Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 8.458
Filter
1.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 41(4): 280-286, 2023 Apr 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245733

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the wearing of masks and the knowledge of masks among high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission. Methods: From May 14 to 17, 2022, a convenient sampling method was used to conduct an online survey among 963 workers in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission in Beijing. The behaviors of individual use and wearing masks, the distribution and supervision of the unit, the knowledge of personal mask protection and the subjective feelings of wearing masks were analyzed. The χ(2) test and logistic regression model were used to analyze the influencing factors of the correct selection of masks. Results: The majority of the workers in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission were male (86.0%, 828/963), age concentration in 18-44 years old (68.2%, 657/963), and the majority of them had college or bachelor degrees (49.4%, 476/963). 79.4%(765/963) of the workers chose the right type of masks, female, 45-59 years old and high school education or above were the risk factors for correct selection of masks (P <0.05). Workers had good behaviors such as wearing/removing masks, but only 10.5% (101/963) could correctly rank the protective effect of different masks. 98.4% (948/963) of the workers believed that their work units had provided masks to their employees, and 99.1% (954/963) and 98.2%(946/963) of them had organized training and supervision on the use of masks, respectively. 47.4%(456/963) of the workers were uncomfortable while wearing masks. Conclusion: The overall selection and use of masks among occupational groups in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission in China need to be further standardized. It is necessary to strengthen supervision and inspection on the use of masks among occupational groups, and take improvement measures to improve the comfort of wearing masks.


Subject(s)
Masks , Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , China , Surveys and Questionnaires , Beijing
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1847-1852, 2021 May.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236334

ABSTRACT

The text presents and discusses the main aspects related to the current dynamics of the vaccine industry in the world and in Brazil, focusing on the demand created by the pandemic of COVID-19. At the global level, it briefly exposes the place currently occupied by Brazil within the scope of the BRICS and sets out and analyzes the options - identities and differences - of industrial policy in Brazil, China and India in the field of vaccines. Next, it analyzes the displacement of the vaccine industry, from a situation of exclusive production of immunizers to a majority control by the large pharmaceutical industry. Further on, it recovers recent fundamental aspects of the vaccine industry in Brazil, with an emphasis on Biomanguinhos / Fiocruz and the Butantan Institute. Finally, it discusses the successes and limitations of the technology transfer mechanism used by the two institutions, as well as the relevance of their historically assumed commitment to public health policies.


O texto apresenta e discute os principais aspectos relacionados à dinâmica atual da indústria de vacinas no mundo e no Brasil, com foco na demanda criada pela pandemia da COVID-19. No plano global, expõe brevemente o lugar ocupado atualmente pelo Brasil no âmbito dos BRICS e expõe e analisa as opções - identidades e diferenças - da política industrial de Brasil, China e Índia no campo das vacinas. A seguir, analisa o deslocamento da indústria de vacinas de uma situação de produção exclusiva de imunizantes para um controle majoritário da grande indústria farmacêutica. Mais adiante, recupera aspectos fundamentais recentes da indústria de vacinas no Brasil, com ênfase em Biomanguinhos/Fiocruz e no Instituto Butantan. Finalmente, discute os sucessos e limitações do mecanismo de transferência de tecnologia utilizado pelas duas instituições, bem como a relevância do compromisso historicamente assumido pelas mesmas com as políticas públicas de saúde.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Brazil , China , Humans , India , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22847, 2020 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238619

ABSTRACT

Numerous cases of pneumonia from a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China during December 2019.We determined the correlations of patient parameters with disease severity in patients with COVID-19.A total of 132 patients from Wuhan Fourth Hospital who had COVID-19 from February 1 to February 29 in 2020 were retrospectively analyzed.Ninety patients had mild disease, 32 had severe disease, and 10 had critical disease. The severe/critical group was older (P < .05), had a higher proportion of males (P < .05), and had a greater mortality rate (0% vs 61.9%, P < .05). The main symptoms were fever (n = 112, 84.8%) and cough (n = 96, 72.7%). Patients were treated with antiviral agents (n = 94, 71.2%), antibiotics (n = 92, 69.7%), glucocorticoids (n = 46, 34.8%), intravenous immunoglobulin (n = 38, 27.3%), and/or traditional Chinese medicine (n = 40, 30.3%). Patients in the severe/critical group received mechanical ventilation (n = 22, 16.7%) or high-flow nasal can-nula oxygen therapy (n = 6, 4.5%). Chest computed tomography (CT) indicated bilateral pneumonia in all patients. Relative to the mild group, the severe/critical group had higher levels of leukocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), D-dimer, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), liver enzymes, and myocardial enzymes (P < .05), and decreased levels of lymphocytes and blood oxygen partial pressure (P < .05).The main clinical symptoms of patients from Wuhan who had COVID-19 were fever and cough. Patients with severe/critical disease were more likely to be male and elderly. Disease severity correlated with increased leukocytes, CRP, PCT, BNP, D-dimer, liver enzymes, and myocardial enzymes, and with decreased lymphocytes and blood oxygen partial pressure.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(5)2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240748

