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2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(12): 4341-4363, 2022 Dec.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242427

ABSTRACT

The Happy Child Program (Programa Criança Feliz - PCF, in Portuguese) reaches 1.4 million Brazilian children under three years of age with home visits aimed at promoting neuropsychomotor development. Based on a conceptual model, PCF implementation and impact were evaluated in a randomized study in 30 municipalities. A total of 3,242 children were allocated to the intervention (IG) or control (CG) group, 80.0% of whom were prospectively followed up from late 2018 to late 2021. Development was assessed by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ3). During the three-year study period, visits were replaced by virtual contacts for an average of 12 months due to COVID-19. At the endline survey, intent-to-treat analyses showed mean scores of 203.3 in the IG and 201.3 in the CG. Additional analyses using instrumental variables and propensity scores matching also showed no effect, since the number of contacts with the program was not associated with ASQ3 scores. No impact was observed on stimulation, responsive interactions or psychological attributes of children. The implementation study revealed low coverage in the IG, contamination of the CG, deficiencies in management and low quality of visits in many municipalities. The study did not demonstrate an impact of PCF implemented under routine conditions, but provides elements for its improvement.


O Programa Criança Feliz (PCF) atinge 1,4 milhão de crianças brasileiras menores de três anos com visitas domiciliares visando o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. Com base em modelo conceitual, avaliou-se implementação e impacto do PCF em estudo randomizado, em 30 municípios. Ao todo 3.242 crianças foram alocadas para o grupo intervenção (GI) ou controle (GC), sendo 80,0% acompanhadas prospectivamente durante três anos. O desenvolvimento foi avaliado pelo Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ3). Análises por intenção de tratar mostraram escores médios de 203,3 no GI e 201,3 no GC. Análises adicionais com variáveis instrumentais e emparelhamento por escores de propensão tampouco mostraram efeito, uma vez que o número de contatos recebidos não esteve associado aos escores ASQ3. Tampouco foi observado impacto sobre estimulação, interações responsivas ou atributos psicológicos das crianças. As visitas foram interrompidas durante 12 meses devido à COVID-19, sendo substituídas por contatos virtuais. O estudo de implementação revelou baixa cobertura no GI, contaminação do GC, deficiências na gestão e baixa qualidade das visitas em muitos municípios. O estudo não demonstrou impacto do PCF implementado sob condições de rotina e fornece elementos para seu aprimoramento.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Brazil , Cities , Surveys and Questionnaires , Family , Program Evaluation
4.
Nutrients ; 15(10)2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233121

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-pandemic-related home confinement aids in limiting the spread of the virus but restricts exposure to sunlight, thereby possibly affecting 25(OH)D concentrations. This study aimed to investigate the effect of lockdown measures on 25(OH)D levels in outpatients visiting the healthcare centre over a period of two years. In this retrospective chart review, outpatients who visited a university healthcare centre for a health check-up over a period of two years were included. The patients' 25(OH)D serum levels and status were compared before, during, and after the lockdown periods. A total of 7234 patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 34.66 ± 16.78. The overall prevalence of 25(OH)D insufficiency, deficiency and sufficiency was 33.8%, 30.7% and 35.4%, respectively. The proportion of individuals with 25-(OH) D deficiency prior to lockdown was 29% and this proportion increased in the lockdown and post-lockdown periods to 31.1% and 32%, respectively. Although gender was less likely to have an impact on the 25 (OH) D level during the lockdown period (p = 0.630), we found an association between gender and 25 (OH) D status in the pre-lockdown and post-lockdown periods (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Another association between nationality and 25 (OH)D levels was found before, during and after the lockdown periods (p < 0.001). In addition, the youngest population, aged between 1 and 14, was strongly affected by the home confinement. Age had a positive and significant (p < 0.05) effect on 25 (OH) D status regardless of the different periods. Moreover, in the pre-lockdown period, male outpatients had 1.56 chance of having a sufficient level of 25 (OH)D. However, during the lockdown period, this chance decreased to 0.85 and then increased to 0.99 after the lockdown period. We found no statistically significant difference in the mean serum concentrations or in the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency when we compared values from before, during and immediately after the COVID-19 lockdown period. However, there was a generally increased prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in our study population. Another association between gender, nationality and age groups with 25(OH) D was found. Regular exposure to UVR is recommended for maintaining adequate vitamin D levels and to prevent vitamin D deficiency. Further research is needed to determine the best indications for vitamin D supplementation if confinement periods are extended and to consider the potential health consequences of prolonged confinement periods not only on vitamin D status but also on overall public health. The findings of this study may be considered by stakeholders for a targeted supplementation approach for risk groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Universities , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Vitamin D , Calcifediol , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamins , Risk Factors , Delivery of Health Care
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(11)2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232923

