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1.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogota) ; 19(Especial de pandemias): 1-18, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1780282

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la pandemia de covid-19 ha suscitado un nuevo interés en la historia de la salud. Tanto en Chile como en otras partes del mundo, la búsqueda de respuestas en torno a cómo las sociedades pasadas han enfrentado la llegada de alguna epidemia ha hecho recordar que el contagio forma parte de nuestra historia y la estrecha relación que existe entre enfermedad y Estado. Desarrollo: se estudia la dimensión pública de la salud en Santiago de Chile entre los años 1810 y 1842, indagando, principalmente, en las respuestas que el Estado y sus instituciones entregaron en materia sanitaria frente a la aparición de brotes epidémicos. Se revisan las epidemias generadas por escarlatina, viruela y erisipela, dado que fueron las enfermedades que desencadenaron una respuesta de carácter institucional. Conclusión: la aparición de dichos brotes epidémicos se tradujo en que el Estado, a través de instituciones como el Protomedicato, la Junta de Sanidad, la Junta de Beneficencia o la Junta de Vacuna, articuló una respuesta sanitaria que se centró en mejorar las condiciones de higiene de la ciudad. A su vez, dio cuenta de dimensión pública de la enfermedad y de la capacidad que el Estado tuvo de poner en marcha medidas concretas que permitieran frenar los estragos de las epidemias


Introduction: The covid-19 pandemic has generated a new interest in the history of health. In Chile and other parts of the world, search for answers regarding societies that have dealt with epidemics reminds us that contagions have been a part of our history and that there is a close relationship between disease and the State. Development: We studied the public dimension of health in Santiago de Chile between 1810 and 1842, mainly considering the responses of the State and its institutions toward epidemic out-breaks. In addition, we reviewed the scarlet fever, smallpox, and erysipelas epidemics, as these were the diseases that triggered an institutional response. Conclusion: The appearance of these epidemic out-breaks signified that the State, through institutions such as the Protomedicato, Junta de Sanidad, Junta de Beneficencia, or Junta de Vacuna, articulated a sanitary response that focused on improving the hygienic conditions of the city. At the same time, epidemic outbreaks also showed the public dimension of a dis-ease and the State's capacity to implement specific measures to cope with the ravages of epidemics


Introdução: a pandemia que vivemos de covid-19 despertou um novo interesse na história da saúde. Tanto no Chile como em outras partes do mundo, a busca por respostas sobre como as sociedades do passado enfrentaram a chegada de uma epidemia nos lembrou que o contágio faz parte da nossa história e da estreita relação que existe entre a doença e o Estado. Desenvolvimento: estuda-se a dimensão pública da saúde em Santiago do Chile entre os anos 1810 e 1842, investigando principalmente as respostas que o Estado e suas instituições deram em matéria de saúde ante o aparecimento de surtos epidêmicos. Revisamos as epidemias geradas pela escarlatina, varíola e erisipela, por serem as doenças que desen-cadearam uma resposta institucional. Conclusão: o surgimento desses surtos epidêmicos fez com que o Estado, por meio de instituições como o Protomedicato, o Conselho de Saúde, o Conselho de Caridade ou o Conselho de Vacinas, articulasse uma resposta sanitária centrada na melhoria das condições de higiene da cidade. Ao mesmo tempo, deu conta da dimensão pública da doença e da capacidade de que dispõe o Estado para implementar medidas concretas que permitiram conter a devastação das epidemias


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease Outbreaks , Unified Health System , Chile , Hygiene , Epidemics , COVID-19 , History
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 797569, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779967

