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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 843463, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779935

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the outbreak of COVID-19, a series of preventive and control measures in China have been used to effectively curb the spread of COVID-19. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) and Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infection during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: MP IgM antibody and CP IgM antibody were detected in all hospitalized children due to acute respiratory tract infection in the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Zhejiang University from January 2019 to December 2020. These data were compared between 2019 and 2020 based on age and month. Results: The overall detection rate of MP and CP in 2020 was significantly lower than that in 2019 (MP: 21.5% vs 32.9%, P<0.001; CP: 0.3% vs 0.9%, P<0.001). This study found a 4-fold reduction in the number of children positive for MP and a 7.5-fold reduction in the number of children positive for CP from 2019 to 2020. The positive cases were concentrated in children aged >1 year old. In 2019, the positive rate of MP was detected more commonly in children 3 years of age or older than in younger children. In 2020, the higher positive rate of MP reached a peak in the 3- to 6-year age group (35.3%). CP was detected predominantly in children aged 6 years older in 2019 and 2020, with positive rates of 4.8% and 2.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the positive rates of MP in 2019 were detected more commonly in July, August and September, with 47.2%, 46.7% and 46.3%, respectively. Nevertheless, the positive rates of MP from February to December 2020 apparently decreased compared to those in 2019. The positive rates of CP were evenly distributed throughout the year, with 0.5%-1.6% in 2019 and 0.0%-2.1% in 2020. Conclusions: A series of preventive and control measures for SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic can not only contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 but also sharply improve the infection of other atypical pathogens, including MP and CP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydophila Infections , Chlamydophila pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Chlamydophila Infections/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Infant , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736908

ABSTRACT

Influenza is a contagious respiratory illness and can lead to hospitalization and even death. Understanding how comorbidities affect the severity of influenza can help clinical management. The aim of this study is to offer more information about comorbidities that might be associated with the severity of influenza in children. We used a statewide network in Rhode Island, USA, to extract data for laboratory-confirmed influenza cases among children 19 years old or younger. We identified 1169 lab-confirmed influenza cases. The most common comorbidities were asthma (17.1%), neurodevelopmental disorders (10.3%), gastrointestinal disorders (7.6%), atopic dermatitis (7%), and endocrine and metabolic diseases (6.8%). Interestingly, 80.8% (63 out of 78) of children who had an influenza-related hospital admission had at least one comorbidity, and among hospitalized children with influenza, the most common comorbidities were neurological diseases (28.2%, 22/78), gastrointestinal disorders (25.6%, 20/78), endocrine and metabolic diseases (24.4%, 19/78), and neurodevelopmental disorders (23.1%, 18/78). Children with endocrine or metabolic diseases were 8.23 times more likely to be admitted to the hospital, and children with neurological disorders were 6.35 times more likely to be admitted (OR: 8.23, 95% CI: 4.42-15.32 and OR: 6.35, 95% CI: 3.60-11.24, respectively). In summary, we identified specific comorbidities associated with influenza hospitalization and length of hospital stay, and these groups should be prioritized for public health interventions.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Adult , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Young Adult
3.
Eur Respir J ; 59(2)2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children remain poorly characterised. This study aimed to assess long-term outcomes in children previously hospitalised with COVID-19 and associated risk factors. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of children (≤18 years old) admitted to hospital with confirmed COVID-19. Children admitted between 2 April 2020 and 26 August 2020 were included. Telephone interviews used the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) COVID-19 Health and Wellbeing Follow-up Survey for Children. Persistent symptoms (>5 months) were further categorised by system(s) involved. RESULTS: 518 out of 853 (61%) eligible children were available for the follow-up assessment and included in the study. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) age was 10.4 (3-15.2) years and 270 (52.1%) were girls. Median (IQR) follow-up since hospital discharge was 256 (223-271) days. At the time of the follow-up interview 126 (24.3%) participants reported persistent symptoms, among which fatigue (53, 10.7%), sleep disturbance (36, 6.9%) and sensory problems (29, 5.6%) were the most common. Multiple symptoms were experienced by 44 (8.4%) participants. Risk factors for persistent symptoms were: older age "6-11 years" (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.37-5.75) and "12-18 years" (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.41-5.4), and a history of allergic diseases (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.04-2.67). CONCLUSIONS: A quarter of children experienced persistent symptoms months after hospitalisation with acute COVID-19 infection, with almost one in 10 experiencing multisystem involvement. Older age and allergic diseases were associated with higher risk of persistent symptoms at follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Aged , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(3): e95-e101, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical impact of common human coronavirus (cHCoV) remains unclear. We studied the clinical manifestations of pediatric cHCoV infections and the possible modifying effects of codetected human rhinovirus (RV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). METHODS: We used data from an 11-year-long prospective study of hospitalized children with community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed with real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for cHCoV OC43, NL63, HKU1 and 229E, and 15 other respiratory viruses. We assessed disease severity based on the clinical factors hospitalization length, oxygen requirement, other respiratory support and supplementary fluids. RESULTS: cHCoV was detected in 341 (8%) of 4312 children. Among 104 children with single cHCoV detections, 58 (56%) had lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and 20 (19%) developed severe disease. The proportion with severe disease was lower among single cHCoV detections compared with single RSV detections (338 of 870; 39%), but similar to single RV detections (136 of 987; 14%). Compared with single cHCoV, codetected cHCoV-RSV was more often associated with LRTI (86 of 89; 97%) and severe disease (adjusted odds ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.6-6.7). LRTI was more frequent in codetected cHCoV-RV (52 of 68; 76%) than single cHCoV, but the risk of severe disease was lower (adjusted odds ratios, 0.3; 95% confidence interval: 0.1-1.0). CONCLUSIONS: cHCoV was associated with severe LRTI in hospitalized children. Viral codetections were present in two-thirds. Codetections of cHCoV-RV were associated with lower proportions of severe disease, suggesting a modifying effect of RV on HCoV.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Norway/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/therapy , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/therapy
5.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(3): e216436, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635814