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, excess mortality has been reported worldwide, but its magnitude has varied depending on methodological differences that hinder between-study comparability. Our aim was to estimate variability attributable to different methods, focusing on specific causes of death with different pre-pandemic trends. Monthly mortality figures observed in 2020 in the Veneto Region (Italy) were compared with those forecasted using: (1) 2018-2019 monthly average number of deaths; (2) 2015-2019 monthly average age-standardized mortality rates; (3) Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) models; (4) Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) models. We analyzed deaths due to all-causes, circulatory diseases, cancer, and neurologic/mental disorders. Excess all-cause mortality estimates in 2020 across the four approaches were: +17.2% (2018-2019 average number of deaths), +9.5% (five-year average age-standardized rates), +15.2% (SARIMA), and +15.7% (GEE). For circulatory diseases (strong pre-pandemic decreasing trend), estimates were +7.1%, -4.4%, +8.4%, and +7.2%, respectively. Cancer mortality showed no relevant variations (ranging from -1.6% to -0.1%), except for the simple comparison of age-standardized mortality rates (-5.5%). The neurologic/mental disorders (with a pre-pandemic growing trend) estimated excess corresponded to +4.0%/+5.1% based on the first two approaches, while no major change could be detected based on the SARIMA and GEE models (-1.3%/+0.3%). The magnitude of excess mortality varied largely based on the methods applied to forecast mortality figures. The comparison with average age-standardized mortality rates in the previous five years diverged from the other approaches due to the lack of control over pre-existing trends. Differences across other methods were more limited, with GEE models probably representing the most versatile option.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Neoplasms , Humans , Child, Preschool , Pandemics , Italy/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mortality
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 575, 2023 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has shocked health systems worldwide. This analysis investigated the effects of the pandemic on basic health services utilization in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and examined the variability of COVID effects in the capital city Kinshasa, in other urban areas, and in rural areas. METHODS: We estimated time trends models using national health information system data to replicate pre-COVID-19 (i.e., January 2017-February 2020) trajectories of health service utilization, and then used those models to estimate what the levels would have been in the absence of COVID-19 during the pandemic period, starting in March 2020 through March 2021. We classified the difference between the observed and predicted levels as the effect of COVID-19 on health services. We estimated 95% confidence intervals and p-values to examine if the effect of the pandemic, nationally and within specific geographies, was statistically significant. RESULTS: Our results indicate that COVID-19 negatively impacted health services and subsequent recovery varied by service type and by geographical area. COVID-19 had a lasting impact on overall service utilization as well as on malaria and pneumonia-related visits among young children in the DRC. We also found that the effects of COVID-19 were even more immediate and stronger in the capital city of Kinshasa compared with the national effect. Both nationally and in Kinshasa, most affected services had slow and incomplete recovery to expected levels. Therefore, our analysis indicates that COVID-19 continued to affect health services in the DRC throughout the first year of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The methodology used in this article allows for examining the variability in magnitude, timing, and duration of the COVID effects within geographical areas of the DRC and nationally. This analytical procedure based on national health information system data could be applied to surveil health service disruptions and better inform rapid responses from health service managers and policymakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Information Systems , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Facilities and Services Utilization , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology
7.
Pediatr Neurosurg ; 58(1): 53-57, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240012

