqui, Amazonas. Timely identification and treatment of symptomatic and asymptomatic cases are critical to achieve malaria control and possible elimination in this area. However, the current malaria situation in Condorcanqui is uncertain, given that malaria ACD activities have been postponed due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Rural Population , Young Adult
11.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 13, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Until January 18, 2021, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 93 million individuals and has caused a certain degree of panic. Viral pneumonia caused by common viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, and parainfluenza viruses have been more common in children. However, the incidence of COVID-19 in children was significantly lower than that in adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes of COVID-19 in children compared with those of other sources of viral pneumonia diagnosed during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Children with COVID-19 and viral pneumonia admitted to 20 hospitals were enrolled in this retrospective multi-center cohort study. A total of 64 children with COVID-19 were defined as the COVID-19 cohort, of which 40 children who developed pneumonia were defined as the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort. Another 284 children with pneumonia caused by other viruses were defined as the viral pneumonia cohort. The epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings were compared by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and Contingency table method. Drug usage, immunotherapy, blood transfusion, and need for oxygen support were collected as the treatment indexes. Mortality, intensive care needs and symptomatic duration were collected as the outcome indicators. RESULTS: Compared with the viral pneumonia cohort, children in the COVID-19 cohort were mostly exposed to family members confirmed to have COVID-19 (53/64 vs. 23/284), were of older median age (6.3 vs. 3.2 years), and had a higher proportion of ground-glass opacity (GGO) on computed tomography (18/40 vs. 0/38, P < 0.001). Children in the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort had a lower proportion of severe cases (1/40 vs. 38/284, P = 0.048), and lower cases with high fever (3/40 vs. 167/284, P < 0.001), requiring intensive care (1/40 vs. 32/284, P < 0.047) and with shorter symptomatic duration (median 5 vs. 8 d, P < 0.001). The proportion of cases with evaluated inflammatory indicators, biochemical indicators related to organ or tissue damage, D-dimer and secondary bacterial infection were lower in the COVID-19 pneumonia cohort than those in the viral pneumonia cohort (P < 0.05). No statistical differences were found in the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in 25 children with COVID-19 who received antiviral drugs (lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin, and arbidol) as compared with duration in 39 children without antiviral therapy [median 10 vs. 9 d, P = 0.885]. CONCLUSION: The symptoms and severity of COVID-19 pneumonia in children were no more severe than those in children with other viral pneumonia. Lopinavir-ritonavir, ribavirin and arbidol do not shorten the duration of positive PCR results from pharyngeal swabs in children with COVID-19. During the COVID-19 outbreak, attention also must be given to children with infection by other pathogens infection.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , /therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Severity of Illness Index
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e043015, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088255

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In a previously published Delphi exercise the European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group (EPDWG) reported widely variable counteractive responses to COVID-19 during the first week of statutory public curfews in 12 European countries with case loads of 4-680 infected patients per million. To better understand these wide variations, we assessed different factors affecting countermeasure implementation rates and applied the capability, opportunity, motivation model of behaviour to describe their determinants. DESIGN: We undertook this international mixed methods study of increased depth and breadth to obtain more complete data and to better understand the resulting complex evidence. SETTING: This study was conducted in 14 paediatric nephrology centres across 12 European countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: The 14 participants were paediatric nephrologists and EPDWG members from 12 European centres. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 52 countermeasures clustered into eight response domains (access control, patient testing, personnel testing, personal protective equipment policy, patient cohorting, personnel cohorting, suspension of routine care, remote work) were categorised by implementation status, drivers (expert opinion, hospital regulations) and resource dependency. Governmental strictness and media attitude were independently assessed for each country and correlated with relevant countermeasure implementation factors. RESULTS: Implementation rates varied widely among response domains (median 49.5%, range 20%-71%) and centres (median 46%, range 31%-62%). Case loads were insufficient to explain response rate variability. Increasing case loads resulted in shifts from expert opinion-based to hospital regulation-based decisions to implement additional countermeasures despite increased resource dependency. Higher governmental strictness and positive media attitude towards countermeasure implementation were associated with higher implementation rates. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 countermeasure implementation by paediatric tertiary care centres did not reflect case loads but rather reflected heterogeneity of local rules and of perceived resources. These data highlight the need of ongoing reassessment of current practices, facilitating rapid change in 'institutional behavior' in response to emerging evidence of countermeasure efficacy.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Nephrology/organization & administration , Pandemics , Child , Europe , Humans , Infection Control , Pediatrics/organization & administration , Renal Dialysis
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(51): e23797, 2020 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087850