ABSTRACT

Importance: Little is known about COVID-19 outcomes among children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, where preexisting comorbidities are prevalent. Objective: To assess the clinical outcomes and factors associated with outcomes among children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 in 6 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was a retrospective record review of data from 25 hospitals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda from March 1 to December 31, 2020, and included 469 hospitalized patients aged 0 to 19 years with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Exposures: Age, sex, preexisting comorbidities, and region of residence. Main Outcomes and Measures: An ordinal primary outcome scale was used comprising 5 categories: (1) hospitalization without oxygen supplementation, (2) hospitalization with oxygen supplementation, (3) ICU admission, (4) invasive mechanical ventilation, and (5) death. The secondary outcome was length of hospital stay. Results: Among 469 hospitalized children and adolescents, the median age was 5.9 years (IQR, 1.6-11.1 years); 245 patients (52.4%) were male, and 115 (24.5%) had comorbidities. A total of 39 patients (8.3%) were from central Africa, 172 (36.7%) from eastern Africa, 208 (44.3%) from southern Africa, and 50 (10.7%) from western Africa. Eighteen patients had suspected (n = 6) or confirmed (n = 12) multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Thirty-nine patients (8.3%) died, including 22 of 69 patients (31.9%) who required intensive care unit admission and 4 of 18 patients (22.2%) with suspected or confirmed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Among 468 patients, 418 (89.3%) were discharged, and 16 (3.4%) remained hospitalized. The likelihood of outcomes with higher vs lower severity among children younger than 1 year expressed as adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 4.89 (95% CI, 1.44-16.61) times higher than that of adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. The presence of hypertension (aOR, 5.91; 95% CI, 1.89-18.50), chronic lung disease (aOR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.65-5.37), or a hematological disorder (aOR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.04-9.24) was associated with severe outcomes. Age younger than 1 year (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio [asHR], 0.48; 95% CI, 0.27-0.87), the presence of 1 comorbidity (asHR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.40-0.72), and the presence of 2 or more comorbidities (asHR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.18-0.38) were associated with reduced rates of hospital discharge. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa, high rates of morbidity and mortality were observed among infants and patients with noncommunicable disease comorbidities, suggesting that COVID-19 vaccination and therapeutic interventions are needed for young populations in this region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Child, Hospitalized , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Hosp Pediatr ; 12(2): e78-e85, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a respiratory virus that can cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, with studies demonstrating detection of stool viral RNA weeks after respiratory tract clearance. It is unknown if children who test negative for SARS-CoV-2 on a nasopharyngeal (NP) swab may be shedding the virus in their stool. OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 stool shedding in children with positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 NP polymerase chain reactions (PCR) tests, and to determine clinical factors associated with GI shedding. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled hospitalized patients 0 to 21 years old with a positive or a negative SARS-CoV-2 NP PCR test who had respiratory and/or GI symptoms. Participants were surveyed, and stool samples were sent for viral PCR testing. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate bivariate associations of stool PCR test positivity with categorical variables. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients were consented; 34 patients did not provide stool samples so 33 patients were included: 17 NP-positive and 16 NP-negative for SARS-CoV-2. Eight of the 17 NP-positive patients had a positive stool PCR test for SARS-CoV-2, while none of the 16 SARS-CoV-2 NP-negative patients had a positive result (P < .01). For the 17 SARS-CoV-2 NP-positive patients, GI symptoms were associated with a positive stool PCR test (P = .05) for SARS-CoV-2, but this association was not found for all 33 patients (P = .11). No associations were found with patients in an immunocompromised state or those with a comorbid condition, fever and/or chills, respiratory symptoms, headache and/or myalgias, or anosmia and/or ageusia. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 GI shedding is common and associated with GI symptoms in NP-positive children, with 47% having positive stool PCRs for SARS-CoV-2. GI shedding was not demonstrated in SARS-CoV-2 NP-negative children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 168-171, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623181