ABSTRACT

Vaccine administration is one of the most efficient ways to control the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the appearance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants can avoid the immunity generated by vaccines. Thus, in patients with a complete vaccine schedule, the infection by SARS-CoV-2 may cause severe, mild, and asymptomatic manifestations of the disease. In this case report, we describe for the first time the clinical symptoms of four patients (three symptomatic; one asymptomatic) from Santiago of Chile, with a complete vaccination schedule with two doses of CoronaVac (Sinovac Life Science) infected with the variant of interest (VOI) B.1.621 (Mu). They were compared with four unvaccinated patients, who had a higher prevalence of symptoms after infection compared to vaccinated patients. In the CoronaVac-vaccinated group, an 80-year-old patient who registered various comorbidities required Invasive mechanical ventilation for 28 days with current home medical recovery discharge. By contrast, in the unvaccinated group, a 71-year-old presented more symptoms with more than 45 days of Invasive mechanical ventilation, which continues to date, presenting greater lung damage than the vaccinated hospitalized patient. This first report evidence differences in the clinical symptomatology of patients vaccinated and non-vaccinated infected with the VOI B.1.621 (Mu) and suggest the protective effects of CoronaVac against this variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chile , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(4): 524-529, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773981

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variant Lambda was dominant in several South American countries, including Chile. To ascertain the efficacy of local vaccination efforts, we used pseudotyped viruses to characterize the neutralization capacity of antibodies elicited by CoronaVac (n = 53) and BNT162b2 (n = 56) in healthcare workers from Clínica Santa María and the Faculty of Medicine at Universidad de Chile, as well as in convalescent plasma from individuals infected during the first wave visiting the Hospital Clínico at Pontificia Universidad Católica (n = 30). We observed that BNT162b2 elicits higher neutralizing antibody titres than CoronaVac, with differences ranging from 7.4-fold for the ancestral spike (Wuhan-Hu-1) to 8.2-fold for the Lambda spike and 13-fold for the Delta spike. Compared with the ancestral virus, neutralization against D614G, Alpha, Gamma, Lambda and Delta variants was reduced by between 0.93- and 4.22-fold for CoronaVac, 1.04- and 2.38-fold for BNT162b2, and 1.26- and 2.67-fold for convalescent plasma. Comparative analyses among the spike structures of the different variants suggest that mutations in the spike protein from the Lambda variant, including the 246-252 deletion in an antigenic supersite at the N-terminal domain loop and L452Q/F490S within the receptor-binding domain, may account for immune escape. Interestingly, analyses using pseudotyped and whole viruses showed increased entry rates into HEK293T-ACE2 cells, but reduced replication rates in Vero-E6 cells for the Lambda variant when compared with the Alpha, Gamma and Delta variants. Our data show that inactivated virus and messenger RNA vaccines elicit different levels of neutralizing antibodies with different potency to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the variant of interest Lambda.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Chile , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
4.
J Educ Eval Health Prof ; 19: 6, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760208

ABSTRACT

This article aims to share the online collaborative experience of interprofessional teamwork among healthcare undergraduate students based on community learning during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Chile. This experience took place in 48 different communities in Chile from November 10, 2020 to January 12, 2021. It was a way of responding to the health education needs of the community when the entire Chilean population was in confinement. Students managed to adapt to the COVID-19 pandemic despite the challenges, including internet connectivity problems and the limited time available to do the work. The educational programs and videos shared in this article will be helpful for other interprofessional health educators to implement the same kind of program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chile , Health Education , Humans , Interprofessional Education , Interprofessional Relations , Pandemics
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 6889285, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759514

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To develop and implement a "semi-presential" technology platform to support urgent and priority dental care for the elderly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic among the Chilean population. Methods: A dental mobile clinic was implemented along with the development of a technological platform designed to support emergency and priority dental procedures, including teleconsultation with specialists. Under strict biosafety protocols, dental care was provided in five Chilean regions between February and May 2021. Sociodemographic, medical, and dental data were recorded. Results: A total of 135 patients over sixty years old, with a mean age of 72 years, were treated, 48 males and 87 females were attended between February and May 2021 in five different regions of Chile. 53.3% required immediate or urgent treatment, and 24.4% were derived to specialists from whom 60.6% needed immediate or urgent treatment. 74.3% of teleconsultations were derived to an oral pathology specialist. Conclusion: It was shown that a "semi-presential" technology platform implemented in a mobile dental clinic can help elderly people who are impeded to look for traditional dental assistance during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dental Health Services/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Mobile Health Units/standards , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chile , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
7.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686894

