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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2109, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chlorine dioxide has been promoted as an alternative for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, especially in Peru, despite the lack of evidence to support its efficacy. This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with chlorine dioxide consumption in the Peruvian population. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study. An adult Peruvian population was evaluated where chlorine dioxide consumption was divided into two groups according to the purpose of use: as prevention (individuals without COVID-19 history) and as treatment (individuals with COVID-19 history). The associated factors in each group were evaluated using Poisson regressions with the bootstrapping resampling method. RESULTS: Of 3610 participants included, 3213 reported no history of COVID-19, and 397 had been infected. The prevalence of chlorine dioxide consumption to prevent or treat COVID-19 was 8 and 16%, respectively. Factors either positively or negatively associated with chlorine dioxide consumption for prevention were male sex (aPR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.09-1.71), being an adult or older adult (aPR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.35-0.82), having a health sciences student within the family unit (aPR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.02-1.87), using medical information as the main source of information of COVID-19 (aPR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.40-0.80), having comorbidities for COVID-19 (aPR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.01-1.82), considering COVID-19 dangerous and deadly (aPR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.45-0.74), using medications (aPR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.25-2.06) and plants to prevent COVID-19 (aPR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.21-2.36), considering chlorine dioxide ineffective (aPR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.18-0.24), and being uninformed of its efficacy (aPR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.16-0.28). In addition, factors associated with chlorine dioxide consumption for treatment were considering COVID-19 dangerous and deadly (aPR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.33-0.96), considering chlorine dioxide ineffective (aPR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.12-0.42), and being uninformed of its efficacy (aPR: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.07-0.32). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of chlorine dioxide consumption to treat COVID-19 was higher than prevent. It is important to apply information strategies, prioritizing population groups with certain characteristics that are associated with a higher consumption pattern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Chlorine Compounds , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Oxides , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 14(6): 1655-1660, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474148

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most devastating worldwide crises in recent years. During this pandemic, people have been exposed to products that have not been proven to be safe and effective against COVID-19. We present an adult chronic consumer of chlorine dioxide, in which a fatal outcome is described. This case demonstrates that for people searching products to protect themselves from COVID-19, unregulated access to industrial disinfectants represents a dangerous alternative. To date, there is no scientific evidence to uphold the use of chlorine dioxide or chlorine derivatives as preventive or therapeutic agents against COVID-19. Researchers and general population must take into consideration the fatal possible consequences of not following communications and warnings from health authorities and government institutions.


Subject(s)
Chlorine Compounds/poisoning , Disinfectants/poisoning , Intestinal Perforation , Oxides/poisoning , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Intestinal Perforation/chemically induced , Pandemics
3.
J Hosp Infect ; 118: 20-26, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) abruptly emerged in Wuhan, China, in 2019 and rapidly spread globally to cause the COVID-19 pandemic. AIM: To examine the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of the potent disinfectant Cleverin, the major disinfecting component of which is chlorine dioxide (ClO2); and to compare the results with that of sodium hypochlorite in the presence or absence of 0.5% or 1.0% foetal bovine serum (FBS). METHODS: Concentrated SARS-CoV-2 viruses were treated with various concentrations of ClO2 and sodium hypochlorite and 50% tissue culture infective dose was calcurated to evaluate the antiviral activity of each chemical. FINDINGS: When SARS-CoV-2 viruses were treated with 0.8 ppm ClO2 or sodium hypochlorite, viral titre was decreased only by 1 log10 TCID50/mL in 3 min. However, the viral titre was decreased by more than 4 log10 TCID50/mL when treated with 80 ppm of each chemical for 10 s regardless of presence or absence of FBS. It should be emphasized that treatment with 24 ppm of ClO2 inactivated more than 99.99% SARS-CoV-2 within 10 s or 99.99% SARS-CoV-2 in 1 min in the presence of 0.5% or 1.0% FBS, respectively. By contrast, 24 ppm of sodium hypochlorite inactivated only 99% or 90% SARS-CoV-2 in 3 min under similar conditions. Notably, except for ClO2, the other components of Cleverin such as sodium chlorite, decaglycerol monolaurate, and silicone showed no significant antiviral activity. CONCLUSION: Altogether, the results strongly suggest that although ClO2 and sodium hypochlorite are strong antiviral agents in absence of organic matter but in presence of organic matter, ClO2 is a more potent antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2 than sodium hypochlorite.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlorine Compounds , Disinfectants , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chlorine , Chlorine Compounds/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Oxides/pharmacology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology
4.
Hemodial Int ; 25(4): E40-E43, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258934

ABSTRACT

Chlorine dioxide has been historically used as a disinfecting agent for drinking water supplies and surfaces. Widespread use as an alternative option for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 has emerged due to a lack of specific treatment. We present the case of a 55-year-old male who developed acute kidney injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation after chlorine dioxide prophylactic ingestion, with regression after therapy with hemodialysis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Chlorine Compounds , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxides , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154525

