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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082045

ABSTRACT

There has been an immense effort by global pharmaceutical companies to develop anti-COVID-19 drugs, including small molecule-based RNA replication inhibitors via drug repositioning and antibody-based spike protein blockers related to cell entry by SARS-CoV-2. However, several limitations to their clinical use have emerged in addition to a lack of progress in the development of small molecule-based cell entry inhibitors from natural products. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of kuwanon C (KC), which has mainly been researched using in silico docking simulation and can serve as an effective building block for developing anti-COVID-19 drugs, in blocking the spike S1 RBD:ACE2 receptor interaction. KC is a natural product derived from Morus alba L., commonly known as mulberry, which has known antiviral efficacy. Molecular interaction studies using competitive ELISA and the BLItz system revealed that KC targets both the spike S1 RBD and the ACE2 receptor, successfully disrupting their interaction, as supported by the in silico docking simulation. Furthermore, we established a mechanism of action by observing how KC prevents the infection of SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped virus in ACE2/TPRSS2-overexpressing HEK293T cells. Finally, we demonstrated that KC inhibits clinical isolates of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells. Future combinations of small molecule-based cell entry inhibitors, such as KC, with the currently prescribed RNA replication inhibitors are anticipated to significantly enhance the efficacy of COVID-19 therapies.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Morus , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Morus/metabolism , Vero Cells , HEK293 Cells , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Pharmaceutical Preparations , RNA/metabolism
2.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071840

ABSTRACT

Host-virus protein interactions are critical for intracellular viral propagation. Understanding the interactions between cellular and viral proteins may help us develop new antiviral strategies. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious coronavirus that causes severe damage to the global swine industry. Here, we employed co-immunoprecipitation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize 426 unique PEDV nucleocapsid (N) protein-binding proteins in infected Vero cells. A protein-protein interaction network (PPI) was created, and gene ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database analyses revealed that the PEDV N-bound proteins belong to different cellular pathways, such as nucleic acid binding, ribonucleoprotein complex binding, RNA methyltransferase, and polymerase activities. Interactions of the PEDV N protein with 11 putative proteins: tripartite motif containing 21, DEAD-box RNA helicase 24, G3BP stress granule assembly factor 1, heat shock protein family A member 8, heat shock protein 90 alpha family class B member 1, YTH domain containing 1, nucleolin, Y-box binding protein 1, vimentin, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1, and karyopherin subunit alpha 1, were further confirmed by in vitro co-immunoprecipitation assay. In summary, studying an interaction network can facilitate the identification of antiviral therapeutic strategies and novel targets for PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Nucleic Acids , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Swine , Animals , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Vimentin/metabolism , Vero Cells , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/metabolism , Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Karyopherins/metabolism , Nucleic Acids/metabolism
3.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071839

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the family Coronaviridae, causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and high mortality in newborn piglets, and has caused significant economic losses in the pig industry. There are currently no specific drugs available to treat PEDV. Viruses depend exclusively on the cellular machinery to ensure an efficient replication cycle. In the present study, we found that small-molecule RAF265, an anticancer drug that has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of RAF, reduced viral loads of PEDV by 4 orders of magnitude in Vero cells, and protected piglets from virus challenge. RAF265 reduced PEDV production by mediating cytoskeleton arrangement and targeting the host cell's translation machinery. Treatment with RAF265 inhibited viral entry of PEDV S-glycoprotein pseudotyped viral vector particle (PEDV-pp), at half maximal effective concentrations (EC50) of 79.1 nM. RAF265 also presented potent inhibitory activity against viral infection by SARS-CoV-2-pp and SARS-CoV-pp. The present work may provide a starting point for further progress toward the development of antiviral strategies effective against coronavirus PEDV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals , Swine , Vero Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066543