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Most people who are infected with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are asymptomatic or present with mild upper respiratory symptoms. This is especially true in the pediatric population; however, rarely, a massive cytokine storm can develop, causing multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID (MIS-C). Furthermore, children may also suffer from acute ischemic strokes secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present a 2-year-old male who was admitted to the hospital with MIS-C and evidence of a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. On postadmission day 2, the patient was in cardiogenic shock, had acute kidney injury, liver dysfunction, and metabolic acidosis. He had concurrent altered mental status, and his computed tomography scan showed ischemic infarcts in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery and superior cerebellar artery bilaterally. Magnetic resonance angiography confirmed occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery and right superior cerebellar artery. He underwent an emergent decompressive craniectomy due to rapid deterioration and cerebral edema. After the procedure, he continued to improve and was discharged with moderate disability that improved during outpatient rehab. CONCLUSION: Though rare in children, SARS-CoV-2 can lead to AIS, especially in the presence of underlying risk factors such as MIS-C and hypercoagulopathy. AIS can be associated with severe mortality and morbidity; however, even in this severe case of AIS, the patient was successfully treated with a decompressive craniectomy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Decompressive Craniectomy , Male , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/complications , Decompressive Craniectomy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Infarction/etiology , Cerebral Infarction/surgery
8.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1099, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic prompted rapid federal, state, and local government policymaking to buffer families from the health and economic harms of the pandemic. However, there has been little attention to families' perceptions of whether the pandemic safety net policy response was adequate, and what is needed to alleviate lasting effects on family well-being. This study examines the experiences and challenges of families with low incomes caring for young children during the pandemic. METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted from August 2020 to January 2021 with 34 parents of young children in California were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: We identified three key themes related to parents' experiences during the pandemic: (1) positive experiences with government support programs, (2) challenging experiences with government support programs, and (3) distress resulting from insufficient support for childcare disruptions. Participants reported that program expansions helped alleviate food insecurity, and those attending community colleges reported accessing a range of supports through supportive counselors. However, many reported gaps in support for childcare and distance learning, pre-existing housing instability, and parenting stressors. With insufficient supports, additional childcare and education workloads resulted in stress and exhaustion, guilt about competing demands, and stagnation of longer-term goals for economic and educational advancement. CONCLUSIONS: Families of young children, already facing housing and economic insecurity prior to the pandemic, experienced parental burnout. To support family well-being, participants endorsed policies to remove housing barriers, and expand childcare options to mitigate job loss and competing demands on parents. Policy responses that either alleviate stressors or bolster supports have the potential to prevent distress catalyzed by future disasters or the more common destabilizing experiences of economic insecurity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/epidemiology , Parents , Parenting , Government
9.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1091015, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239403