ABSTRACT

The Valparaiso region in Chile was decreed a zone affected by catastrophe in 2019 as a consequence of one of the driest seasons of the last 50 years. In this study, three varieties ('Alfa-INIA', 'California-INIA', and one landrace, 'Local Navidad') of kabuli-type chickpea seeds produced in 2018 (control) and 2019 (climate-related catastrophe, hereafter named water stress) were evaluated for their grain yield. Furthermore, the flavonoid profile of both free and esterified phenolic extracts was determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the concentration of the main flavonoid, biochanin A, was determined using liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The grain yield was decreased by up to 25 times in 2019. The concentration of biochanin A was up to 3.2 times higher in samples from the second season (water stress). This study demonstrates that water stress induces biosynthesis of biochanin A. However, positive changes in the biochanin A concentration are overshadowed by negative changes in the grain yield. Therefore, water stress, which may be worsened by climate change in the upcoming years, may jeopardize both the production of chickpeas and the supply of biochanin A, a bioactive compound that can be used to produce dietary supplements and/or nutraceuticals.


Subject(s)
Cicer/chemistry , Cicer/metabolism , Dehydration/metabolism , Chile , Chromatography, Liquid , Cicer/growth & development , Climate Change/economics , Edible Grain/growth & development , Edible Grain/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Mass Spectrometry , Phenols/analysis , Seeds/chemistry
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686782

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between the behavioral profile of physical activity and sedentary time with subjective well-being and mental health in university students during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a voluntary sample of 469 university students (22.4 ± 0.19 years; 66% women). According to students' self-reports of physical activity and sedentary time, four behavioral profiles were created to investigate their association with subjective well-being and mental health using one-factor ANOVA that was adjusted to a multifactorial model. RESULTS: The physically inactive and sedentary behavior profile presents the lowest levels of subjective well-being (p < 0.001), positive affective experiences (p < 0.001) and general mental health (p = 0.001). When adjusting for confounding variables, it was observed that the physically active and non-sedentary profile was associated with better general mental health (p < 0.01) in contrast to those who are physically active and sedentary. CONCLUSIONS: Chilean university students with a physically inactive and sedentary profile during the pandemic presented worse well-being and mental health, with a sedentary lifestyle being one of the variables that most affects the mental health of these students. Therefore, measures should be implemented to encourage this population to maintain adequate levels of physical activity and reduce sedentary times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sedentary Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/psychology , Universities
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686768

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus emergency prompted unprecedented safety measures, which were accepted by the population of each country to different degrees, for example, with more or less willingness to use personal protective elements (PPEs). We have developed a mathematical model of the contagion process, based on chilean data, to assess the interaction between biological factors (such as the impact of vaccination) and behavioral factors (such as the population's perception of risk). The model clearly shows that the virus spreads through three waves of contagion, the second being the most prominent, regardless of any alteration in the variables taken into account, which only affect the overall number of people infected. By considering alternative values of the risk perception variable and examining the different possible scenarios, we have also found that the less reaction to change the population has (and the lower the disposition to use PPEs), the higher the waves of contagion and the death toll are.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chile/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263047, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677582

ABSTRACT

Fitting Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) models to incidence data is problematic when not all infected individuals are reported. Assuming an underlying SIR model with general but known distribution for the time to recovery, this paper derives the implied differential-integral equations for observed incidence data when a fixed fraction of newly infected individuals are not observed. The parameters of the resulting system of differential equations are identifiable. Using these differential equations, we develop a stochastic model for the conditional distribution of current disease incidence given the entire past history of reported cases. We estimate the model parameters using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte-Carlo sampling of the posterior distribution. We use our model to estimate the transmission rate and fraction of asymptomatic individuals for the current Coronavirus 2019 outbreak in eight American Countries: the United States of America, Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Panama, from January 2020 to May 2021. Our analysis reveals that the fraction of reported cases varies across all countries. For example, the reported incidence fraction for the United States of America varies from 0.3 to 0.6, while for Brazil it varies from 0.2 to 0.4.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , Brazil/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Markov Chains , Mexico/epidemiology , Panama/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Stochastic Processes , United States/epidemiology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674636