ABSTRACT

Curcumin, the bioactive compound of the spice Curcuma longa, has already been reported as a potential COVID-19 adjuvant treatment due to its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 was challenged with curcumin; moreover, curcumin was also coupled with laser light at 445 nm in a photodynamic therapy approach. Curcumin at a concentration of 10 µM, delivered to the virus prior to inoculation on cell culture, inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication (reduction >99%) in Vero E6 cells, possibly due to disruption of the virion structure, as observed using the RNase protection assay. However, curcumin was not effective as a prophylactic treatment on already-infected Vero E6 cells. Notably, when curcumin was employed as a photosensitizer and blue laser light at 445 nm was delivered to a mix of curcumin/virus prior to the inoculation on the cells, virus inactivation was observed (>99%) using doses of curcumin that were not antiviral by themselves. Photodynamic therapy employing crude curcumin can be suggested as an antiviral option against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curcumin , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Photosensitizing Agents/chemistry , Curcumin/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Vero Cells , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Ribonucleases/pharmacology , Virus Replication
5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 982246, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065496

ABSTRACT

Results of previous studies provided evidence for the existence of a functional gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) system in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, which exerted an inhibitory action on the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis of this species. Herein, we further elucidated the intracellular signaling pathways mediating in sea bass GnIH actions and the potential interactions with sea bass kisspeptin (Kiss) signaling. Although GnIH1 and GnIH2 had no effect on basal CRE-luc activity, they significantly decreased forskolin-elicited CRE-luc activity in COS-7 cells transfected with their cognate receptor GnIHR. Moreover, an evident increase in SRE-luc activity was noticed when COS-7 cells expressing GnIHR were challenged with both GnIH peptides, and this stimulatory action was significantly reduced by two inhibitors of the PKC pathway. Notably, GnIH2 antagonized Kiss2-evoked CRE-luc activity in COS-7 cells expressing GnIHR and Kiss2 receptor (Kiss2R). However, GnIH peptides did not alter NFAT-RE-luc activity and ERK phosphorylation levels. These data indicate that sea bass GnIHR signals can be transduced through the PKA and PKC pathways, and GnIH can interfere with kisspeptin actions by reducing its signaling. Our results provide additional evidence for the understanding of signaling pathways activated by GnIH peptides in teleosts, and represent a starting point for the study of interactions with multiple neuroendocrine factors on cell signaling.


Subject(s)
Bass , Animals , Bass/physiology , COS Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chorionic Gonadotropin , Kisspeptins/metabolism , Signal Transduction
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17101, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062276

ABSTRACT

Chlorella spp., Spirulina spp., and fucoidan dry powders, are commercialized as food supplements and are considered safe for human consumption. Their broad-spectrum antiviral properties have been studied, however, their effect against SARS-CoV-2 remains unknown. We investigated the potential antiviral activity of three algae powders: Chlorella vulgaris, Arthrospira maxima (Spirulina) and fucoidan purified from marine brown algae Sargassum spp. against SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Vero cells were incubated with 70 µg/ml of each algae powder and either 50 or 100 TCID50/ml of SARS-CoV-2, in two types of experiments (pretreatment and simultaneous) and comparing two kinds of solvents (DMEM and DMSO). Chlorella vulgaris powder, inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in all assays; viral RNA was significantly reduced in supernatants at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-infection, the highest difference in viral load (8000-fold) was observed after 96 h. Arthrospira maxima powder inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection using 50 TCID50/ml for both experimental schemes, but protection percent was lower when viral inoculum was increase to 100 TCID50/ml; viral RNA decreased 48 h after infection, reaching a 250-fold difference at 72 h. Fucoidan powder partially inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection since no CPE was observed in 62.5% of trated cultures in DMEM, but the antiviral activity was increased to 100% of protection when DMSO was used as solvent. All the algae samples showed high antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 with a SI above of 18. These results suggest that all three algae samples are potential therapeutic candidates for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlorella vulgaris , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dimethyl Sulfoxide , Humans , Powders , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Solvents , Vero Cells
7.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 45(10): 1559-1563, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054200