ABSTRACT

HCoV-OC43 is one of the mildly pathogenic coronaviruses with high infection rates in common population. Here, 43 HCoV-OC43 related cases with pneumonia were reported, corresponding genomes of HCoV-OC43 were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete genome, orf1ab and spike genes revealed that two novel genotypes of HCoV-OC43 have emerged in China. Obvious recombinant events also can be detected in the analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of novel HCoV-OC43 genotypes. Estimated divergence time analysis indicated that the two novel genotypes had apparently independent evolutionary routes. Efforts should be conducted for further investigation of genomic diversity and evolution analysis of mildly pathogenic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Common Cold/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Genome, Viral , Genotype , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Base Sequence , Bayes Theorem , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Common Cold/pathology , Common Cold/transmission , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/classification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Monte Carlo Method , Mutation , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Recombination, Genetic
8.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(3): e81-e86, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in infants have incompletely characterized factors associated with severe illness or focused on infants born to mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here we highlight demographics, clinical characteristics and laboratory values that differ between infants with and without severe acute COVID-19. METHODS: Active surveillance was performed by the Overcoming COVID-19 network to identify children and adolescents with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related illness hospitalized at 62 sites in 31 states from March 15 to December 27, 2020. We analyzed patients >7 days to <1 year old hospitalized with symptomatic acute COVID-19. RESULTS: We report 232 infants >7 days to <1 year of age hospitalized with acute symptomatic COVID-19 from 37 US hospitals in our cohort from March 15 to December 27, 2020. Among 630 cases of severe COVID-19 in patients >7 days to <18 years old, 128 (20.3%) were infants. In infants with severe illness from the entire study period, the median age was 2 months, 66% were from racial and ethnic minority groups, 66% were previously healthy, 73% had respiratory complications, 13% received mechanical ventilation and <1% died. CONCLUSIONS: Infants accounted for over a fifth of children <18 years of age hospitalized for severe acute COVID-19, commonly manifesting with respiratory symptoms and complications. Although most infants hospitalized with COVID-19 did not suffer significant complications, longer term outcomes remain unclear. Notably, 75% of infants with severe disease were <6 months of age in this cohort study period, which predated maternal COVID-19 vaccination, underscoring the importance of maternal vaccination for COVID-19 in protecting the mother and infant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
9.
Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
10.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 563, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566513

