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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(3): e81-e86, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in infants have incompletely characterized factors associated with severe illness or focused on infants born to mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here we highlight demographics, clinical characteristics and laboratory values that differ between infants with and without severe acute COVID-19. METHODS: Active surveillance was performed by the Overcoming COVID-19 network to identify children and adolescents with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related illness hospitalized at 62 sites in 31 states from March 15 to December 27, 2020. We analyzed patients >7 days to <1 year old hospitalized with symptomatic acute COVID-19. RESULTS: We report 232 infants >7 days to <1 year of age hospitalized with acute symptomatic COVID-19 from 37 US hospitals in our cohort from March 15 to December 27, 2020. Among 630 cases of severe COVID-19 in patients >7 days to <18 years old, 128 (20.3%) were infants. In infants with severe illness from the entire study period, the median age was 2 months, 66% were from racial and ethnic minority groups, 66% were previously healthy, 73% had respiratory complications, 13% received mechanical ventilation and <1% died. CONCLUSIONS: Infants accounted for over a fifth of children <18 years of age hospitalized for severe acute COVID-19, commonly manifesting with respiratory symptoms and complications. Although most infants hospitalized with COVID-19 did not suffer significant complications, longer term outcomes remain unclear. Notably, 75% of infants with severe disease were <6 months of age in this cohort study period, which predated maternal COVID-19 vaccination, underscoring the importance of maternal vaccination for COVID-19 in protecting the mother and infant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
2.
Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
3.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 61(2): 159-167, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523149

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective study of 319 children with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we assessed whether age, asthma, obesity, diabetes, and socioeconomic status were associated with hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed using univariate statistics, excluding incidental or unrelated positives. There was a bimodal distribution of age among hospitalized children. Obesity (P < .001) and a past medical history of diabetes (P = .001) were significantly more prevalent in hospitalized children, including cases of new-onset diabetes and diabetic ketoacidosis. Neither a past medical history of asthma nor lower socioeconomic status was associated with hospitalization. Although limited to a single center, the findings in this study may have important clinical implications. Targeted, proactive health outreach to children with obesity and diabetes, with prioritization of preventative efforts such as vaccination, may be important in preventing worse SARS-CoV-2 infection in this vulnerable group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Hospitalized/classification , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
4.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 61(2): 150-158, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511594

ABSTRACT

Background. This case-control study aims to investigate the clinical characteristics in pediatric patients with pneumonia infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza A, and human adenoviruses (HAdVs). Methods. Hospitalized pediatric patients with pneumonia infected with SARS-CoV-2 at Wuhan Children's Hospital and pneumonia infected with influenza A, and HAdVs at Qilu Children's Hospital were compared. Clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, and imaging characteristics were analyzed. Results. The proportions of hyperpyrexia (54.3%, 33.9%), cough (100%, 99.2%), wheezing (45.7%, 53.7%), diarrhea (31.4%, 14.9%), and fever (100%, 75.2%) in patients with influenza A and HAdVs were higher than those of patients with SARS-CoV-2 (9.4%, P < .001; 48.5%, P < .001; 0%, P < .001; 8.8%, P = .002; 41.5%, P < .001; respectively). Laboratory examinations revealed the proportions of leukocytosis (37.1%, 52.9%), abnormal rates of neutrophils (40%, 40.5%), and lymphocytosis (42.9%, 65.3%) in influenza A and HAdV pneumonia groups were significantly higher than coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) group (0%, P < .001; 0%, P < .001; 0%, P < .001; respectively). The proportion of elevated procalcitonin (5.7%, 14%) in patients with influenza A and HAdVs was significantly lower than those in patients with SARS-CoV-2 (64%, P < .001). In chest computed tomography, ground-glass opacities near the pleura were more common in patients with COVID-19 than those in patients with influenza A and HAdVs (32.7% vs 0% vs 0%, P < .001). Conclusion. Fever, cough, and wheezing are more common in the influenza A and HAdVs groups, whereas procalcitonin and computed tomography findings are likely to be pronounced in COVID-19 pneumonia. It provides a variety of methods except polymerase chain reaction for differentiating COVID-19 pneumonia from influenza A and HAdVs pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Retrospective Studies
5.
Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
6.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(8): 559-568, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is usually less severe and has lower case fatality in children than in adults. We aimed to characterise the clinical features of children and adolescents hospitalised with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and to evaluate the risk factors for COVID-19-related death in this population. METHODS: We did an analysis of all patients younger than 20 years who had quantitative RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 and were registered in the Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance Information System (SIVEP-Gripe, a nationwide surveillance database of patients admitted to hospital with severe acute respiratory disease in Brazil), between Feb 16, 2020, and Jan 9, 2021. The primary outcome was time to recovery (discharge) or in-hospital death, evaluated by competing risks analysis using the cumulative incidence function. FINDINGS: Of the 82 055 patients younger than 20 years reported to SIVEP-Gripe during the study period, 11 613 (14·2%) had available data showing laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and were included in the sample. Among these patients, 886 (7·6%) died in hospital (at a median 6 days [IQR 3-15] after hospital admission), 10 041 (86·5%) patients were discharged from the hospital, 369 (3·2%) were in hospital at the time of analysis, and 317 (2·7%) were missing information on outcome. The estimated probability of death was 4·8% during the first 10 days after hospital admission, 6·7% during the first 20 days, and 8·1% at the end of follow-up. Probability of discharge was 54·1% during the first 10 days, 78·4% during the first 20 days, and 92·0% at the end of follow-up. Our competing risks multivariate survival analysis showed that risk of death was increased in infants younger than 2 years (hazard ratio 2·36 [95% CI 1·94-2·88]) or adolescents aged 12-19 years (2·23 [1·84-2·71]) relative to children aged 2-11 years; those of Indigenous ethnicity (3·36 [2·15-5·24]) relative to those of White ethnicity; those living in the Northeast region (2·06 [1·68-2·52]) or North region (1·55 [1·22-1·98]) relative to those in the Southeast region; and those with one (2·96 [2·52-3·47]), two (4·96 [3·80-6·48]), or three or more (7·28 [4·56-11·6]) pre-existing medical conditions relative to those with none. INTERPRETATION: Death from COVID-19 was associated with age, Indigenous ethnicity, poor geopolitical region, and pre-existing medical conditions. Disparities in health care, poverty, and comorbidities can contribute to magnifying the burden of COVID-19 in more vulnerable and socioeconomically disadvantaged children and adolescents in Brazil. FUNDING: National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, Research Support Foundation of Minas Gerais.