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Vaccination programs have been rolled out across the globe to contain and mitigate the spread of the COVID-19 infection. Until recently, such programs were limited to adults and the older population, thereby limiting children from getting vaccinated. Recently, the Malaysian government rolled out vaccination for children aged 5-11 years. However, there are certain factors that might affect vaccination uptake among children. This study explores factors influencing parents' hesitancy to vaccinate children in Malaysia. Method: A nationwide online cross-sectional convenience sampling survey from April 21, 2022 to June 3, 2022 was conducted. The study used descriptive statistics to inform about vaccine hesitancy among parents. Cross-tabulation was performed to calculate the frequency and percentage of vaccine hesitancy, quality of life, e-health literacy, and the 5C psychological antecedents of vaccination among parents with children 5-11 years in Malaysia. Graphical methods were used to portray the levels of e-health literacy and levels of 5C psychological antecedents of vaccination. The study used both bi-variate and multivariate analysis to understand the relationship between vaccine hesitancy and the socio-demo-economic factors, quality of life, e-health literacy and 5C psychological antecedents. Results: Of 382 participants, almost one-third (33%) of participants reported vaccine hesitancy for their children. For 5C's psychological antecedents of vaccination, around one quarter (26.96%) reported disagreement for confidence in vaccination, almost half (52.36%) reported disagreement for vaccination complacency, three-fifths (60.99%) reported vaccination constraint, one quarter (25.92%) reported calculation antecedent, and almost one-third reported disagreement over collective responsibility antecedent (25.92%). Chi-square test revealed that gender, employment status, and parents' COVID-19 vaccination status were significantly associated (p<0.05) with vaccine hesitancy among parents. Assessing the influence of transactional e-health literacy, only the communication component contained a significant association (p<0.05). Among the 5C psychological antecedents, confidence, calculation, and collective responsibility were significantly associated (p<0.05) with vaccine hesitancy. Parents with secondary [OR: 8.80; CI: 2.44-31.79, (p<0.05)], post-secondary [OR: 5.21; CI: 2.10-13.41, (p<0.05)], and tertiary education [OR: 6.77; CI: 2.25-20.35, (p<0.05)] had significantly higher likelihood of vaccine hesitancy than those with primary education. Conclusion: Highly educated parents are more skeptical and are more likely to perceive the vaccine as unsafe and ineffective for their children. It is critical to disseminate the required information about the vaccine safety to the educated group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Malaysia , Quality of Life , Vaccination
10.
Am J Emerg Med ; 69: 34-38, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Drowning is a common mechanism of injury in the pediatric population that often requires hospitalization. The primary objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of pediatric drowning patients evaluated in a pediatric emergency department (PED), including the clinical interventions and outcomes of this patient population. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of pediatric patients evaluated in a mid-Atlantic urban pediatric emergency department from January 2017 to December 2020 after a drowning event. RESULTS: Eighty patients ages 0-18 were identified, representing 57 79 unintentional events and 1 intentional self-injury event. The majority of patients (50%) were 1-4 years of age. The majority (65%) of patients 4 years of age or younger were White, whereas racial/ethnic minority patients accounted for the majority (73%) of patients 5 years of age or older. Most drowning events (74%) occurred in a pool, on Friday through Saturday (66%) and during the summer (73%). Oxygen was used in 54% of admitted patients and only in 9% of discharged patients. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed in 74% of admitted patients and 33% of discharged patients. CONCLUSIONS: Drowning can be an intentional or unintentional source of injury in pediatric patients. Among the patients who presented to the emergency department for drowning, more than half received CPR and/or were admitted, suggesting high acuity and severity of these events. In this study population, outdoor pools, summer season and weekends are potential high yield targets for drowning prevention efforts.


Subject(s)
Drowning , Child , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Drowning/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Ethnicity , Minority Groups , Emergency Service, Hospital
11.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1110755, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239023