ABSTRACT

Strategies to reduce the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have caused different behavioural modifications in all populations. Therefore, this study aimed to determine changes in active commuting, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), physical fitness, and sedentary time during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chilean parents. Eighty-six fathers (41.30 ± 6.82 years) and 294 mothers (40.68 ± 6.92 years) of children from different schools from Valparaíso, Chile, participated. Inclusion criteria were adults with schoolchildren who were resident in Chile during the research period. Convenience sampling was used as a non-probabilistic sampling technique. Respondents completed a self-reported online survey about active commuting, MVPA, self-perceived physical fitness, and sedentary time July-September 2020 during the first pandemic period. Comparisons between before and during the pandemic were performed using t-tests and covariance analysis (ANCOVA), establishing a significance level at p < 0.05. Most participants stayed at home during the pandemic, whereas active and passive commuting significantly decreased in both fathers and mothers (p < 0.001). MVPA and physical fitness scores reduced considerably (p < 0.05), while sedentary time significantly increased (p < 0.05), independent of the sex of parents and children's school type. Differences by age groups and the number of children were more heterogeneous, as younger parents showed a larger decrease in MVPA (p < 0.05) and physical fitness score (p < 0.05). Additionally, parents with one child showed a larger decrease in sedentary time (p < 0.05) than those with two or more children. The COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected healthy behaviours. Hence, health policies should promote more strategies to mitigate the long-term health effects of the pandemic on Chilean parents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Chile/epidemiology , Exercise , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Fitness , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior
12.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261953, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627806

ABSTRACT

During recent years, multimorbidity has taken relevance because of the impact of causes in the system, people, and their families, which has been a priority in the health care plan. Interventions strategies and their implementation are still an emerging topic. In this context, Centro de Innovación en Salud ANCORA UC, together with Servicio de Salud Metropolitano Sur Oriente, implemented as a pilot study High-Risk Multimorbidity Integrated Care strategy. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of this strategy in terms of health services utilization and mortality. A cohort study was conducted with high-risk patients with multimorbidity, stratified by ACG®, intervened between April 2017 and December 2019. The studied population was 3,933 patients who belonged to similar size and location primary care centers. The impact analysis was performed used generalized linear models. Results showed that intervened patients had a significantly lower incidence in mortality (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.40-0.77), hospital admissions, length of stay, and the number of hospital emergency consultancies. With the proper barriers and facilitators of a real context intervention, the implementation process allowed the systematization and consolidation of the intervention provided in this study. The training for new roles and the constant implementation support from the Centro de Innovación en Salud ANCORA UC team were essential in the progress and success of the intervention. A complete description of the high-risk intervention strategy is provided to contribute to this emerging topic and facilitate its scale-up. We can conclude that this complex intervention was feasible to be implemented in a real context. The Ministry of Health has taken the systematization and consolidation of the conditions for the national scale-up.