ABSTRACT

Dihydroceramide Δ4-desaturase 1 (DEGS1) enzymatic activity is inhibited with N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide (4-HPR). We reported previously that 4-HPR suppresses severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry through a DEGS1-independent mechanism. However, it remains unclear whether DEGS1 is involved in other SARS-CoV-2 infection processes, such as virus replication and release. Here we established DEGS1 knockout (KO) in VeroE6TMPRSS2 cells. No significant difference was observed in virus production in the culture supernatant between wild-type (WT) cells and DEGS1-KO cells, although the levels of dihydroceramide (DHCer), a DEGS1 substrate, were significantly higher in DEGS1-KO cells than WT cells. Furthermore, the virus-induced cytopathic effect was also observed in DEGS1-KO cells. Importantly, the EC50 value of 4-HPR in DEGS1-KO cells was almost identical to the value reported previously in WT cells. Our results indicated the lack of involvement of DEGS1 in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fenretinide , Animals , Ceramides , Chlorocebus aethiops , Fatty Acid Desaturases , Fenretinide/pharmacology , Humans , Oxidoreductases , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 967051, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043445

ABSTRACT

Background: BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac inactivated COVID-19 vaccines are widely-used, World Health Organization-emergency-listed vaccines. Understanding antibody level changes over time after vaccination is important for booster dose policies. We evaluated neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers and associated factors for the first 12 months after primary-series vaccination with BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac. Methods: Our study consisted of a set of cross-sectional sero-surveys in Zhejiang and Shanxi provinces, China. In 2021, we enrolled 1,527 consenting 18-59-year-olds who received two doses of BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac 1, 3, 6, 9, or 12 months earlier and obtained blood samples and demographic and medical data. We obtained 6-month convalescent sera from 62 individuals in Hebei province. Serum nAb titers were measured by standard micro-neutralization cytopathic effect assay in Vero cells with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain HB01. We used the first WHO International Standard (IS) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (NIBSC code 20/136) to standardized geometric mean concentrations (IU/mL) derived from the nAb geometric mean titers (GMT over 1:4 was considered seropositive). We analyzed nAb titer trends using Chi-square and factors related to nAb titers with logistic regression and linear models. Results: Numbers of subjects in each of the five month-groupings ranged from 100 to 200 for each vaccine and met group-specific target sample sizes. Seropositivity rates from BBIBP-CorV were 98.0% at 1 month and 53.5% at 12 months, and GMTs were 25.0 and 4.0. Respective seropositivity rates from CoronaVac were 90.0% and 62.5%, and GMTs were 20.2 and 4.1. One-, three-, six-, nine-, and twelve-month GMCs were 217.2, 84.1, 85.7, 44.6, and 10.9 IU/mL in BBIBP-CorV recipients and 195.7, 94.6, 51.7, 27.6, and 13.4 IU/mL in CoronaVac recipients. Six-month convalescent seropositivity was 95.2%; GMC was 108.9 IU/mL. Seropositivity and GMCs were associated with age, sex, and time since vaccination. Conclusions: Neutralizing Ab levels against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 from BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac vaccination were similar and decreased with increasing time since vaccination; over half of 12-month post-vaccination subjects were seropositive. Seropositivity and GMCs from BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac six and nine months after vaccination were similar to or slightly lower than in six-month convalescent sera. These real-world data suggest necessity of six-month booster doses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vero Cells
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 273: 109544, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028561

ABSTRACT

Autophagy-related 4B (ATG4B) is found to exert a vital function in viral replication, although the mechanism through which ATG4B activates type-I IFN signaling to hinder viral replication remains to be explained, so far. The current work revealed that ATG4B was downregulated in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)-infected LLC-PK1 cells. In addition, ATG4B overexpression inhibited PEDV replication in both Vero cells and LLC-PK1 cells. On the contrary, ATG4B knockdown facilitated PEDV replication. Moreover, ATG4B was observed to hinder PEDV replication by activating type-I IFN signaling. Further detailed analysis revealed that the ATG4B protein targeted and upregulated the TRAF3 protein to induce IFN expression via the TRAF3-pTBK1-pIRF3 pathway. The above data revealed a novel mechanism underlying the ATG4B-mediated viral restriction, thereby providing novel possibilities for preventing and controlling PEDV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Signal Transduction , Swine , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3/genetics , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
10.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(10): e202200632, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027319