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 clinical course, effective therapeutic regimen, and poor prognosis risk factors in pediatric cases are still under investigation and no approved vaccinehas been introduced for them. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated different aspect of COVID-19 infection in hospitalized COVID-19 positive children (≺18 years oldwith laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection, using the national COVID-19 registry for all admitted COVID-19 positive cases from February 19 until November 13,2020, in Iran. RESULTS: We evaluated 6610 hospitalized children. Fifty-four percent (3268) were male and one third of them were infants younger than 1 year. Mortality rate in total hospitalized children was 5.3% and in children with underlying co-morbidities (14.4%) was significantly higher (OR: 3.6 [2.7-4.7]). Chronic kidney disease (OR: 3.42 [1.75-6.67]), Cardiovascular diseases (OR: 3.2 [2.09-5.11]), chronic pulmonary diseases (OR: 3.21 [1.59-6.47]), and diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.5 [1.38-4.55]), resulted in higher mortality rates in hospitalized COVID-19 children. Fever (41%), cough (36%), and dyspnea (27%) were the most frequent symptoms in hospitalized children and dyspnea was associated with near three times higher mortality rate among children with COVID-19 infection (OR: 2.65 [2.13-3.29]). CONCLUSION: Iran has relatively high COVID-19 mortality in hospitalized children. Pediatricians should consider children presenting with dyspnea, infants≺ 1 year and children with underlying co-morbidities, as high-risk groups for hospitalization, ICU admission, and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emblems and Insignia , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Pediatr Nurs ; 63: 102-107, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559628

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine the emotions demonstrated by parents of children hospitalized in a pediatric Covid-19 ward. BACKGROUND: Although Covid-19 is mostly a mild disease in children, a small proportion develop severe disease requiring prolonged intensive care support. METHODS: On October 1st, 2020, a unique ward for children with Covid-19 was established in a large hospital in Israel. Interviews were conducted with parents of children who had been hospitalized in a pediatric Covid-19 ward. FINDINGS: A total of 22 parents of children aged 3 weeks to18 years were interviewed. Three themes emerged: Theme 1: Recognizing their child needed hospitalization in the Covid-19 ward, caused parents anxiety and fear of the unknown. Theme 2: Their child's hospitalization in the Covid-19 ward caused fear and worry at their child's condition, parental stress, shame, boredom, and acceptance. Theme 3: Parents initially felt emotional loneliness towards the healthcare staff in the Covid-19 ward, as well as loss of control, later replaced by feelings of confidence. CONCLUSION: Parents have diverse emotions in response to needing to accompany their children who are hospitalized and isolated in a closed ward due to Covid-19. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Health care professionals are immensely important in providing support for parents and for their children suffering from Covid-19. A national plan should be established to address inpatient childcare during an epidemic. Nurses can encourage parents and family to be involved in the child's care and communicate effectively to reduce both the parents' and the child's uncertainty, shame, fear and stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Child, Hospitalized/psychology , Emotions , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Parents/psychology , Qualitative Research
12.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(2): 498-507, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to analyze the clinical features and laboratory profiles and risk factors associated with critical illness of children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: One hundred and sixty-six coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Iranian pediatric patients were recruited through a collaborative research network between March and May 2020. Demographics, clinical, laboratory, and radiological results were obtained from patient files. RESULTS: Of 166 patients, 102 (61%) and 64 (39%) were males and females, respectively. Ninety-six (57.8%) and 70 (42.2%), had moderate and severe conditions, respectively. Thirty (18%) of patients died. The common symptoms were fever (73%), cough (54%), and shortness of breath, headache decrease in neutrophil and platelet counts; increase values in lactate dehydrogenase, decrease in the blood pH and HCO3 were significantly associated with the disease severity. 54% and 56% of patients showed abnormal radiographic appearance in Chest X-ray and in chest computed tomography scan, respectively. Sixty-one (36.7%) of patients were referred to intensive care unit (ICU). The coexistence of comorbidity was the main factor associated with ICU admission, shock, arrhythmia, acute kidney injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute cardiac injury, and death. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a higher than previously recognized rate of COVID-19 mortality in Iranian pediatric patients. Epidemiological factors, such as the relatively high case fatality rate in the country and the presence of underlying diseases were the main factors for the high death rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Laboratories , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 61(2): 159-167, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523149

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective study of 319 children with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we assessed whether age, asthma, obesity, diabetes, and socioeconomic status were associated with hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed using univariate statistics, excluding incidental or unrelated positives. There was a bimodal distribution of age among hospitalized children. Obesity (P < .001) and a past medical history of diabetes (P = .001) were significantly more prevalent in hospitalized children, including cases of new-onset diabetes and diabetic ketoacidosis. Neither a past medical history of asthma nor lower socioeconomic status was associated with hospitalization. Although limited to a single center, the findings in this study may have important clinical implications. Targeted, proactive health outreach to children with obesity and diabetes, with prioritization of preventative efforts such as vaccination, may be important in preventing worse SARS-CoV-2 infection in this vulnerable group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Hospitalized/classification , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
14.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 61(2): 150-158, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511594