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Multimorbidity , Primary Health Care , Public Health , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chile , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(1): 56-63, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: By July 14, 2021, 81·3 % of adults (aged ≥18 years) in Chile had received a first SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and 72·3% had received a second SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, with the majority of people given Sinovac's inactivated CoronaVac vaccine (75·3% of vaccines dispensed) or Pfizer-BioNTech's mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine (20·9% of vaccines dispensed). Due to the absence of simultaneous real-world data for these vaccines, we aimed to compare SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity between vaccines using a dynamic national monitoring strategy. METHODS: From March 12, 2021, 28 testing stations for SARS-CoV-2 IgG detection were installed in hotspots based on cellular-phone mobility tracking within the most populated cities in Chile. Individuals voluntarily approaching the testing stations were invited to do a lateral flow test by finger prick and respond to a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, vaccination status (including type of vaccine if one was received), variables associated with SARS-CoV-2 exposure, and comorbidities. We compared the proportion of individuals testing positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG across sites by week since vaccination between recipients of CoronaVac and BNT162b2. Unvaccinated participants served as a control population and were matched to vaccinated individuals on the basis of date of presentation to the testing station, gender, and age group. Individuals were excluded from the analysis if they were younger than 18 years, had no declared gender, had an invalid IgG test result, had previously tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection on PCR, could not recall their vaccination status, or had been immunised against COVID-19 with vaccines other than CoronaVac or BNT162b2. Here, we report data collected up to July 2, 2021. FINDINGS: Of 64 813 individuals enrolled, 56 261 were included in the final analysis, of whom 33 533 (59·6%) had received at least one dose of the CoronaVac vaccine, 8947 (15·9%) had received at least one dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, and 13 781 (24·5%) had not received a vaccine. SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity during week 4 after the first dose of CoronaVac was 28·1% (95% CI 25·0-31·2; 220 of 783 individuals), reaching a peak of 77·4% (75·5-79·3; 1473 of 1902 individuals) during week 3 after the second dose. SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity during week 4 after the first dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine was 79·4% (75·7-83·1; 367 of 462 individuals), increasing to 96·5% (94·9-98·1; 497 of 515 individuals) during week 3 after the second dose and remaining above 92% until the end of the study. For unvaccinated individuals, IgG seropositivity ranged from 6·0% (4·4-7·6; 49 of 810 individuals) to 18·7% (12·5-24·9; 28 of 150 individuals) during the 5 month period. Regression analyses showed that IgG seropositivity was significantly lower in men than women and in people with diabetes or chronic diseases for CoronaVac vaccine recipients (p<0·0001), and for individuals aged 60 years and older compared with people aged 18-39 years for both vaccines (p<0·0001), 3-16 weeks after the second dose. INTERPRETATION: IgG seropositivity was lower after CoronaVac than after BNT162b2 and declined over time since vaccination for CoronaVac recipients but not BNT162b2 recipients. Prolonged IgG monitoring will allow further evaluation of seropositivity overtime, providing data, in conjunction with effectiveness studies, for possible future re-assessment of vaccination strategies. FUNDING: Instituto Sistemas Complejos de Ingeniería and Ministerio de Salud Chile. TRANSLATION: For the Spanish translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Chile/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Sentinel Surveillance , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sex Factors , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
14.
Infant Ment Health J ; 43(1): 8-23, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589091