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Although there is extended research on the response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines in adult cancer patients (ACP), the immunogenicity to the variants of concern (VOCs) in childhood cancer patients (CCP) and safety profiles are now little known. Methods: A prospective, multi-center cohort study was performed by recruiting children with a solid cancer diagnosis and childhood healthy control (CHC) to receive standard two-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. An independent ACP group was included to match CCP in treatment history. Humoral response to six variants was performed and adverse events were followed up 3 months after vaccination. Responses to variants were compared with ACP and CHC by means of propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis. Results: The analysis included 111 CCP (27.2%, median age of 8, quartile 5.5-15 years), 134 CHC (32.8%), and 163 ACP (40.0%), for a total 408 patients. Pathology included carcinoma, neural tumors, sarcoma, and germ cell tumors. Median chemotherapy time was 7 (quartile, 5-11) months. In PSM sample pairs, the humoral response of CCP against variants was significantly decreased, and serology titers (281.8 ± 315.5 U/ml) were reduced, as compared to ACP (p< 0.01 for the rate of neutralization rate against each variant) and CHC (p< 0.01 for the rate of neutralization against each variant) groups. Chemotherapy time and age (Pearson r ≥ 0.8 for all variants) were associated with the humoral response against VOCs of the CHC group. In the CCP group, less than grade II adverse events were observed, including 32 patients with local reactions, and 29 patients had systemic adverse events, including fever (n = 9), rash (n = 20), headache (n = 3), fatigue (n = 11), and myalgia (n = 15). All reactions were well-managed medically. Conclusions: The humoral response against VOCs after the CoronaVac vaccination in CCP was moderately impaired although the vaccine was safe. Age and chemotherapy time seem to be the primary reason for poor response and low serology levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcoma , Humans , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 374, 2023 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Distinguishing whether and how pre-existing characteristics impact maternal responses to adversity is difficult: Does prior well-being decrease the likelihood of encountering stressful experiences? Does it protect against adversity's negative effects? We examine whether the interaction between relatively uniformly experienced adversity (due to COVID-19 experience) and individual variation in pre-existing (i.e., pre-pandemic onset) distress predicted mothers' pandemic levels of distress and insensitive caregiving within a country reporting low COVID-19 death rates, and strict nationwide regulations. METHOD: Fifty-one Singaporean mothers and their preschool-aged children provided data across two waves. Pre- pandemic onset maternal distress (i.e., psychological distress, anxiety, and parenting stress) was captured via self-reports and maternal sensitivity was coded from videos. Measures were repeated after the pandemic's onset along with questionnaires concerning perceived COVID-19 adversity (e.g., COVID-19's impact upon stress caring for children, housework, job demands, etc.) and pandemic-related objective experiences (e.g., income, COVID-19 diagnoses, etc.). Regression analyses (SPSS v28) considered pre-pandemic onset maternal distress, COVID-19 stress, and their interaction upon post-pandemic onset maternal distress. Models were re-run with appropriate covariates (e.g., objective experience) when significant findings were observed. To rule out alternative models, follow up analyses (PROCESS Model) considered whether COVID-19 stress mediated pre- and post-pandemic onset associations. Models involving maternal sensitivity followed a similar data analytic plan. RESULTS: Pre-pandemic maternal distress moderated the association between COVID-19 perceived stress and pandemic levels of maternal distress (ß = 0.22, p < 0.01) but not pandemic assessed maternal sensitivity. Perceived COVID-19 stress significantly contributed to post-pandemic onset maternal distress for mothers with pre-pandemic onset distress scores above (ß = 0.30, p = 0.05), but not below (ß = 0.25, p = 0.24), the median. Objective COVID-19 adversity did not account for findings. Post-hoc analyses did not suggest mediation via COVID-19 stress from pre-pandemic to pandemic maternal distress. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing risk may interact with subsequent perceptions of adversity to impact well-being. In combination with existing research, this small study suggests prevention programs should focus upon managing concurrent mental health and may highlight the importance of enhanced screening and proactive coping programs for people entering high stress fields and/or phases of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Parenting/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological
13.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(4): 528-546, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238115