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the viral infection known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Disease Outbreaks , China/epidemiology
8.
Science ; 379(6639): 1286, 2023 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240613

ABSTRACT

Stricter rules could prevent disease outbreaks, but allowances for fur farming spur concern.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Disease Outbreaks , Wildlife Trade , China , Farms , Wildlife Trade/legislation & jurisprudence , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(32): 79386-79401, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239653

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 severely affected the world in 2020. Taking the two outbreaks in China in 2020 and 2022 as examples, the spatiotemporal changes in surface water quality levels and CODMn and NH3-N concentrations were analyzed, and the relationships between the variations in the two pollutants and environmental and social factors were evaluated. The results showed that during the two lockdowns, due to the total water consumption (including industrial, agricultural, and domestic water) decreased, the proportion of good water quality increased by 6.22% and 4.58%, and the proportion of polluted water decreased by 6.00% and 3.98%, the quality of water environment has been improved significantly. However, the proportion of excellent water quality decreased by 6.19% after entering the unlocking period. Before the second lockdown period, the average CODMn concentration exhibited a "falling, rising, and falling" trend, while the average NH3-N concentration changed in the opposite direction. The correlation analysis revealed that the increasing trend of pollutant concentrations was positively correlated with longitude and latitude, and weakly correlated with DEM and precipitation. A slight decrease trend in NH3-N concentration was negatively correlated with the population density variation and positively correlated with the temperature variation. The relationship between the change in the number of confirmed cases in provincial regions and the change in pollutant concentrations was uncertain, with positive and negative correlations. This study demonstrates the impact of lockdowns on water quality and the possibility of improving water quality through artificial regulation, which can provide a reference basis for water environmental management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Humans , Water Quality , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Rivers , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , China
10.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2212571, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239029

ABSTRACT

Since March 2020, the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has affected nearly all aspects of daily life. In this study, we investigated the age-stratified prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) among females in Shandong province (eastern China) and aimed to provide guidance on HPV-based cervical cancer screening and vaccination. The distribution of HPV genotypes was analyzed using PCR-Reverse Dot Hybridization. The overall infection rate of HPV was 16.4%, which was dominated by high-risk genotypes. The most prevalent genotype was HPV16 (2.9%), followed by HPV52 (2.3%), HPV53 (1.8%), HPV58 (1.5%), and HPV51 (1.3%). Among the positive cases with HPV infection, single-genotype infection was significantly higher than that of multi-genotype infection. In subgroup analyses by age (≤25, 26-35, 36-45, 46-55, >55), HPV16, 52, and 53 were consistently the three most common hrHPV genotypes in all age groups. The infection rate of multi-genotypes in the ≤25 and >55 age groups was significantly higher than that in other age groups. A bimodal distribution of HPV infection rate was observed in different age groups. Among lrHPV genotypes, HPV6, HPV11, and HPV81 were the three most common types in the ≤25 age group, while in other age groups, HPV81, HPV42, and HPV43 are the three most common lrHPV genotypes. This study provides basic information on the distribution and genotypes of HPV in the female population in eastern China, which could improve the application of HPV diagnostic probes and vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Human Papillomavirus Viruses , Pandemics , Prevalence , Early Detection of Cancer , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genotype , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , China/epidemiology
11.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 13(2): 303-312, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Delta variant of SARS-COV-2 has replaced previously circulating strains around the world in 2021. Sporadic outbreaks of the Delta variant in China have posed a concern about how to properly respond to the battle against evolving COVID-19. Here, we analyzed the "hierarchical and classified prevention and control (HCPC)" measures strategy deployed during the recent Guangzhou outbreak. METHODS: A modified susceptible-exposed-pre-symptomatic-infectious-recovered (SEPIR) model was developed and applied to study a range of different scenarios to evaluate the effectiveness of policy deployment. We simulated severe different scenarios to understand policy implementation and timing of implementation. Two outcomes were measured: magnitude of transmission and duration of transmission. The outcomes of scenario evaluations were presented relative to the reality case (i.e., 368 cases in 34 days) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Based on our simulation, the outbreak would become out of control with 7 million estimated infections under the assumption of the absence of any interventions than the 153 reported cases in reality in Guangzhou. The simulation on delayed implementation of interventions showed that the total case numbers would also increase by 166.67%-813.07% if the interventions were delayed by 3 days or 7 days. CONCLUSIONS: It may be concluded that timely and more precise interventions including mass testing and graded community management are effective measures for Delta variant containment in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , China/epidemiology
12.
Bioanalysis ; 15(10): 581-589, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239009