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has impacted families' mental health around the globe. In June 2020, 1163 parents of high (43%), middle (47%), and low socioeconomic status (SES) (10%) participated in an online survey developed to explore how daily life changes and restrictions that came with COVID-19 affected the experiences of pregnancy and/or parenting children under the age of 5 in Chile. The survey's design had an exploratory and descriptive scope, with a mix of qualitative and quantitative questions. With the aim of exploring differences before and after COVID-19, two time periods were established, and the 47-item questionnaire covered participants' sociodemographic information, support networks, health concerns, mood changes, self-regulation, adult and children's perceived well-being, parental competencies and parents' perceptions of the unborn baby and/or their children's needs. The results relative to retrospective reporting of pre-pandemic levels, showed an increase in children's crying and tantrums as well as in parental irritability and sadness. Additionally, decreases in the ability to calm down and sleep quality in both parents and children were identified. Finally, at a qualitative level, COVID-19 stands out both as an opportunity to get to know their children better and as a stressor related to parental burn-out and discomfort.


La sin precedentes pandemia del COVID-19 ha tenido un impacto en la salud mental de las familias alrededor del mundo. En junio de 2020, 1,163 progenitores de condiciones socioeconómicas (SES) altas (43%), medias (47%) y bajas (10%) participaron en una encuesta por computadora desarrollada para explorar cómo los cambios en la vida diaria y las restricciones que surgieron con el COVID-19 afectaron las experiencias de embarazo y/o crianza de niños bajo la edad de 5 años en Chile. El diseño de la encuesta tenía un alcance exploratorio y descriptivo, con una mezcla de preguntas cualitativas y cuantitativas. Con el propósito de explorar las diferencias antes y después del COVID-19, se establecieron dos períodos de tiempo, y el cuestionario de 47 puntos cubría la información sociodemográfica de los participantes, las redes de apoyo, las preocupaciones relacionadas con la salud, los cambios en el estado de ánimo, la autorregulación, la percepción del bienestar de adultos y niños, las competencias de los padres y las percepciones de los padres acerca del bebé no nacido y/o las necesidades de sus niños. Los resultados relativos al reporte retrospectivo de niveles previos a la pandemia mostraron un incremento en el llanto y las rabietas de los niños como también en la irritabilidad y estado de tristeza de los padres. Adicionalmente, se identificó una disminución en la habilidad de calmar y la calidad del sueño tanto en padres como en niños. Finalmente, al nivel cualitativo, el COVID-19 se presenta tanto como una oportunidad de llegar a conocer mejor a sus niños y como un factor de estrés relacionado con la fatiga y la incomodidad de los padres.


La pandémie sans précédent du COVID-19 a impacté la santé mentale des familles dans le monde entier. En juin 2020 1163 parents issus d'un milieu socioéconomique élevé (43%), moyen (47%) et peu élevé (10%) ont participé à un questionnaire en ligne afin d'explorer comment les changements de la vie de tous les jours et les restrictions qui ont accompagné le COVID-19 ont affecté les expériences de grossesse et/ou le parentage d'enfants sous l'âge de 5 ans au Chili. La conception de l'enquête avait une portée exploratoire et descriptive, avec un mélange de questions qualitatives et quantitatives. Avec le but d'explorer les différences entre l'avant et l'après COVID-19, deux périodes de temps ont été établies, et le questionnaire de 47 éléments a couvert les renseignements sociodémographiques des participants, leurs réseaux de soutien, leurs inquiétudes relatives à la santé, les changements d'humeurs, l'auto-régulation, le bien-être perçu des adultes et des enfants, les compétences parentales et les perceptions des parents du bébé à naître et/ou des besoins de leurs enfants. Les résultats relatifs aux états de fait rétrospectifs de niveaux pré pandémiques ont montré une augmentation des pleurs des enfants et des crises des enfants ainsi qu'une augmentation de l'irritabilité et de la tristesse parentale. De plus des baisses dans la capacité à se calmer t dans la qualité de sommeil des deux parents et des enfants ont été identifiées. Finalement, au niveau qualitatif, le COVID-19 se distingue à la fois en tant qu'une chance de mieux connaître leurs enfants et en tant que facteur de stress lié au burn-out et au malaise parental.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Chile , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parenting , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 144: 72-83, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587325

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Health care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection, however not all face the same risk. We aimed to determine IgG/IgM prevalence and risk factors associated with seropositivity in Chilean HCWs. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a nationwide, cross-sectional study including a questionnaire and COVID-19 lateral flow IgG/IgM antibody testing. All HCWs in the Chilean public health care system were invited to participate following the country's first wave. RESULTS: IgG/IgM positivity in 85,529 HCWs was 7.2%, ranging from 1.6% to 12.4% between regions. Additionally, 9.7% HCWs reported a positive PCR of which 47% were seropositive. Overall, 10,863 (12.7%) HCWs were PCR and/or IgG/IgM positive. Factors independently associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) for seropositivity were: working in a hospital, night shifts, contact with Covid-19, using public transport, male gender, age>45, BMI ≥30, and reporting ≥2 symptoms. Stress and/or mental health disorder and smoking were associated with decreased ORs. These factors remained significant when including PCR positive cases in the model. CONCLUSIONS: HCWs in the hospital were at highest risk for COVID-19, and several independent risk factors for seropositivity and/or PCR positivity were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 743300, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581123