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic threat presented by viral pathogens like SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) suggests that virus emergence and dissemination are not geographically confined. As a result, the quest for antiviral agents has become critical to control this pandemic. In the current study, we provide a novel family of spirocyclic thiopyrimidinone derivatives whose cytotoxicity and antiviral efficacy were investigated against human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) as a model for the Coronaviridae family. We utilized MTT and cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibitory tests on green monkey kidney (vero-E6) cell lines. The new molecules showed varied degrees of antiviral activity against the vero-E6 cell lines with minimal cytotoxicity. With a high level of a selective index (SI=14.8), compound 9 showed outstanding inhibitory ability and could effectively suppress the human coronavirus 229E. Molecular dynamics simulation (MD) studies were performed to measure the interaction and stability of the protein-ligand complex in motion. The MD results for the most active compound 9 explored remarkable interactions with the binding pockets of the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 enzyme confirming the results gained from in vitro experiments. ADMET properties were also predicted for all the tested compounds. All these results demonstrated that the novel spirocyclic thiopyrimidinone derivatives would have the potential to be safe, low-cost chemical compounds that might be used as a novel therapeutic option for Coronaviridae viruses like COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Ligands , Peptide Hydrolases
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 906578, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022651

ABSTRACT

The epitranscriptomics of the SARS-CoV-2 infected cell reveals its response to viral replication. Among various types of RNA nucleotide modifications, the m6A is the most common and is involved in several crucial processes of RNA intracellular location, maturation, half-life and translatability. This epitranscriptome contains a mixture of viral RNAs and cellular transcripts. In a previous study we presented the analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA m6A methylation based on direct RNA sequencing and characterized DRACH motif mutations in different viral lineages. Here we present the analysis of the m6A transcript methylation of Vero cells (derived from African Green Monkeys) and Calu-3 cells (human) upon infection by SARS-CoV-2 using direct RNA sequencing data. Analysis of these data by nonparametric statistics and two computational methods (m6anet and EpiNano) show that m6A levels are higher in RNAs of infected cells. Functional enrichment analysis reveals increased m6A methylation of transcripts involved in translation, peptide and amine metabolism. This analysis allowed the identification of differentially methylated transcripts and m6A unique sites in the infected cell transcripts. Results here presented indicate that the cell response to viral infection not only changes the levels of mRNAs, as previously shown, but also its epitranscriptional pattern. Also, transcriptome-wide analysis shows strong nucleotide biases in DRACH motifs of cellular transcripts, both in Vero and Calu-3 cells, which use the signature GGACU whereas in viral RNAs the signature is GAACU. We hypothesize that the differences of DRACH motif biases, might force the convergent evolution of the viral genome resulting in better adaptation to target sequence preferences of writer, reader and eraser enzymes. To our knowledge, this is the first report on m6A epitranscriptome of the SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero cells by direct RNA sequencing, which is the sensu stricto RNA-seq.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Bias , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Nucleotides , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Vero Cells
12.
Altern Lab Anim ; 50(5): 339-348, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020821

ABSTRACT

Vero cells are one of the most frequently used cell types in virology. They can be used not only as a vehicle for the replication of viruses, but also as a model for investigating viral infectivity, cytopathology and vaccine production. There is increasing awareness of the need to limit the use of animal-derived components in cell culture media for a number of reasons, which include reducing the risk of contamination and decreasing costs related to the downstream processing of commercial products obtained via cell culture. The current study evaluates the use of protein hydrolysates (PHLs), also known as peptones, as partial substitutes for fetal bovine serum (FBS) in Vero cell culture. Eleven plant-based, two yeast-based, and three casein-based peptones were assessed, with different batches evaluated in the study. We tested the effects of three concentration ratios of FBS and peptone on Vero cell proliferation, four days after the initial cell seeding. Some of the tested peptones, when in combination with a minimal 1% level of FBS, supported cell proliferation rates equivalent to those achieved with 10% FBS. Collectively, our findings showed that plant-based peptones could represent promising options for the successful formulation of serum-reduced cell culture media for vaccine production. This is especially relevant in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, in view of the urgent need for SARS-CoV-2 virus production for certain types of vaccine. The current study contributes to the Three Rs principle of reduction, as well as addressing animal ethics concerns associated with FBS, by repurposing PHLs for use in cell culture.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peptones , Animals , Caseins , Cell Culture Techniques , Chlorocebus aethiops , Culture Media/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics , Peptones/metabolism , Peptones/pharmacology , Protein Hydrolysates , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin, Bovine , Vero Cells
14.
J Biol Chem ; 298(8): 102190, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015572