ABSTRACT

Aims: This study was designed to analyze the requirements for clinical trials of SARS-CoV-2 antigen testing to explore the rationality and scientific rigor of clinical trials. Methods: The guidelines for the listing of SARS-CoV-2 antigen tests were compared and the requirements for clinical trials were analyzed to find similarities and differences between China, the USA and Europe. Results: The requirements for clinical trials of SARS-CoV-2 antigen tests in China, the USA and Europe were consistent in terms of methods. However, differences were found in the requirements for protocol design. Conclusion: The differences in clinical trial requirements stem from regulations and the actual conditions across regions, but all clinical trials are designed to obtain valid clinical performance of products.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , China , Clinical Trials as Topic , COVID-19/diagnosis , Europe , Immunologic Tests , United States
13.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 20(6): 237-243, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238943

ABSTRACT

Salmonella is one of the most important foodborne pathogens. In this article, a total of 160 Salmonella isolates recovered from retail meats in June-July 2018 (before COVID-19 outbreak) and December 2020-April 2021 (after COVID-19 outbreak) in Nanchang, China, were characterized for serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility, and specific resistance gene screening. The prevalence of Salmonella Typhimurium increased from 5.4% in 2018 to 19.1% in 2021, and Salmonella Enteritidis increased from 3.3% in 2018 to 8.8% in 2021. Compared with those in June-July 2018, Salmonella isolates in December 2020-April 2021 demonstrated a significant increase in resistance to 13 tested antibiotics except for doxycycline and nitrofurantoin (p < 0.05). The Salmonella isolates in December 2020-April 2021 showed a higher presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS), and mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (gyrA Asp87Asn, gyrA Asp87Tyr, parC Thr57Ser, and parC Ser80Ile). Whole-genome sequencing was used to analyze four polymyxin B-resistant strains. Some common mutation sites in eptC and micA were found in the four strains. Based on the data in this article, it indicated that antibiotic resistance was facilitated and more gene mutations related to quinolone resistance were developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quinolones , Humans , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Salmonella typhimurium , Meat , China/epidemiology
14.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 993, 2023 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic increases the risk of psychological problems, especially for the infected population. Sleep disturbance and feelings of defeat and entrapment are well-documented risk factors of anxiety symptoms. Exploring the psychological mechanism of the development of anxiety symptoms is essential for effective prevention. This study aimed to examine the mediating effects of entrapment and defeat in the association between sleep disturbance and anxiety symptoms among asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers in Shanghai, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April, 2022. Participants were 1,283 asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers enrolled from the Ruijin Jiahe Fangcang Shelter Hospital, Shanghai (59.6% male; mean age = 39.6 years). Questionnaire measures of sleep disturbance, entrapment, defeat, anxiety symptoms, and background characteristics were obtained. A mediation model was constructed to test the mediating effects of entrapment and defeat in the association between sleep disturbance and anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of sleep disturbance and anxiety symptoms were 34.3% and 18.8%. Sleep disturbance was positively associated with anxiety symptoms (OR [95%CI] = 5.013 [3.721-6.753]). The relationship between sleep disturbance and anxiety symptoms (total effect: Std. Estimate = 0.509) was partially mediated by entrapment (indirect effect: Std. Estimate = 0.129) and defeat (indirect effect: Std. Estimate = 0.126). The mediating effect of entrapment and defeat accounted for 50.3% of the association between sleep disturbance and anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION: Sleep disturbance and anxiety symptoms were prevalent among asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers. Entrapment and defeat mediate the association between sleep disturbance and anxiety symptoms. More attention is needed to monitoring sleep conditions and feelings of defeat and entrapment to reduce the risk of anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Depression/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Special , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Mobile Health Units , Anxiety/epidemiology , Sleep , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology
15.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1089, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against COVID-19 continue to have an impact on socioeconomic and population behaviour patterns. However, the effect of NPIs on notifiable infectious diseases remains inconclusive due to the variability of the disease spectrum, high-incidence endemic diseases and environmental factors across different geographical regions. Thus, it is of public health interest to explore the influence of NPIs on notifiable infectious diseases in Yinchuan, Northwest China. METHODS: Based on data on notifiable infectious diseases (NIDs), air pollutants, meteorological data, and the number of health institutional personnel in Yinchuan, we first fitted dynamic regression time series models to the incidence of NIDs from 2013 to 2019 and then estimated the incidence for 2020. Then, we compared the projected time series data with the observed incidence of NIDs in 2020. We calculated the relative reduction in NIDs at different emergency response levels in 2020 to identify the impacts of NIPs on NIDs in Yinchuan. RESULTS: A total of 15,711 cases of NIDs were reported in Yinchuan in 2020, which was 42.59% lower than the average annual number of cases from 2013 to 2019. Natural focal diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases showed an increasing trend, as the observed incidence in 2020 was 46.86% higher than the estimated cases. The observed number of cases changed in respiratory infectious diseases, intestinal infectious diseases and sexually transmitted or bloodborne diseases were 65.27%, 58.45% and 35.01% higher than the expected number, respectively. The NIDs with the highest reductions in each subgroup were hand, foot, and mouth disease (5854 cases), infectious diarrhoea (2157 cases) and scarlet fever (832 cases), respectively. In addition, it was also found that the expected relative reduction in NIDs in 2020 showed a decline across different emergency response levels, as the relative reduction dropped from 65.65% (95% CI: -65.86%, 80.84%) during the level 1 response to 52.72% (95% CI: 20.84%, 66.30%) during the level 3 response. CONCLUSIONS: The widespread implementation of NPIs in 2020 may have had significant inhibitory effects on the incidence of respiratory infectious diseases, intestinal infectious diseases and sexually transmitted or bloodborne diseases. The relative reduction in NIDs during different emergency response levels in 2020 showed a declining trend as the response level changed from level 1 to level 3. These results can serve as essential guidance for policy-makers and stakeholders to take specific actions to control infectious diseases and protect vulnerable populations in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Intestinal Diseases , Humans , Time Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Incidence
16.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 24(6): 463-484, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238798