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in 2020 in Poland and to compare with the situation in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of case-based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drug susceptibility in cases notified in 2020, data from Statistics Poland on deaths from tuberculosis in 2019, data from National Institute of Public Health NIH - National Research Institute (NIPH NIH - NRI) on HIV-positive subjects for whom TB was an AIDS-defining disease, data from the report "European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, WHO Regional Office for Europe. Tuberculosis surveillance and monitoring in Europe 2022 - 2020 data. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe and Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; 2022." RESULTS: In 2020, 3,388 TB cases were reported in Poland. The incidence rate was 8.8 cases per 100,000 with large variability between voivodeships from 5.5 to 13.3 per 100,000. A decrease in the incidence was found in 15 voivodeships, the most significant in Slaskie voivodship (63.9%). The number of all pulmonary tuberculosis cases was 3,237 i.e. 8.4 per 100,000. Pulmonary cases represented 95.5% of all TB cases. In 2020, 151 extrapulmonary TB cases were notified (4.5% of all TB cases). Pulmonary tuberculosis was bacteriologically confirmed in 2,573 cases (79.5% of all pulmonary TB cases, the incidence rate 6.7 per 100,000). The number of smear-positive pulmonary TB cases was 1,771 i.e. 4.6 per 100,000 (54.7% of all pulmonary TB cases). In 2020, there were 38 cases (15 of foreign origin) with multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) representing 1.6% of cases with known drug sensitivity. The incidence rates of tuberculosis were growing along with increasing age from 0.7 per 100,000 among children (0-14 years) to 15.0 per 100,000 among subjects in the age group 45-64 years, the incidence rate in the age group ≥65 years was 12.1 per 100,000. There were 39 cases in children up to 14 years of age (1.2% of the total) and 49 cases in adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age - rates 0.7 and 2.7 per 100,000 respectively. In 2020, there were 2,506 cases of tuberculosis in men and 882 in women. The TB incidence in men - 13.5 per 100,000 was 3.0 times higher than among women - 4.5. The biggest difference in the TB incidence between the two sex groups occurred in persons aged 50-54 years - 26.8 vs. 4.1 and in age group 55 to 59 years - 28.7 vs. 4.8. In 2020, there were 116 patients of foreign origin among all cases of tuberculosis in Poland (3.4%). In 2019, TB was the cause of death for 456 people (mortality rate - 1.2 per 100,000). CONCLUSIONS: TB incidence in Poland in 2020 was 36.7% lower than in 2019. Such significant declines in the incidence have not been observed in the last two decades. As in previous years, there were differences in incidence rates between voivodeships with an unexpectedly sharp decrease in incidence in Silesia (Slaskie voivodeship). The percentage of tuberculosis cases with bacteriological confirmation exceeded 78%, more than in EU/EEA countries (67.3%). The percentage of MDR-TB cases was still lower than the average in EU/EEA countries (1.6% vs. 3.8%). The highest incidence rates were found in Poland in the older age groups (EU/EEAaged 25 to 44). The percentage of children up to 14 years of age among the total number of TB patients was 1.2%, less than the average in EU/EEA countries (3.8%). The incidence of tuberculosis in men was three times higher than in women in Poland, and six times higher in patients aged 50 to 59. The impact of migration on the TB pattern in Poland has not yet become significant in 2020. The percentage of foreigners among TB patients was 3.4% (33% in EU/EEA countries).


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Child , Male , Adolescent , Humans , Female , Aged , Young Adult , Adult , Child, Preschool , Poland/epidemiology , Urban Population , Age Distribution , Rural Population , Sex Distribution , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Incidence
14.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8416, 2023 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238068

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections in early childhood and adults has not been well analyzed in longitudinal serological studies. Here we analyzed the changes in HCoV (229E, HKU1, NL63, OC43, MERS, and SARS-CoV-2) spike-specific antibody levels in follow-up serum specimens of 140 children at the age of 1, 2, and 3 years, and of 113 healthcare workers vaccinated for Covid-19 with BNT162b2-vaccine. IgG antibody levels against six recombinant HCoV spike subunit 1 (S1) proteins were measured by enzyme immunoassay. We show that by the age of three years the cumulative seropositivity for seasonal HCoVs increased to 38-81% depending on virus type. BNT162b2 vaccinations increased anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 antibodies, but no increase in seasonal coronavirus antibodies associated with vaccinations. In healthcare workers (HCWs), during a 1-year follow-up, diagnostic antibody rises were seen in 5, 4 and 14% of the cases against 229E, NL63 and OC43 viruses, respectively, correlating well with the circulating HCoVs. In 6% of the HCWs, a diagnostic antibody rise was seen against S1 of HKU1, however, these rises coincided with anti-OC43 S1 antibody rises. Rabbit and guinea pig immune sera against HCoV S1 proteins indicated immunological cross-reactivity within alpha-CoV (229E and NL63) and beta-CoV (HKU1 and OC43) genera.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Adult , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Infant , Animals , Guinea Pigs , Rabbits , Reinfection , BNT162 Vaccine , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Health Personnel
15.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 12(3): 135-142, 2023 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) nasopharyngeal colonization precedes disease pathogenesis and varies among settings and countries. We sought to assess colonization prevalence, density, Spn serotypes, and antibiotic resistance in children in the first 6 months of life in pediatric primary care settings. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in Rochester, NY during 2018-2020. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 101 children at age 1, 2, and 3 weeks, then 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months. Spn serotypes were determined by Quellung. Oxacillin resistance for Spn and ß-lactamase production by Hflu and Mcat was tested. All children received PCV13 vaccine according to U.S. recommended schedule. RESULTS: Spn, Hflu, and Mcat colonization was detected in only 5% of infants before age 2 months old. Cumulative prevalence was 34% for Spn, 10% for Hflu, and 53% for Mcat in children ≤6 months of age. Nasopharyngeal bacterial density of Spn, Hflu, and Mcat (x = 2.71 log) in children ≤6 months of age was lower than at 7-24 months of age (x = 3.15 log, p < 0.0001). Predominant serotypes detected ≤6 months of age were 23B (16.7%), 22F (12.9%), 15B/C (11%), and 16F (9.2%). In total, 14.8% of Spn isolates were oxacillin resistant and 66.7% of Hflu isolates were ß-lactamase producing. CONCLUSION: Spn, Hflu, and Mcat nasopharyngeal colonization was uncommon and of low density among children ≤6 months old, especially among children <2 months of age. Non-PCV13 serotypes predominated and a different serotype distribution was observed in ≤6-month olds compared to 7- to 24-month olds.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Humans , Infant , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Moraxella catarrhalis , Prospective Studies , New York/epidemiology , Haemophilus influenzae , Drug Resistance, Microbial , beta-Lactamases , Oxacillin , Carrier State
16.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 25(7): 273-281, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236874