ABSTRACT

The emergent human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its high infectivity rate has highlighted the strong need for new disinfection systems. Evidence has proven that airborne transmission is an important route of spreading for this virus. Therefore, this short communication introduces CLODOS Technology®, a novel strategy to disinfect contaminated surfaces. It is a product based on stable and 99% pure chlorine dioxide, already certified as a bactericide, fungicide and virucide against different pathogens. In this study, CLODOS Technology®, by direct contact or thermonebulization, showed virucidal activity against the human coronavirus HCoV-229E at non-cytotoxic doses. Different conditions such as nebulization, exposure time and product concentration have been tested to standardize and optimize this new feasible method for disinfection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Cell Line , Chlorine Compounds/analysis , Chlorine Compounds/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disinfectants/analysis , Disinfection/instrumentation , Humans , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Oxides/analysis , Oxides/pharmacology
6.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(4): 21, 2021 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126627

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide relevant, aggregate information about a variety of disinfectants and antiseptics, along with potential utility and limitations. While not exhaustive, this review's goal is to add to the body of literature available on this topic and give interventional providers and practitioners an additional resource to consider when performing procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: In the current SARS-CoV2 epidemiological environment, infection control and costs associated with healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are of paramount importance. Even before the onset of SARS-CoV2, HAIs affected nearly 2million patients a year in the USA and resulted in nearly 90,000 deaths, all of which resulted in a cost to hospitals ranging from US$28 billion to 45 billion. The onset SARS-CoV2, though not spread by an airborne route, has heightened infection control protocols in hospitals and, as such, cast a renewed focus on disinfectants and their utility across different settings and organisms. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of disinfectants used in the inpatient setting.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disinfectants , Chlorine Compounds , Ethanol , Formaldehyde , Glutaral , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Iodophors , Oxides , Peracetic Acid , Phenol , Povidone-Iodine , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Sodium Hypochlorite , Triazines
8.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(4): 605-610, 2020.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076945

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the effectiveness and safety of chlorine dioxide solution and chlorine derivatives used in the prevention or treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: This review adheres to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) and follows the guidelines provided in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. A librarian developed and executed the search strategy; it was further reviewed by two of the authors and complemented by manual search. Randomized clinical trials, quasi-experimental studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and case reports were included; in vitro or animal studies were excluded. Abstract and full-text screening according to pre-defined eligibility criteria were performed by two reviewers independently using web application Rayyan QCRI. Disagreements on study selection were resolved by a third reviewer. The systematic review protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020200641). RESULTS: Neither published nor pre-print studies evaluating the use of chlorine dioxide or derivatives on SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified. The only finding was an unpublished observational study registry which has no results released yet. CONCLUSIONS: To date, there are no scientific evidence to uphold the use of chlorine dioxide or derivatives as preventive or therapeutic agents against COVID-19.


OBJETIVOS: Realizar una revisión sistemática acerca de la efectividad y seguridad del uso de dióxido de cloro y derivados del cloro, en la prevención o el tratamiento de la COVID-19. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se siguieron las pautas internacionales de elaboración de revisiones sistemáticas de PRISMA y el Manual Cochrane para revisiones sistemáticas de intervenciones. La estrategia de búsqueda la desarrolló un bibliotecario y la revisaron dos de los autores. Se complementó la búsqueda electrónica con una búsqueda manual. Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados, estudios cuasiexperimentales, estudios de cohorte, estudios de casos y controles, estudios de corte transversal y reportes de casos; y se excluyeron estudios in vitro o realizados en animales. Dos revisores, de forma independiente, seleccionaron los estudios según los criterios de elegibilidad definidos, usando el aplicativo web Rayyan, en caso de discordancia se hizo partícipe a un tercer revisor. El protocolo de la revisión sistemática se registró en PROSPERO (CRD42020200641). RESULTADOS: No se identificó ningún estudio publicado ni en proceso de publicación que haya evaluado el uso del dióxido de cloro o derivados del cloro, administrado por vía inhalatoria, oral o parenteral en humanos, como agente preventivo o terapéutico de la COVID-19 o en infecciones por otros coronavirus. Solo se identificó el registro de un único estudio catalogado como observacional que hasta ahora no tiene resultados. CONCLUSIONES: A la fecha, no existe evidencia científica que apoye el uso del dióxido de cloro o derivados del cloro para prevenir o tratar la COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorine Compounds/therapeutic use , Oxides/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorine Compounds/adverse effects , Humans , Oxides/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
9.
Physiol Int ; 107(1): 1-11, 2020 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-18420

ABSTRACT

Motivation: Viruses have caused many epidemics throughout human history. The novel coronavirus [10] is just the latest example. A new viral outbreak can be unpredictable, and development of specific defense tools and countermeasures against the new virus remains time-consuming even in today's era of modern medical science and technology. In the lack of effective and specific medication or vaccination, it would be desirable to have a nonspecific protocol or substance to render the virus inactive, a substance/protocol, which could be applied whenever a new viral outbreak occurs. This is especially important in cases when the emerging new virus is as infectious as SARS-CoV-2 [4]. Aims and structure of the present communication: In this editorial, we propose to consider the possibility of developing and implementing antiviral protocols by applying high purity aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solutions. The aim of this proposal is to initiate research that could lead to the introduction of practical and effective antiviral protocols. To this end, we first discuss some important properties of the ClO2 molecule, which make it an advantageous antiviral agent, then some earlier results of ClO2 gas application against viruses will be reviewed. Finally, we hypothesize on methods to control the spread of viral infections using aqueous ClO2 solutions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Chlorine Compounds/pharmacology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Oxides/pharmacology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Clinical Protocols , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pharmaceutical Solutions/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2
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