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has continued to spread globally since late 2019, representing a formidable challenge to the world's healthcare systems, wreaking havoc, and spreading rapidly through human contact. With fever, fatigue, and a persistent dry cough being the hallmark symptoms, this disease threatened to destabilize the delicate balance of our global community. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of COVID-19 is a prerequisite for understanding the number of confirmed cases in the world or a region, and an important factor in epidemic assessment and the development of control measures. It also plays a crucial role in ensuring that patients receive the appropriate medical treatment, leading to optimal patient care. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology is currently the most mature method for detecting viral nucleic acids, but it has many drawbacks. Meanwhile, a variety of COVID-19 detection methods, including molecular biological diagnostic, immunodiagnostic, imaging, and artificial intelligence methods have been developed and applied in clinical practice to meet diverse scenarios and needs. These methods can help clinicians diagnose and treat COVID-19 patients. This review describes the variety of such methods used in China, providing an important reference in the field of the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 , Humans , China , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing
17.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0285247, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238784

ABSTRACT

The advanced manufacturing industry is located at the top of the manufacturing value chain. Its development is restricted by supply chain collaboration (SCC), the level of which is affected by many factors. Few studies comprehensively summarize what influences SCC and distinguish the impact level of each factor. Practitioners have difficulty isolating the primary factors that affect SCC and managing them effectively. Therefore, based on synergetics and the theory of comparative advantage, this study analyzes what influences SCC in the advanced manufacturing industry and how these influencing factors work, using data from 94 manufacturing enterprises and the Haken model to identify the influencing factors. The results show that China's advanced manufacturing supply chain underwent a phase change and entered a new stage during 2017-2018. In the new stage, the competitive advantages of enterprises are one order parameter (slow variable) and are primary factors affecting SCC. The interest demands of enterprises are a fast variable and are secondary factors affecting SCC. The competitive advantages of enterprises dominate the interests of enterprises in affecting the collaboration level of China's advanced manufacturing supply chain. In addition, in the process of influencing SCC, there is a positive correlation between the competitive advantages of enterprises and the interest demands of enterprises, and the two factors have a positive feedback mechanism. Finally, when the enterprises in the supply chain cooperate based on their differential advantages, the collaboration capability of the supply chain is at the highest level, and the overall operation of the supply chain is orderly. In terms of theoretical contribution, this study is the first to propose a collaborative motivation framework that conforms to the characteristics of sequential parameters, which provides a theoretical reference for subsequent studies on SCC. In addition, the theory of comparative advantage and synergetics are linked for the first time in this study, and both of them are enriched and developed. Equally importantly, this study compares the bidirectional influence between firms' competitive advantages and firms' interest demands and the ability of both to influence SCC, enriching previous validation studies of unidirectional influence. In terms of practical implications, this study guides top managers to focus on the management practice of collaborative innovation in the supply chain and advises purchasing managers and sales managers on selecting supply chain partnerships.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Manufacturing Industry , Motivation , Records , China
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(16): 46647-46656, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238783