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the impacts of gun violence on early childhood development including early childhood mental health, cognitive development, and the assessment and treatment of survivors. RECENT FINDINGS: The literature reflects that gun violence exposure is often associated with significant mental health outcomes including anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and depression in older youth. Historically, studies have focused on adolescents and their exposures to gun violence through proximity to gun violence within their communities, neighborhoods, and schools. However, the impacts of gun violence on young children are less known. Gun violence has significant impacts on mental health outcomes of youth aged 0-18. Few studies focus specifically on how gun violence impacts early childhood development. In light of the increase in youth gun violence over the past three decades with a significant uptick since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, continued efforts are needed to better understand how gun violence impacts early childhood development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exposure to Violence , Firearms , Gun Violence , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Child, Preschool , Aged , Gun Violence/prevention & control , Pandemics , Exposure to Violence/psychology , Mental Health
17.
Int J Public Health ; 68: 1605826, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236770

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic and its protective measures have changed the daily lives of families and may have affected quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to analyze gender differences in QoL and to examine individuals living in different partnership and family constellations. Methods: Data from the Gutenberg COVID-19 cohort study (N = 10,250) with two measurement time points during the pandemic (2020 and 2021) were used. QoL was assessed using the EUROHIS-QOL questionnaire. Descriptive analyses and autoregressive regressions were performed. Results: Women reported lower QoL than men, and QoL was significantly lower at the second measurement time point in both men and women. Older age, male gender, no migration background, and higher socioeconomic status, as well as partnership and children (especially in men), were protective factors for QoL. Women living with children under 14 and single mothers reported significantly lower QoL. Conclusion: Partnership and family were protective factors for QoL. However, women with young children and single mothers are vulnerable groups for lower QoL. Support is especially needed for women with young children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , Male , Child , Female , Child, Preschool , Sex Factors , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(23): 621-626, 2023 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236639