ABSTRACT

Background. This case-control study aims to investigate the clinical characteristics in pediatric patients with pneumonia infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza A, and human adenoviruses (HAdVs). Methods. Hospitalized pediatric patients with pneumonia infected with SARS-CoV-2 at Wuhan Children's Hospital and pneumonia infected with influenza A, and HAdVs at Qilu Children's Hospital were compared. Clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, and imaging characteristics were analyzed. Results. The proportions of hyperpyrexia (54.3%, 33.9%), cough (100%, 99.2%), wheezing (45.7%, 53.7%), diarrhea (31.4%, 14.9%), and fever (100%, 75.2%) in patients with influenza A and HAdVs were higher than those of patients with SARS-CoV-2 (9.4%, P < .001; 48.5%, P < .001; 0%, P < .001; 8.8%, P = .002; 41.5%, P < .001; respectively). Laboratory examinations revealed the proportions of leukocytosis (37.1%, 52.9%), abnormal rates of neutrophils (40%, 40.5%), and lymphocytosis (42.9%, 65.3%) in influenza A and HAdV pneumonia groups were significantly higher than coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) group (0%, P < .001; 0%, P < .001; 0%, P < .001; respectively). The proportion of elevated procalcitonin (5.7%, 14%) in patients with influenza A and HAdVs was significantly lower than those in patients with SARS-CoV-2 (64%, P < .001). In chest computed tomography, ground-glass opacities near the pleura were more common in patients with COVID-19 than those in patients with influenza A and HAdVs (32.7% vs 0% vs 0%, P < .001). Conclusion. Fever, cough, and wheezing are more common in the influenza A and HAdVs groups, whereas procalcitonin and computed tomography findings are likely to be pronounced in COVID-19 pneumonia. It provides a variety of methods except polymerase chain reaction for differentiating COVID-19 pneumonia from influenza A and HAdVs pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Retrospective Studies
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(11): 1321-1327, 2021 Nov 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505483

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of human coronavirus (HCoV) in hospitalized children with respiratory tract infection in Hebei region, providing evidence for the diagnosis and prevention of children with respiratory tract infection. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 1 062 HCoV positive children hospitalized for respiratory tract infection in Children's Hospital of Hebei Province from January 2015 to December 2020, aged from 33 days to 14 years, with a median age of 2 years. 27 932 (60.9%) were males and 17 944(39.1%) were females. And the gender, ages, seasonal distribution, HCoV-positive rates, co-detection distribution and clinical diagnosis of HCoV positive cases were analyzed by SPSS 25.0. Enumeration data were expressed by frequency and percentage; categorical variable were compared by the Pearson χ2test. Results: The overall HCoV-positive rate was 2.31% (1 062/45 876), which was 2.37% (662/27 932) in male children and 2.23% (400/17 944) in female children. There was no statistically significant difference between genders (χ²=0.916, P=0.339). Children at age groups<1 years (2.44%) and 1-<3 years (2.63%) had higher HCoV-positive rates than those at age groups 3-<5 years (1.97%) and ≥5 years (1.38%) (χ²=27.332,P<0.01). The HCoV-positive rates from 2015 to 2018 were 2.13%, 2.45%, 2.28% and 2.23%. The HCoV-positive rate of 2019 (1.71%) was significantly lower than in 2016 (χ²=12.05, P<0.01), 2017 (χ²=7.34, P=0.01) and 2018 (χ²=6.78, P=0.01), but there was no significant difference compared with 2015 (χ²=2.84, P=0.09). The HCoV-positive rate of 2020 (3.37%) was significantly higher than in 2015 (χ²=13.636, P<0.01), 2016 (χ²=11.099, P<0.01), 2017 (χ²=15.482, P<0.01), 2018(χ²=18.601, P<0.01) and 2019(χ²=45.580, P<0.01). The positive rate was highest in spring (March to May) in 2015 and 2017 to 2018. February to April and July to September of 2016 were the peak periods of positive detection. No obvious seasonal change was observed in 2019 and the HCoV-positive rate of 2020 was extremely low from January to July, following significantly increased from August to December. 26.37% (280/1 062) of HCoV were co-detected with other respiratory pathogens and the most frequently identified mixed detection was RSV. Three or more pathogens were detected in 7.34% (78/1 062) of the HCoV-positive samples. Bronchopneumonia and bronchiolitis were more frequently observed in the single HCoV positive (61.89% and 16.75%) children compared to co-detected children(34.29% and 9.64%)(χ²=63.394 and 8.228, P<0.01). However, compared to those with HCoV mono-detection, co-detected children were more likely to have severe pneumonia (4.6% and 47.14%) (χ²=280.171, P<0.01). Conclusions: HCoV is one of the respiratory pathogens in children in Hebei region and more prevalent in spring. The susceptible population of HCoV is mainly children under the age of 3 years old. HCoV often co-detects with other respiratory pathogens, and the co-infection is one of the risk factors of severe pneumonia in children with respiratory infection.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Seasons
17.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(1): 57-65, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473908