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes diarrhea and dehydration in pigs and leads to great economic losses in the commercial swine industry. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of host response to viral infection remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated a novel mechanism by which RALY, a member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein family, significantly promotes the degradation of the PEDV nucleocapsid (N) protein to inhibit viral replication. Furthermore, we identified an interaction between RALY and the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8 (membrane-associated RING-CH 8), as well as the cargo receptor NDP52 (nuclear dot protein 52 kDa), suggesting that RALY could suppress PEDV replication by degrading the viral N protein through a RALY-MARCH8-NDP52-autophagosome pathway. Collectively, these results suggest a preventive role of RALY against PEDV infection via the autophagy pathway and open up the possibility of inducing RALY in vivo as an effective prophylactic and preventive treatment for PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Autophagy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Ribonucleoproteins , Swine , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
15.
Virus Res ; 321: 198916, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008180

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus subverts the host cell cycle to create a favorable cellular environment that enhances viral replication in host cells. Previous studies have revealed that nucleocapsid (N) protein of the coronavirus porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) interacts with p53 to induce cell cycle arrest in S-phase and promotes viral replication. However, the mechanism by which viral replication is increased in the PEDV N protein-induced S-phase arrested cells remains unknown. In the current study, the protein expression profiles of PEDV N protein-induced S-phase arrested Vero E6 cells and thymidine-induced S-phase arrested Vero E6 cells were characterized by tandem mass tag-labeled quantitative proteomic technology. The effect of differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) on PEDV replication was investigated. The results indicated that a total of 5709 proteins, including 20,560 peptides, were identified, of which 58 and 26 DEPs were identified in the PEDV N group and thymidine group, respectively (P < 0.05; ratio ≥ 1.2 or ≤ 0.8). The unique DEPs identified in the PEDV N group were mainly involved in DNA replication, transcription, and protein synthesis, of which 60S ribosomal protein L18 (RPL18) exhibited significantly up-regulated expression in the PEDV N protein-induced S-phase arrested Vero E6/IPEC-J2 cells and PEDV-infected IPEC-J2 cells (P < 0.05). Further studies revealed that the RPL18 protein could significantly enhance PEDV replication (P < 0.05). Our findings reveal a mechanism regarding increased viral replication when the PEDV N protein-induced host cells are in S-phase arrest. These data also provide evidence that PEDV maintains its own replication by utilizing protein synthesis-associated ribosomal proteins.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Proteomics/methods , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics , Ribosomal Proteins/metabolism , Swine , Thymidine/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006040

ABSTRACT

Type III and type I interferon have similar mechanisms of action, and their different receptors lead to different distributions in tissue. On mucosal surfaces, type III interferon exhibits strong antiviral activity. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an economically important enteropathogenic coronavirus, which can cause a high incidence rate and mortality in piglets. Here, we demonstrate that porcine interferon lambda 1 (pIFNL1) and porcine interferon lambda 3 (pIFNL3) can inhibit the proliferation of vesicular stomatitis virus with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (VSV-EGFP) in different cells, and also show strong antiviral activity when PEDV infects Vero cells. Both forms of pIFNLs were shown to be better than porcine interferon alpha (pIFNα), the antiviral activity of pIFNL1 is lower than that of pIFNL3. Therefore, our results provide experimental evidence for the inhibition of PEDV infection by pIFNLs, which may provide a promising treatment for the prevention and treatment of Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in piglets.