ABSTRACT

In January 2021, the Chilean city of Concepción experienced a second wave of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) while in early April 2021, the entire country faced the same situation. This outbreak generated the need to modify and validate a method for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in saliva, thereby expanding the capacity and versatility of testing for COVID-19. This study was conducted in February 2021 in the Chilean city of Concepción during which time, the town was under total quarantine. The study participants were mostly symptomatic (87.4%), not hospitalized, and attended care centers because of their health status rather than being asked by the researchers. People coming to the health center in Concepción to be tested for COVID-19 (via reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR]) from a specimen of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) were then invited to participate in this study. A total of 131 participants agreed to sign an informed consent and to provide saliva and NPS specimens to validate a method in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and statistical analysis of the cycle threshold (Ct) values from the RT-PCR. Calculations pertaining to the 127 participants who were ultimately included in the analysis showed sensitivity and specificity at 94.34% (95% CI: 84.34-98.82%) and 98.65% (95% CI: 92.70-99.97%), respectively. The saliva specimen showed a performance comparable to NPS as demonstrated by the diagnostic parameters. This RT-PCR method from the saliva specimen is a highly sensitive and specific alternative compared to the reference methodology, which uses the NPS specimen. This modified and validated method is intended for use in the in vitro diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, which provides health authorities in Chile and local laboratories with a real testing alternative to RT-PCR from NPS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Chile , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling
17.
J Perinat Med ; 50(2): 132-138, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559337

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The SARS-CoV-2 virus continues wreaking worldwide havoc on health and between March and August 2020, the first outbreak of COVID-19 hit Chile. The pregnant population is especially vulnerable to infection. Studies have been published that associate socioeconomic status, overcrowding, and poverty with a higher prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. There are few studies about the development of this pandemic in Latin American countries so far. This study seeks to show the prevalence and sociodemographic and perinatal characteristics in pregnant women at the time of delivery, comparing both groups with positive and negative COVID-19 PCR results. METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional study of pregnant women who delivered at the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Santiago between April 15, 2020 and June 15, 2020. Analysis of epidemiological, sociodemographic, obstetric, perinatal and sociodemographic data of patients with positive and negative COVID-19 PCR results. RESULTS: There were 701 patients included in the study. The prevalence of those with a positive COVID-19 PCR was 9.7% and 67.7% being asymptomatic. Pre-term delivery was significantly higher in the group of positive patients (23.5%) vs. negative patients (8.7%), which was not the same rate as with cesarean sections (C-sections). A 13.2% of patients required management of the pathology in the Critical Care Unit (CCU) and there were no cases of maternal or fetal deaths. We found no significant difference between both groups when analyzing socioeconomic variables, though we noted a trend of greater overcrowding among the group of patients with infection. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of pregnant patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are asymptomatic. COVID-19 increases the rate of premature births, but this rate is not same with C-sections. Sociodemographic conditions and overcrowding do not show a higher infection rate in a homogeneous population in relation to the economic, social and demographic level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Chile/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Young Adult
18.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(3): 273-280, may.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1552056

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Históricamente, las pandemias han tenido como resultado tasas de mortalidad más altas en las poblaciones más vulnerables. Los determinantes sociales de la salud (DSS) se han asociado a la morbimortalidad de las personas en diferentes niveles. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre los DSS, la severidad de COVID-19 y la mortalidad por esta enfermedad. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo en el que se recolectaron datos de pacientes con COVID-19 en un hospital público de Chile. Las variables sociodemográficas relacionadas con los DSS estructurales se clasificaron según las siguientes categorías: sexo, edad (< 65 años, ≥ 65 años), educación secundaria (completada o no), condición de trabajo (activo, inactivo) e ingreso económico (< USD 320, ≥ USD 320). Resultados: Fueron incluidos 1012 casos con COVID-19 confirmados por laboratorio. La edad promedio fue de 64.2 ± 17.5 años. La mortalidad de la muestra total fue de 14.5 %. La edad, nivel educativo, desempleo e ingresos tuvieron fuerte asociación con la mortalidad (p < 0.001). Conclusiones: Los hallazgos refuerzan la idea de que los DSS deben considerarse una prioridad de salud pública, por lo que los esfuerzos políticos deben centrarse en reducir las desigualdades en salud para las generaciones futuras.