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 had resulted in a global pandemic. A comprehensive analysis of pediatric COVID-19 cases is essential to decipher the natural features of children under the risk of this disease.In the epidemic period, all the children infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuxi, a city with a stable medical system during the COVID-19 outbreak in China, were enrolled for comprehensive data documenting their clinical, prognosis, follow-up, treatment and various tests results. Combing their family cluster characteristics, the epidemiological, hospitalization, and transmission features of children with SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed and discussed.A total of 7 children were enrolled, including 4 mild cases, 1 moderate case, and 2 asymptomatic cases. The common symptoms were fever and dry cough. The length of viral nucleic acid duration in nasopharynx varied and was irrelevant to the severity of the symptom, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic. Two cases showed viral nucleic acid positive recurrence after discharge from the hospital. A child with type 1 diabetes was also focused, for the elevated blood sugar during hospitalization. All these children had close contacts with their family members, some of those were confirmed COVID-19 cases.We provided a holistic and detailed portrayal of the pediatric COVID-19 cases in a typical city of timely response to the epidemic. While the family cluster exhibits the major transmission mode, attention should be paid for the potential risk since the expanded social space of children in future.


Subject(s)
/blood , /isolation & purification , Adolescent , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Infections , /drug therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1073, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087443

ABSTRACT

As countries in Europe implement strategies to control the COVID-19 pandemic, different options are chosen regarding schools. Through a stochastic age-structured transmission model calibrated to the observed epidemic in Île-de-France in the first wave, we explored scenarios of partial, progressive, or full school reopening. Given the uncertainty on children's role, we found that reopening schools after lockdown may increase COVID-19 cases, yet protocols exist to keep the epidemic controlled. Under a scenario with stable epidemic activity if schools were closed, reopening pre-schools and primary schools would lead to up to 76% [67, 84]% occupation of ICU beds if no other school level reopened, or if middle and high schools reopened later. Immediately reopening all school levels may overwhelm the ICU system. Priority should be given to pre- and primary schools allowing younger children to resume learning and development, whereas full attendance in middle and high schools is not recommended for stable or increasing epidemic activity. Large-scale test and trace is required to keep the epidemic under control. Ex-post assessment shows that progressive reopening of schools, limited attendance, and strong adoption of preventive measures contributed to a decreasing epidemic after lifting the first lockdown.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Pandemics , Schools , /transmission , Child , Computer Simulation , France/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Models, Biological , Patient Admission , Retrospective Studies , /physiology
18.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(1): 58-61, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084697

ABSTRACT

Over 85 590 000 individuals have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although there have been an increasing number of reports on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is unclear why infected children show milder symptoms than adults. A retrospective case study was performed at two designated hospitals for COVID-19. Patients (56 children and 63 adults) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild pneumonia were randomly enrolled in this study. The median age of the children was 7.0 years, and 51.79% of them were boys. The median age of the adults was 57 years, and 47.62% were men. The most common symptoms were fever, cough, sputum and diarrhoea. There were no significant differences in symptoms between children and adult patients. In terms of immunological indices on admission, adult patients displayed typical leukopenia and markedly higher levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 than child patients. The elevation of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 in adults induced more extensive lung injury. The effective and non-aggressive immune response successfully resisted SARS-CoV-2 invasion and maintained mild symptoms in child patients. The correlation of higher IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 with the lung injury might be evidence that preventing excessive cytokine production can avoid further lung damage in these patients.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Immunity , Leukopenia/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Interleukin-2/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(2): 1146-1157, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084469

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Many studies have been published recently on the characteristics of the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in children. The quality scores of literature are different, and the incidence of clinical manifestations and laboratory tests results vary greatly. Therefore, a systematic retrospective meta-analysis is needed to determine the incidence of the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from databases, such as PubMed, Web of science, EMBASE, Johns Hopkins University, and Chinese databases were analysed from January 31, 2020 to October 20, 2020. High-quality articles were selected for analysis based on a quality standard score. A meta-analysis of random effects was used to determine the prevalence of comorbidities and subgroup meta-analysis to examine the changes in the estimated prevalence in different subgroups. RESULTS: Seventy-one articles involving 11,671 children were included in the study. The incidence of fever, respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, asymptomatic patients, nervous system symptoms, and chest tightness was 55.8%, 56.8%, 14.4%, 21.1%, 6.7%, and 6.1%, respectively. The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome was 6.2%. Laboratory examination results showed that lymphocytes decreased in 12% and leukocytes decreased in 8.8% of patients, whereas white blood cells increased in 7.8% of patients. Imaging showed abnormalities in 66.5%, and ground-glass opacities were observed in 36.9% patients. Epidemiological history was present in 85.2% cases; severe disease rate was 3.33%. The mortality rate was 0.28%. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 in children are mild, and laboratory indicators and imaging manifestations are atypical. While screening children for COVID-19, in addition to assessing patients for symptoms as the first step of screening, the epidemiological history of patients should be obtained.


Subject(s)
/blood , /diagnostic imaging , /complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology
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