ABSTRACT

As of May 7, 2023, CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all children aged 6 months-5 years receive at least 1 age-appropriate bivalent mRNA COVID-19 vaccine dose. Depending on their COVID-19 vaccination history and history of immunocompromise, these children might also need additional doses* (1-3). Initial vaccine safety findings after primary series vaccination among children aged 6 months-5 years showed that transient local and systemic reactions were common whereas serious adverse events were rare (4). To characterize the safety of a third mRNA COVID-19 vaccine dose among children aged 6 months-5 years, CDC reviewed adverse events and health surveys reported to v-safe, a voluntary smartphone-based U.S. safety surveillance system established by CDC to monitor health after COVID-19 vaccination (https://vsafe.cdc.gov/en/) and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a U.S. passive vaccine safety surveillance system co-managed by CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (https://vaers.hhs.gov/) (5). During June 17, 2022-May 7, 2023, approximately 495,576 children aged 6 months-4 years received a third dose (monovalent or bivalent) of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine and 63,919 children aged 6 months-5 years received a third dose of Moderna vaccine.† A third mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was recorded for 2,969 children in v-safe; approximately 37.7% had no reported reactions, and among those for whom reactions were reported, most reactions were mild and transient. VAERS received 536 reports after a third dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine for children in these age groups; 98.5% of reports were nonserious and most (78.4%) were classified as a vaccination error.§ No new safety concerns were identified. Preliminary safety findings after a third dose of COVID-19 vaccine for children aged 6 months-5 years are similar to those after other doses. Health care providers can counsel parents and guardians of young children that most reactions reported after vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine were mild and transient and that serious adverse events are rare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccines/adverse effects
19.
Bull World Health Organ ; 101(6): 371-380A, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236229

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine whether the positive results of a single-district pilot project focused on rectal artesunate administration at the community level in Zambia could be replicated on a larger scale. Methods: In partnership with government, in 10 rural districts during 2018-2021 we: (i) trained community health volunteers to administer rectal artesunate to children with suspected severe malaria and refer them to a health facility; (ii) supported communities to establish emergency transport, food banks and emergency savings to reduce referral delays; (iii) ensured adequate drug supplies; (iv) trained health workers to treat severe malaria with injectable artesunate; and (v) monitored severe malaria cases and associated deaths via surveys, health facility data and a community monitoring system. Results: Intervention communities accessed quality-assured rectal artesunate from trained community health volunteers, and follow-on treatment for severe malaria from health workers. Based on formal data from the health management information system, reported deaths from severe malaria reduced significantly from 3.1% (22/699; 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.0-4.2) to 0.5% (2/365; 95% CI: 0.0-1.1) in two demonstration districts, and from 6.2% (14/225; 95% CI: 3.6-8.8) to 0.6% (2/321; 95% CI: 0.0-1.3) in eight scale-up districts. Conclusion: Despite the effects of the coronavirus disease, our results confirmed that pre-referral rectal artesunate administered by community health volunteers can be an effective intervention for severe malaria among young children. Our results strengthen the case for wider expansion of the pre-referral treatment in Zambia and elsewhere when combined with supporting interventions.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Artemisinins , Malaria , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Artesunate/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Zambia , Artemisinins/therapeutic use , Pilot Projects , Malaria/drug therapy , Community Health Workers
20.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e068275, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236227

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The health of parents prior to conception, a woman's health during pregnancy and the infant's environment across their first months and years collectively have profound effects on the child's health across the lifespan. Since there are very few cohort studies in early pregnancy, gaps remain in our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning these relationships, and how health may be optimised. 'BABY1000', a pilot prospective longitudinal birth cohort study, aims to (1) identify factors before and during pregnancy and early life that impact longer-term health and (2) assess the feasibility and acceptability of study design to inform future research. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were based in Sydney, Australia. Women were recruited at preconception or 12 weeks' gestation, and data were collected from them throughout pregnancy and postpartum, their children until the age of 2 years, and dietary information from a partner (if able) at the last study visit. The pilot aimed to recruit 250 women. However, recruitment ceased earlier than planned secondary to limitations from the COVID-19 pandemic and the final number of subjects was 225. FINDINGS TO DATE: Biosamples, clinical measurements and sociodemographic/psychosocial measures were collected using validated tools and questionnaires. Data analysis and 24-month follow-up assessments for children are ongoing. Key early findings presented include participant demographics and dietary adequacy during pregnancy. The COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health and research restrictions affected recruitment of participants, follow-up assessments and data completeness. FUTURE PLANS: The BABY1000 study will provide further insight into the developmental origins of health and disease and inform design and implementation of future cohort and intervention studies in the field. Since the BABY1000 pilot was conducted across the COVID-19 pandemic, it also provides unique insight into the early impacts of the pandemic on families, which may have effects on health across the lifespan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Infant , Child , Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies
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