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Endemic coronaviruses have been found in acute bronchiolitis, mainly as a coinfecting virus. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been responsible for respiratory illness in hospitalized children. The characteristics of patients with bronchiolitis have not been extensively described. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of patients with bronchiolitis and SARS-CoV-2 infection enrolled in a prospective multicenter cohort of children hospitalized with COVID-19 in Spain from March 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021. RESULTS: Twelve of 666 children infected with SARS-CoV-2 who required hospital admission met the diagnostic criteria for bronchiolitis (1.8%). Median age was 1.9 months (range: 0.4-10.1). Six cases had household contact with a confirmed or probable COVID-19 case. Main complaints were cough (11 patients), rhinorrhea (10), difficulty breathing (8), and fever (8). Eleven cases were classified as mild or moderate and one as severe. Laboratory tests performed in seven patients did not evidence anemia, lymphopenia, or high C-reactive protein levels. Chest X-rays were performed in six children, and one case showed remarkable findings. Coinfection with metapneumovirus was detected in the patient with the most severe course; Bordetella pertussis was detected in another patient. Seven patients required oxygen therapy. Albuterol was administered in four patients. One patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Median length of admission was 4 days (range: 3-14). No patient died or showed any sequelae at discharge. Two patients developed recurrent bronchospasms. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection does not seem to be a main trigger of severe bronchiolitis, and children with this condition should be managed according to clinical practice guidelines.


Subject(s)
Bronchiolitis , COVID-19 , Bronchiolitis/complications , Bronchiolitis/epidemiology , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Virol J ; 18(1): 202, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on existing respiratory pathogens in circulation remains uncertain. This study aimed to assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the prevalence of respiratory pathogens among hospitalized children. METHODS: This study enrolled hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections in Shenzhen Children's Hospital from September to December 2019 (before the COVID-19 epidemic) and those from September to December 2020 (during the COVID-19 epidemic). Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected, and respiratory pathogens were detected using multiplex PCR. The absolute case number and detection rates of 11 pathogens were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 5696 children with respiratory tract infection received multiplex PCR examination for respiratory pathogens: 2298 from September to December 2019 and 3398 from September to December 2020. At least one pathogen was detected in 1850 (80.5%) patients in 2019, and in 2380 (70.0%) patients in 2020; the detection rate in 2020 was significantly lower than that in 2019.The Influenza A (InfA) detection rate was 5.6% in 2019, but 0% in 2020. The detection rates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Human adenovirus, and Human rhinovirus also decreased from 20% (460), 8.9% (206), and 41.8% (961) in 2019 to 1.0% (37), 2.1% (77), and 25.6% (873) in 2020, respectively. In contrast, the detection rates of Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human parainfluenza virus, and Human metapneumovirus increased from 6.6% (153), 9.9% (229), and 0.5% (12) in 2019 to 25.6% (873), 15.5% (530), and 7.2% (247) in 2020, respectively (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Successful containment of seasonal influenza as a result of COVID-19 control measures will ensure we are better equipped to deal with future outbreaks of both influenza and COVID-19.Caused by virus competition, the detection rates of Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human parainfluenza virus, and Human metapneumovirus increased in Shenzhen,that reminds us we need to take further monitoring and preventive measures in the next epidemic season.


Subject(s)
Antibiosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/isolation & purification , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , China , Enterovirus/genetics , Enterovirus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Male , Metapneumovirus/genetics , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genetics , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Prevalence , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Diseases/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Respirovirus/genetics , Respirovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
20.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(10): e40, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428627
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