Subject(s)
Interferon Type I , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine , Vero Cells
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3794, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004784

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 virions enter the host cells by docking their spike glycoproteins to the membrane-bound Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2. After intracellular assembly, the newly formed virions are released from the infected cells to propagate the infection, using the extra-cytoplasmic ACE2 docking mechanism. However, the molecular events underpinning SARS-CoV-2 transmission between host cells are not fully understood. Here, we report the findings of a scanning Helium-ion microscopy study performed on Vero E6 cells infected with mNeonGreen-expressing SARS-CoV-2. Our data reveal, with unprecedented resolution, the presence of: (1) long tunneling nanotubes that connect two or more host cells over submillimeter distances; (2) large scale multiple cell fusion events (syncytia); and (3) abundant extracellular vesicles of various sizes. Taken together, these ultrastructural features describe a novel intra-cytoplasmic connection among SARS-CoV-2 infected cells that may act as an alternative route of viral transmission, disengaged from the well-known extra-cytoplasmic ACE2 docking mechanism. Such route may explain the elusiveness of SARS-CoV-2 to survive from the immune surveillance of the infected host.


Subject(s)
Microscopy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytoplasm/chemistry , Cytoplasm/ultrastructure , Cytoplasm/virology , Extracellular Vesicles/chemistry , Extracellular Vesicles/ultrastructure , Giant Cells/chemistry , Giant Cells/physiology , Helium/chemistry , Humans , Ions/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
18.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272941, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993503

ABSTRACT

When coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) became a pandemic, one of most important questions was whether people who smoke are at more risk of COVID-19 infection. A number of clinical data have been reported in the literature so far, but controversy exists in the collection and interpretation of the data. Particularly, there is a controversial hypothesis that nicotine might be able to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the present study, motivated by the reported controversial clinical data and the controversial hypothesis, we carried out cytotoxicity assays in Vero E6 cells to examine the potential cytoprotective activity of nicotine against SARS-CoV-2 infection and demonstrated for the first time that nicotine had no significant cytoprotective activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection in these cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Nicotine/pharmacology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
19.
Eur J Immunol ; 52(10): 1640-1647, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990446

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for animal models of coronavirus disease 2019 to study immunopathogenesis and test therapeutic intervenes. In this study, we showed that NOD/SCID IL2rg-/- (NSG) mice engrafted with human lung (HL) tissue (NSG-L mice) could be infected efficiently by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and that live virus capable of infecting Vero cells was found in the HL grafts and multiple organs from infected NSG-L mice. RNA-Sequencing identified a series of differentially expressed genes, which are enriched in viral defense responses, chemotaxis, IFN stimulation and pulmonary fibrosis, between HL grafts from infected and control NSG-L mice. Furthermore, when infected with SARS-CoV-2, humanized mice with both human immune system (HIS) and autologous HL grafts (HISL mice) had bodyweight loss and hemorrhage and immune cell infiltration in HL grafts, which were not observed in immunodeficient NSG-L mice, indicating the development of anti-viral immune responses in these mice. In support of this possibility, the infected HISL mice showed bodyweight recovery and lack of detectable live virus at the later time. These results demonstrate that NSG-L and HISL mice are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, offering a useful in vivo model for studying SARS-CoV-2 infection and the associated immune response and immunopathology, and testing anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunity , Lung , Mice , Mice, Inbred NOD , Mice, SCID , RNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
20.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987998

ABSTRACT

The envelope (E) protein of the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a small-membrane protein present in two forms during infection: a monomer and a pentameric ion channel. Each form has an independent role during replication; the monomer disrupts the secretory pathway, and the pentamer facilitates virion production. The presence of a T16A or A26F mutation within E exclusively generates the pentameric or monomeric form, respectively. We generated two recombinant IBVs (rIBVs) based on the apathogenic molecular clone Beau-R, containing either a T16A or A26F mutation, denoted as BeauR-T16A and BeauR-A26F. The replication and genetic stability of the rIBVs were assessed in several different cell types, including primary and continuous cells, ex vivo tracheal organ cultures (TOCs) and in ovo. Different replication profiles were observed between cell cultures of different origins. BeauR-A26F replicated to a lower level than Beau-R in Vero cells and in ovo but not in DF1, primary chicken kidney (CK) cells or TOCs. Genetic stability and cytopathic effects were found to differ depending on the cell system. The effect of the T16A and A26F mutations appear to be cell-type dependent, which, therefore, highlights the importance of cell type in the investigation of the IBV E protein.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Gammacoronavirus , Infectious bronchitis virus , Animals , Chickens , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Mutation , Vero Cells
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