Abstract Introduction: Historically, pandemics have resulted in higher mortality rates in the most vulnerable populations. Social determinants of health (SDH) have been associated with people morbidity and mortality at different levels. Objective: To determine the relationship between SDH and COVID-19 severity and mortality. Methods: Retrospective study, where data from patients with COVID-19 were collected at a public hospital in Chile. Sociodemographic variables related to structural SDH were classified according to the following categories: gender, age (< 65 years, ≥ 65 years), secondary education (completed or not), work status (active, inactive) and income (< USD 320, ≥ USD 320). Results: A total of 1,012 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were included. Average age was 64.2 ± 17.5 years. Mortality of the entire sample was 14.5 %. Age, level of education, unemployment and income had a strong association with mortality (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The findings reinforce the idea that SDH should be considered a public health priority, which is why political efforts should focus on reducing health inequalities for future generations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Social Determinants of Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Educational Status , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitals, Public , Income/statistics & numerical data
19.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542800

ABSTRACT

This review aims to explore the role and value of serology testing in the context of COVID-19 immunization policies in Latin American countries and the barriers and challenges to the adequate use and uptake of this tool. It builds on a review of the academic literature, evidence, and existing policies, and includes a multistage process of discussion and feedback by a group of five experts. Regional and country-level evidence and resources from five focus countries-Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico-were collected and analyzed. This review contains an overview of (1) the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the variants of concern and current testing strategies, (2) the introduction of COVID-19 vaccination, (3) the potential use of serology testing to support immunization initiatives, (4) the current frameworks for the use of serology testing in the region, and (5) the barriers and challenges to implementing serology testing in the context of COVID-19 immunization policies, including a discussion on the potential actions required to address these barriers and facilitate the uptake of this strategy in the region. Stakeholders can use elements of this document to guide timely decision-making, raise awareness, and inspire further studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Policy , Immunization/standards , Antibodies, Viral , Argentina , Brazil , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Chile , Colombia , Humans , Latin America , Mexico , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 263-270, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535083

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Historically, pandemics have resulted in higher mortality rates in the most vulnerable populations. Social determinants of health (SDH) have been associated with people morbidity and mortality at different levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between SDH and COVID-19 severity and mortality. METHODS: Retrospective study, where data from patients with COVID-19 were collected at a public hospital in Chile. Sociodemographic variables related to structural SDH were classified according to the following categories: gender, age (< 65 years, ≥ 65 years), secondary education (completed or not), work status (active, inactive) and income (< USD 320, ≥ USD 320). RESULTS: A total of 1,012 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were included. Average age was 64.2 ± 17.5 years. Mortality of the entire sample was 14.5 %. Age, level of education, unemployment and income had a strong association with mortality (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings reinforce the idea that SDH should be considered a public health priority, which is why political efforts should focus on reducing health inequalities for future generations.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Históricamente, las pandemias han tenido como resultado tasas de mortalidad más altas en las poblaciones más vulnerables. Los determinantes sociales de la salud (DSS) se han asociado a la morbimortalidad de las personas en diferentes niveles. OBJETIVO: Determinar la relación entre los DSS, la severidad de COVID-19 y la mortalidad por esta enfermedad. MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo en el que se recolectaron datos de pacientes con COVID-19 en un hospital público de Chile. Las variables sociodemográficas relacionadas con los DSS estructurales se clasificaron según las siguientes categorías: sexo, edad (< 65 años, ≥ 65 años), educación secundaria (completada o no), condición de trabajo (activo, inactivo) e ingreso económico (< USD 320, ≥ USD 320). RESULTADOS: Fueron incluidos 1012 casos con COVID-19 confirmados por laboratorio. La edad promedio fue de 64.2 ± 17.5 años. La mortalidad de la muestra total fue de 14.5 %. La edad, nivel educativo, desempleo e ingresos tuvieron fuerte asociación con la mortalidad (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONES: Los hallazgos refuerzan la idea de que los DSS deben considerarse una prioridad de salud pública, por lo que los esfuerzos políticos deben centrarse en reducir las desigualdades en salud para las generaciones futuras.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chile/epidemiology , Educational Status , Female , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Income/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
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