Subject(s)
Adolescent, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Databases, Factual , Hospital Mortality , Adolescent , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
7.
S Afr Med J ; 111(2): 100-105, 2021 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168064

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in many hospitals severely limiting or denying parents access to their hospitalised children. This article provides guidance for hospital managers, healthcare staff, district-level managers and provincial managers on parental access to hospitalised children during a pandemic such as COVID-19. It: (i) summarises legal and ethical issues around parental visitation rights; (ii) highlights four guiding principles; (iii) provides 10 practical recommendations to facilitate safe parental access to hospitalised children; (iv) highlights additional considerations if the mother is COVID-19-positive; and (v) provides considerations for fathers. In summary, it is a child's right to have access to his or her parents during hospitalisation, and parents should have access to their hospitalised children; during an infectious disease pandemic such as COVID-19, there is a responsibility to ensure that parental visitation is implemented in a reasonable and safe manner. Separation should only occur in exceptional circumstances, e.g. if adequate in-hospital facilities do not exist to jointly accommodate the parent/caregiver and the newborn/infant/child. Both parents should be allowed access to hospitalised children, under strict infection prevention and control (IPC) measures and with implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including handwashing/sanitisation, face masks and physical distancing. Newborns/infants and their parents/caregivers have a reasonably high likelihood of having similar COVID-19 status, and should be managed as a dyad rather than as individuals. Every hospital should provide lodger/boarder facilities for mothers who are COVID-19-positive, COVID-19-negative or persons under investigation (PUI), separately, with stringent IPC measures and NPIs. If facilities are limited, breastfeeding mothers should be prioritised, in the following order: (i) COVID-19-negative; (ii) COVID-19 PUI; and (iii) COVID-19-positive. Breastfeeding, or breastmilk feeding, should be promoted, supported and protected, and skin-to-skin care of newborns with the mother/caregiver (with IPC measures) should be discussed and practised as far as possible. Surgical masks should be provided to all parents/caregivers and replaced daily throughout the hospital stay. Parents should be referred to social services and local community resources to ensure that multidisciplinary support is provided. Hospitals should develop individual-level policies and share these with staff and parents. Additionally, hospitals should ideally track the effect of parental visitation rights on hospital-based COVID-19 outbreaks, the mental health of hospitalised children, and their rate of recovery.


Subject(s)
Child Health/standards , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals/standards , Infection Control/standards , Patient Isolation/standards , Visitors to Patients/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , South Africa
8.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 34(4): e23127, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The information regarding viral epidemiology and clinical characteristics in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) in central Fujian is limited. In this study, we aimed at analyzing the viral epidemiology and clinical characteristics of ARTI in hospitalized children admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University. METHODS: Cohort of 386 hospitalized children (31 days to 15 years) diagnosed with ARTI admitted to the Department of Pediatrics from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2018, was enrolled in this study. Nasopharyngeal swab or sputum samples on the day of hospitalization were tested for 11 viruses via a GeXP-based multiplex-PCR assay. The viral profiles and clinical characteristics were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall positive rate of the samples was 43.26% (167/386). Among the 167 positive samples, 134 (80.24%, 134/167) had a single virus and 33 (19.76%, 33/167) had multiple viruses. There was a significant difference in the frequency of single vs mixed infections among positive samples (80.24% vs 19.76%; χ2  = 122.168, P = .000) as well as among the total examined samples (34.72% vs 8.55%; χ2  = 77.945, P = .000). Human rhinovirus was the most prevalent virus (17.36%, 67/386), followed by influenza A (5.96%, 23/386) and human adenovirus (5.70%, 22/386). There was no significant difference in the etiological distribution of viral pathogens between males and females (χ2  = 0.480, P = .489). Viral infections were more likely to occur in the winter-spring months than in the summer-autumn months (52.51% vs 33.53%, χ2  = 13.830, P = .000). CONCLUSIONS: The GeXP-based multiplex PCR is an accurate and high-throughput assay allows us to quickly detect multiple respiratory viruses simultaneously in pediatric patients. Our study provides information on the viral profiles and clinical characteristics in hospitalized children with ARTI, which would help better effective prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/virology , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Child , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/genetics , Seasons , Sex Distribution , Sputum/virology
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