ABSTRACT

The study aims to explore the importance of the tourism business model with the emergence of the blockchain platform in China. The study focused on the importance of the tourism business model of china, studied the need to improve the tourism business infrastructure, and traced the value of the blockchain system in the tourism industry of china. For this, the researchers used a semi-structured interview approach to conduct a qualitative research design. About nine Chinese tourism and travel industry experts were interwar after initial screening using purposive sampling techniques. The respondents' responses were analyzed by applying a thematic analysis approach, and by this, the researchers extracted the main themes on study topicality to fill the gap in the literature. The study's novelty is in its topicality and context, for which it also provides viable, practical directions for stakeholders.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Tourism , Travel , Industry , China
19.
Environ Int ; 176: 107967, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A large gap exists between the latest Global Air Quality Guidelines (AQG 2021) and Chinese air quality standards for NO2. Assessing whether and to what extent air quality standards for NO2 should be tightened in China requires a comprehensive understanding of the spatiotemporal characteristics of population exposure to ambient NO2 and related health risks, which have not been studied to date. OBJECTIVE: We predicted ground NO2 concentrations with high resolution in mainland China, explored exposure characteristics to NO2 pollution, and assessed the mortality burden attributable to NO2 exposure. METHODS: Daily NO2 concentrations in 2019 were predicted at 1-km spatial resolution in mainland China using random forest models incorporating multiple predictors. From these high-resolution predictions, we explored the spatiotemporal distribution of NO2, population and area percentages with NO2 exposure exceeding criterion levels, and premature deaths attributable to long- and short-term NO2 exposure in China. RESULTS: The cross-validation R2and root mean squared error of the NO2 predicting model were 0.80 and 7.78 µg/m3, respectively,at the daily level in 2019.The percentage of people (population number) with annual NO2 exposure over 40 µg/m3 in mainland China in 2019 was 10.40 % (145,605,200), and it reached 99.68 % (1,395,569,840) with the AQG guideline value of 10 µg/m3. NO2 levels and population exposure risk were elevated in urban areas than in rural. Long- and short-term exposures to NO2 were associated with 285,036 and 121,263 non-accidental deaths, respectively, in China in 2019. Tightening standards in steps gradually would increase the potential health benefit. CONCLUSION: In China, NO2 pollution is associated with significant mortality burden. Spatial disparities exist in NO2 pollution and exposure risks. China's current air quality standards may no longer objectively reflect the severity of NO2 pollution and exposure risk. Tightening the national standards for NO2 is needed and will lead to significant health benefits.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Particulate Matter/analysis , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(33): 81019-81037, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238648

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 has swept across the world, the escalating number of confirmed and suspected cases overwhelmed the admission capacity of the designated hospitals. Faced with such a grim situation, governments made a quick decision to build emergency medical facilities to address the outbreak. However, the emergency medical facilities faced a huge risk of epidemic spread and improper site could lead to serious secondary transmission. Using the disaster prevention and risk avoidance function of urban green space can solve the problem of selecting the location of emergency medical facilities to a certain extent, with country parks having a high degree of compatibility with the latter. Based on the location requirements of emergency medical facilities, using Analytic Hierarchy Process and Delphi method, through analyzing the type of country parks, effective risk avoidance area, spatial fragmentation, distance from water sources, wind direction, and distance from the city, quantification of 8 impact factors such as hydrogeology and traffic duration was conducted to comprehensively compare 30 country parks in Guangzhou. The results showed that the overall quality of country parks approximated a normal distribution, with Lianma Forest Country Park having the highest comprehensive score and the most balanced distribution of scores for various impact factors. Considering safety, expandability, rehabilitation, convenience, pollution prevention, and fecal isolation, it is a preferred destination for emergency medical facility construction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , Parks, Recreational , Emergencies , Cities , China , Public Facilities
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL