Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 20
Filter
1.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686899

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D (VD) is a calcium- and phosphate-controlling hormone used to treat bone disorders; yet, several other effects are progressively emerging. VD deficiency is highly prevalent worldwide, with suboptimal exposure to sunlight listed among the leading causes: oral supplementation with either cholecalciferol or calcitriol is used. However, there is a scarcity of clinical studies investigating how quickly VD concentrations can increase after supplementation. In this pilot study, the commercial supplement ImmuD3 (by Erboristeria Magentina®) was chosen as the source of VD and 2000 IU/day was administered for one month to 21 healthy volunteers that had not taken any other VD supplements in the previous 30 days. Plasma VD levels were measured through liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after 7, 14, and 28 days of supplementation. We found that 95% of the participants had insufficient VD levels at baseline (<30 ng/mL; median 23.72 ng/mL; IQR 18.10-26.15), but after 28 days of supplementation, this percentage dropped to 62% (median 28.35 ng/mL; IQR 25.78-35.20). The median increase in VD level was 3.09 ng/mL (IQR 1.60-5.68) after 7 days and 8.85 ng/mL (IQR 2.85-13.97F) after 28 days. This study suggests the need for continuing VD supplementation and for measuring target level attainment.


Subject(s)
Bone Density Conservation Agents/blood , Cholecalciferol/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamins/blood , Adult , Aged , Bone Density Conservation Agents/administration & dosage , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Young Adult
2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 115(3): 790-798, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The modulating effect of vitamin D on cytokine concentrations in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effect of a single high dose of vitamin D3 on cytokines, chemokines, and growth factor in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. METHODS: This is a post hoc, ancillary, and exploratory analysis from a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 were recruited from 2 hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil. Of 240 randomly assigned patients, 200 were assessed in this study and randomly assigned to receive a single oral dose of 200,000 IU vitamin D3 (n = 101) or placebo (n = 99). The primary outcome was hospital length of stay, which has been published in our previous study. The prespecified secondary outcomes were serum concentrations of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The post hoc exploratory secondary outcomes were IL-4, IL-12p70, IL-17A, IFN-γ, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-8, IFN-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), macrophage inflammatory protein-1ß (MIP-1ß), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and leukocyte count. Generalized estimating equations for repeated measures, with Bonferroni's adjustment, were used for testing all outcomes. RESULTS: The study included 200 patients with a mean ± SD age of 55.5 ± 14.3 y and BMI of 32.2 ± 7.1 kg/m2, of which 109 (54.5%) were male. GM-CSF concentrations showed a significant group-by-time interaction effect (P = 0.04), although the between-group difference at postintervention after Bonferroni's adjustment was not significant. No significant effects were observed for the other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings do not support the use of a single dose of 200,000 IU vitamin D3, compared with placebo, for the improvement of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factor in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT04449718.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokines/drug effects , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Cytokines/drug effects , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Brazil , COVID-19/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 213: 105958, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this extension phase of the quasi-experimental GERIA-COVID study was to determine whether vitamin D3 supplementation taken prior to or during COVID-19 was associated with better 3-month survival in geriatric patients hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: Intervention group was defined as all participants supplemented with vitamin D3 prior to or during COVID-19 (n = 67). Supplements were either bolus vitamin D3 (ie, 50,000 IU per month, or 80,000 IU or 100,000 IU or 200,000 IU every 2-3 months), or daily supplementation with 800 IU. Comparator group involved those without vitamin D supplements (n = 28). Outcome was 3-month mortality. Covariables were age, sex, functional abilities, history of malignancies, cardiomyopathy, undernutrition, number of acute health issues, antibiotics use, systemic corticosteroids use, and 25(OH)D concentration. RESULTS: 76.1 % (n = 51) of participants survived at 3 months in Intervention group, compared to only 53.6 % (n = 15) in Comparator group (P = 0.03). The fully-adjusted hazard ratio for 3-month mortality was HR = 0.23 [95 %CI: 0.09;0.58](P = 0.002) in Intervention group compared to Comparator group. Intervention group had also longer survival time (log-rank P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D3 supplementation was associated with better 3-month survival in older COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , Cardiomyopathies/diet therapy , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Malnutrition/diet therapy , Neoplasms/diet therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cardiomyopathies/blood , Cardiomyopathies/mortality , Cardiomyopathies/virology , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Health Services for the Aged , Humans , Male , Malnutrition/blood , Malnutrition/mortality , Malnutrition/virology , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/virology , Proportional Hazards Models , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
4.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(1): 167-179, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316351

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze the associations between cholecalciferol or calcifediol supplementation, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and COVID-19 outcomes in a large population. METHODS: All individuals ≥ 18 years old living in Barcelona-Central Catalonia (n = 4.6 million) supplemented with cholecalciferol or calcifediol from April 2019 to February 2020 were compared with propensity score-matched untreated controls. Outcome variables were SARS-CoV2 infection, severe COVID-19 and COVID-19 mortality occuring during the first wave of the pandemic. Demographical data, comorbidities, serum 25OHD levels and concomitant pharmacological treatments were collected as covariates. Associations between cholecalciferol or calcifediol use and outcome variables were analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional regression. RESULTS: Cholecalciferol supplementation (n = 108,343) was associated with slight protection from SARS-CoV2 infection (n = 4352 [4.0%] vs 9142/216,686 [4.2%] in controls; HR 0.95 [CI 95% 0.91-0.98], p = 0.004). Patients on cholecalciferol treatment achieving 25OHD levels ≥ 30 ng/ml had lower risk of SARS-CoV2 infection, lower risk of severe COVID-19 and lower COVID-19 mortality than unsupplemented 25OHD-deficient patients (56/9474 [0.6%] vs 96/7616 [1.3%]; HR 0.66 [CI 95% 0.46-0.93], p = 0.018). Calcifediol use (n = 134,703) was not associated with reduced risk of SARS-CoV2 infection or mortality in the whole cohort. However, patients on calcifediol treatment achieving serum 25OHD levels ≥ 30 ng/ml also had lower risk of SARS-CoV2 infection, lower risk of severe COVID-19, and lower COVID-19 mortality compared to 25OHD-deficient patients not receiving vitamin D supplements (88/16276 [0.5%] vs 96/7616 [1.3%]; HR 0.56 [CI 95% 0.42-0.76], p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this large, population-based study, we observed that patients supplemented with cholecalciferol or calcifediol achieving serum 25OHD levels ≥ 30 ng/ml were associated with better COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcifediol/administration & dosage , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Calcifediol/pharmacokinetics , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Spain , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 severity. This multi-center randomized clinical trial aims to determine the effects of 5000 IU versus 1000 IU daily oral vitamin D3 supplementation in the recovery of symptoms and other clinical parameters among mild to moderate COVID-19 patients with sub-optimal vitamin D status. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A total of 69 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) SARS-CoV-2 positive adults who were hospitalized for mild to moderate COVID-19 disease were allocated to receive once daily for 2 weeks either 5000 IU oral vitamin D3 (n = 36, 21 males; 15 females) or 1000 IU oral vitamin D3 (standard control) (n = 33, 13 males; 20 females). Anthropometrics were measured and blood samples were taken pre- and post-supplementation. Fasting blood glucose, lipids, serum 25(OH)D, and inflammatory markers were measured. COVID-19 symptoms were noted on admission and monitored until full recovery. RESULTS: Vitamin D supplementation for 2 weeks caused a significant increase in serum 25(OH)D levels in the 5000 IU group only (adjusted p = 0.003). Within-group comparisons also showed a significant decrease in BMI and IL-6 levels overtime in both groups (p-values < 0.05) but was not clinically significant in between-group comparisons. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the 5000 IU group had a significantly shorter time to recovery (days) than the 1000 IU group in resolving cough, even after adjusting for age, sex, baseline BMI, and D-dimer (6.2 ± 0.8 versus 9.1 ± 0.8; p = 0.039), and ageusia (loss of taste) (11.4 ± 1.0 versus 16.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.035). CONCLUSION: A 5000 IU daily oral vitamin D3 supplementation for 2 weeks reduces the time to recovery for cough and gustatory sensory loss among patients with sub-optimal vitamin D status and mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms. The use of 5000 IU vitamin D3 as an adjuvant therapy for COVID-19 patients with suboptimal vitamin D status, even for a short duration, is recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Dietary Supplements , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lipids/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy
6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(10): e4017-e4027, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259228

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: COVID-19 is a major health problem because of saturation of intensive care units (ICU) and mortality. Vitamin D has emerged as a potential treatment able to reduce the disease severity. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to elucidate the effect of 25(OH)D3 (calcifediol) treatment on COVID-19-related outcomes. METHODS: This observational cohort study was conducted from March to May 2020, among patients admitted to COVID-19 wards of Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain. A total of 930 patients with COVID-19 were included; 92 were excluded because of previous calcifediol intake. Of the remaining 838, a total of 447 received calcifediol (532 µg on day 1 plus 266 µg on days 3, 7, 15, and 30), whereas 391 were not treated at the time of hospital admission (intention-to-treat). Of the latter, 53 patients were treated later during ICU admission and were allocated in the treated group in a second analysis. In healthy individuals, calcifediol is about 3.2-fold more potent on a weight basis than cholecalciferol. Main outcome measures were ICU admission and mortality. RESULTS: ICU assistance was required by 102 (12.2%) participants. Out of 447 patients treated with calcifediol at admission, 20 (4.5%) required the ICU, compared to 82 (21%) out of 391 nontreated (P < .001). Logistic regression of calcifediol treatment on ICU admission, adjusted by age, sex, linearized 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at baseline, and comorbidities showed that treated patients had a reduced risk of requiring the ICU (odds ratio [OR] 0.13; 95% CI 0.07-0.23). Overall mortality was 10%. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 21 (4.7%) out of 447 patients treated with calcifediol at admission died compared to 62 patients (15.9%) out of 391 nontreated (P = .001). Adjusted results showed a reduced mortality risk with an OR of 0.21 (95% CI, 0.10-0.43). In the second analysis, the obtained OR was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.27-0.99). CONCLUSION: In patients hospitalized with COVID-19, calcifediol treatment significantly reduced ICU admission and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcifediol/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Spain , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD015043, 2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of vitamin D supplementation as a treatment for COVID-19 has been a subject of considerable discussion. A thorough understanding of the current evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of vitamin D supplementation for COVID-19 based on randomised controlled trials is required. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether vitamin D supplementation is effective and safe for the treatment of COVID-19 in comparison to an active comparator, placebo, or standard of care alone, and to maintain the currency of the evidence, using a living systematic review approach. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, Web of Science and the WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease to identify completed and ongoing studies without language restrictions to 11 March 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating vitamin D supplementation for people with COVID-19, irrespective of disease severity, age, gender or ethnicity. We excluded studies investigating preventive effects, or studies including populations with other coronavirus diseases (severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. To assess bias in included studies, we used the Cochrane risk of bias tool (ROB 2) for RCTs. We rated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach for the following prioritised outcome categories: individuals with moderate or severe COVID-19: all-cause mortality, clinical status, quality of life, adverse events, serious adverse events, and for individuals with asymptomatic or mild disease: all-cause mortality, development of severe clinical COVID-19 symptoms, quality of life, adverse events, serious adverse events. MAIN RESULTS: We identified three RCTs with 356 participants, of whom 183 received vitamin D. In accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical progression scale, two studies investigated participants with moderate or severe disease, and one study individuals with mild or asymptomatic disease. The control groups consisted of placebo treatment or standard of care alone. Effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation for people with COVID-19 and moderate to severe disease We included two studies with 313 participants. Due to substantial clinical and methodological diversity of both studies, we were not able to pool data. Vitamin D status was unknown in one study, whereas the other study reported data for vitamin D deficient participants. One study administered multiple doses of oral calcifediol at days 1, 3 and 7,  whereas the other study gave a single high dose of oral cholecalciferol at baseline. We assessed one study with low risk of bias for effectiveness outcomes, and the other with some concerns about randomisation and selective reporting. All-cause mortality at hospital discharge (313 participants) We found two studies reporting data for this outcome. One study reported no deaths when treated with vitamin D out of 50 participants, compared to two deaths out of 26 participants in the control group (Risk ratio (RR) 0.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 2.13). The other study reported nine deaths out of 119 individuals in the vitamin D group, whereas six participants out of 118 died in the placebo group (RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.55 to 4.04]. We are very uncertain whether vitamin D has an effect on all-cause mortality at hospital discharge (very low-certainty evidence). Clinical status assessed by the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (237 participants) We found one study reporting data for this outcome. Nine out of 119 participants needed invasive mechanical ventilation when treated with vitamin D, compared to 17 out of 118 participants in the placebo group (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.24 to 1.13). Vitamin D supplementation may decrease need for invasive mechanical ventilation, but the evidence is uncertain (low-certainty evidence). Quality of life We did not find data for quality of life. Safety of vitamin D supplementation for people with COVID-19 and moderate to severe disease We did not include data from one study, because assessment of serious adverse events was not described and we are concerned that data might have been inconsistently measured. This study reported vomiting in one out of 119 participants immediately after vitamin D intake (RR 2.98, 95% CI 0.12 to 72.30). We are very uncertain whether vitamin D supplementation is associated with higher risk for adverse events (very low-certainty). Effectiveness and safety of vitamin D supplementation for people with COVID-19 and asymptomatic or mild disease We found one study including 40 individuals, which did not report our prioritised outcomes, but instead data for viral clearance, inflammatory markers, and vitamin D serum levels. The authors reported no events of hypercalcaemia, but recording and assessment of further adverse events remains unclear. Authors administered oral cholecalciferol in daily doses for at least 14 days, and continued with weekly doses if vitamin D blood levels were > 50 ng/mL. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is currently insufficient evidence to determine the benefits and harms of vitamin D supplementation as a treatment of COVID-19. The evidence for the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation for the treatment of COVID-19 is very uncertain. Moreover, we found only limited safety information, and were concerned about consistency in measurement and recording of these outcomes. There was substantial clinical and methodological heterogeneity of included studies, mainly because of different supplementation strategies, formulations, vitamin D status of participants, and reported outcomes. There is an urgent need for well-designed and adequately powered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with an appropriate randomisation procedure, comparability of study arms and preferably double-blinding. We identified 21 ongoing and three completed studies without published results, which indicates that these needs will be addressed and that our findings are subject to change in the future. Due to the living approach of this work, we will update the review periodically.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcifediol/administration & dosage , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2/blood , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Bias , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231496

ABSTRACT

In addition to its canonical functions, vitamin D has been proposed to be an important mediator of the immune system. Despite ample sunshine, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent (>80%) in the Middle East, resulting in a high rate of supplementation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the specific regimen prescribed and the potential factors affecting an individual's response to vitamin D supplementation are not well characterized. Our objective is to describe the changes in the blood transcriptome and explore the potential mechanisms associated with vitamin D3 supplementation in one hundred vitamin D-deficient women who were given a weekly oral dose (50,000 IU) of vitamin D3 for three months. A high-throughput targeted PCR, composed of 264 genes representing the important blood transcriptomic fingerprints of health and disease states, was performed on pre and post-supplementation blood samples to profile the molecular response to vitamin D3. We identified 54 differentially expressed genes that were strongly modulated by vitamin D3 supplementation. Network analyses showed significant changes in the immune-related pathways such as TLR4/CD14 and IFN receptors, and catabolic processes related to NF-kB, which were subsequently confirmed by gene ontology enrichment analyses. We proposed a model for vitamin D3 response based on the expression changes of molecules involved in the receptor-mediated intra-cellular signaling pathways and the ensuing predicted effects on cytokine production. Overall, vitamin D3 has a strong effect on the immune system, G-coupled protein receptor signaling, and the ubiquitin system. We highlighted the major molecular changes and biological processes induced by vitamin D3, which will help to further investigate the effectiveness of vitamin D3 supplementation among individuals in the Middle East as well as other regions.


Subject(s)
Cholecalciferol/genetics , Immunomodulation/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Vitamin D/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Cholecalciferol/immunology , Dietary Supplements , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Humans , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Nutrition Therapy , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/genetics , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/pathology , Young Adult
9.
JAMA ; 325(11): 1053-1060, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168753

ABSTRACT

Importance: The efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. Objective: To investigate the effect of a single high dose of vitamin D3 on hospital length of stay in patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 2 sites in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study included 240 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who were moderately to severely ill at the time of enrollment from June 2, 2020, to August 27, 2020. The final follow-up was on October 7, 2020. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive a single oral dose of 200 000 IU of vitamin D3 (n = 120) or placebo (n = 120). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was length of stay, defined as the time from the date of randomization to hospital discharge. Prespecified secondary outcomes included mortality during hospitalization; the number of patients admitted to the intensive care unit; the number of patients who required mechanical ventilation and the duration of mechanical ventilation; and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, total calcium, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results: Of 240 randomized patients, 237 were included in the primary analysis (mean [SD] age, 56.2 [14.4] years; 104 [43.9%] women; mean [SD] baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, 20.9 [9.2] ng/mL). Median (interquartile range) length of stay was not significantly different between the vitamin D3 (7.0 [4.0-10.0] days) and placebo groups (7.0 [5.0-13.0] days) (log-rank P = .59; unadjusted hazard ratio for hospital discharge, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.82-1.39]; P = .62). The difference between the vitamin D3 group and the placebo group was not significant for in-hospital mortality (7.6% vs 5.1%; difference, 2.5% [95% CI, -4.1% to 9.2%]; P = .43), admission to the intensive care unit (16.0% vs 21.2%; difference, -5.2% [95% CI, -15.1% to 4.7%]; P = .30), or need for mechanical ventilation (7.6% vs 14.4%; difference, -6.8% [95% CI, -15.1% to 1.2%]; P = .09). Mean serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D significantly increased after a single dose of vitamin D3 vs placebo (44.4 ng/mL vs 19.8 ng/mL; difference, 24.1 ng/mL [95% CI, 19.5-28.7]; P < .001). There were no adverse events, but an episode of vomiting was associated with the intervention. Conclusions and Relevance: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, a single high dose of vitamin D3, compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce hospital length of stay. The findings do not support the use of a high dose of vitamin D3 for treatment of moderate to severe COVID-19. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04449718.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Length of Stay , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Adult , Brazil , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Failure , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy
11.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067767

ABSTRACT

African Americans have higher incidence of, and mortality from, many health-related problems than European Americans. They also have a 15 to 20-fold higher prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency. Here we summarize evidence that: (i) this health disparity is partly due to insufficient vitamin D production, caused by melanin in the skin blocking the UVB solar radiation necessary for its synthesis; (ii) the vitamin D insufficiency is exacerbated at high latitudes because of the combination of dark skin color with lower UVB radiation levels; and (iii) the health of individuals with dark skin can be markedly improved by correcting deficiency and achieving an optimal vitamin D status, as could be obtained by supplementation and/or fortification. Moderate-to-strong evidence exists that high 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and/or vitamin D supplementation reduces risk for many adverse health outcomes including all-cause mortality rate, adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, cancer, diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and dementia, multiple sclerosis, acute respiratory tract infections, COVID-19, asthma exacerbations, rickets, and osteomalacia. We suggest that people with low vitamin D status, which would include most people with dark skin living at high latitudes, along with their health care provider, consider taking vitamin D3 supplements to raise serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels to 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) or possibly higher.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Health Status Disparities , Vitamin D Deficiency/ethnology , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , African Americans , Alzheimer Disease/etiology , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Antigens, Neoplasm , Dementia/etiology , Dementia/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Status Asthmaticus/etiology , Status Asthmaticus/prevention & control , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications
12.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067766

ABSTRACT

Little information is available on the beneficial effects of cholecalciferol treatment in comorbid patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The aim of this study was to retrospectively examine the clinical outcome of patients receiving in-hospital high-dose bolus cholecalciferol. Patients with a positive diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 and overt COVID-19, hospitalized from 15 March to 20 April 2020, were considered. Based on clinical characteristics, they were supplemented (or not) with 400,000 IU bolus oral cholecalciferol (200,000 IU administered in two consecutive days) and the composite outcome (transfer to intensive care unit; ICU and/or death) was recorded. Ninety-one patients (aged 74 ± 13 years) with COVID-19 were included in this retrospective study. Fifty (54.9%) patients presented with two or more comorbid diseases. Based on the decision of the referring physician, 36 (39.6%) patients were treated with vitamin D. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed a significant predictive power of the four variables: (a) low (<50 nmol/L) 25(OH) vitamin D levels, (b) current cigarette smoking, (c) elevated D-dimer levels (d) and the presence of comorbid diseases, to explain the decision to administer vitamin D (area under the curve = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.67-0.87, p < 0.0001). Over the follow-up period (14 ± 10 days), 27 (29.7%) patients were transferred to the ICU and 22 (24.2%) died (16 prior to ICU and six in ICU). Overall, 43 (47.3%) patients experienced the combined endpoint of transfer to ICU and/or death. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the comorbidity burden significantly modified the effect of vitamin D treatment on the study outcome, both in crude (p = 0.033) and propensity score-adjusted analyses (p = 0.039), so the positive effect of high-dose cholecalciferol on the combined endpoint was significantly amplified with increasing comorbidity burden. This hypothesis-generating study warrants the formal evaluation (i.e., clinical trial) of the potential benefit that cholecalciferol can offer in these comorbid COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/administration & dosage
13.
Trials ; 22(1): 111, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058269

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a single high dose of oral cholecalciferol improves the respiratory outcomes as compared with placebo among adults COVID-19 patients at moderate risk of clinical complications. TRIAL DESIGN: The CARED trial is an investigator-initiated, multicentre, randomized, parallel, two-arm, sequential, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial. It was planned as a pragmatic trial since the inclusion criteria are broad and the study procedures are as simple as possible, in order to be implemented in the routine clinical practice in general wards in the pandemic setting and a middle-income country context. The sequential design involves two stages. The first stage will assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation on blood oxygenation (physiological effects). The second stage will assess the effects on clinical outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: Participants of either gender admitted to general adult wards in 21 hospital sites located in four provinces of Argentina are invited to participate in the study if they meet the following inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria SARS-CoV-2 confirmed infection by RT-PCR; Hospital admission at least 24 hours before; Expected hospitalization in the same site ≥24 hours; Oxygen saturation ≥90% (measured by pulse oximetry) breathing ambient air; Age ≥45 years or at least one of the following conditions: ○ Hypertension; ○ Diabetes; ○ At least moderate COPD or asthma; ○ Cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting or valve replacement surgery); ○ Body mass index ≥30; Willingness to sign informed consent (online supplementary material 1 and 2). EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Age <18 years; Women in childbearing age; >= 72 hs since current admission; Requirement for a high dose of oxygen (>5 litres/minute) or mechanical ventilation (non-invasive or invasive); History of chronic kidney disease requiring haemodialysis or chronic liver failure; Inability for oral intake. Chronic supplementation with pharmacological vitamin D; Current treatment with anticonvulsants; History of: ○ Sarcoidosis; ○ Malabsorption syndrome; ○ Known hypercalcemia or serum calcium >10.5 mg/dL; Life expectancy <6 months; Known allergy to study medication; Any condition at discretion of investigator impeding to understand the study and give informed consent. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The intervention consists in a single oral dose of 500.000 IU of commercially available cholecalciferol soft gel capsules (5 capsules of 100.000 IU) or matching placebo MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome for the first stage is the change in the respiratory Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFAr) score between pre-treatment value and the worst value recorded during the first 7 seven days of hospitalization, the death or discharge, whichever occurs first. The SOFAr score measured as the ratio between the pulse oximetry saturation (SpO2) and FiO2 (27, 28) is used instead of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2). SOFAr score is a 4-points scale, with higher values indicating deeper respiratory derangement as follows: 1 PaO2 <400; 2 PaO2 <300; 3 PaO2 <200; 4 PaO2 <100. The primary outcome for the second stage is the combined occurrence of requirement ≥40% of FiO2, invasive or non-invasive ventilation, up to 30 days or hospital discharge. RANDOMISATION: A computer-generated random sequence and the treatment assignment is performed through the web-based randomization module available in the electronic data capture system (Castor®). A randomization ratio 1:1, stratified and with permuted blocks was used. Stratification variables were diabetes (yes/no), age (≤60/>60 years) and the site. BLINDING (MASKING): Double-blind was achieved by using placebo soft gel capsules with the same organoleptic properties as the active medication. Central management of the medication is carried out by a pharmacist in charge of packaging the study drug in unblinded fashion, who have no contact with on-site investigators. Medication is packaged in opaque white bottles, each containing five soft gel capsules of the active drug or matching placebo, corresponding to complete individual treatment. Treatment codes are kept under the pharmacist responsibility, and all researchers are unaware of them. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The first stage is planned to include 200 patients (100 per group), the second stage is planned to include 1064 additional patients. The total sample size is 1264 patients. TRIAL STATUS: Currently the protocol version is the number 1.4 (from October 13th, 2020). The recruitment is ongoing since August 11th, 2020, and the first subject was enrolled on August 14th. Since then, 21 sites located in four provinces of Argentina were initiated, and 167 patients were recruited by January 11th, 2021. We anticipate to finish the recruitment for the first stage in mid-February, 2021, and in August, 2021 for the second stage. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study protocol is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier number NCT04411446 ) on June 2, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Patient Admission , Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Treatment Outcome
14.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028652

ABSTRACT

Little information is available on the beneficial effects of cholecalciferol treatment in comorbid patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The aim of this study was to retrospectively examine the clinical outcome of patients receiving in-hospital high-dose bolus cholecalciferol. Patients with a positive diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 and overt COVID-19, hospitalized from 15 March to 20 April 2020, were considered. Based on clinical characteristics, they were supplemented (or not) with 400,000 IU bolus oral cholecalciferol (200,000 IU administered in two consecutive days) and the composite outcome (transfer to intensive care unit; ICU and/or death) was recorded. Ninety-one patients (aged 74 ± 13 years) with COVID-19 were included in this retrospective study. Fifty (54.9%) patients presented with two or more comorbid diseases. Based on the decision of the referring physician, 36 (39.6%) patients were treated with vitamin D. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed a significant predictive power of the four variables: (a) low (<50 nmol/L) 25(OH) vitamin D levels, (b) current cigarette smoking, (c) elevated D-dimer levels (d) and the presence of comorbid diseases, to explain the decision to administer vitamin D (area under the curve = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.67-0.87, p < 0.0001). Over the follow-up period (14 ± 10 days), 27 (29.7%) patients were transferred to the ICU and 22 (24.2%) died (16 prior to ICU and six in ICU). Overall, 43 (47.3%) patients experienced the combined endpoint of transfer to ICU and/or death. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the comorbidity burden significantly modified the effect of vitamin D treatment on the study outcome, both in crude (p = 0.033) and propensity score-adjusted analyses (p = 0.039), so the positive effect of high-dose cholecalciferol on the combined endpoint was significantly amplified with increasing comorbidity burden. This hypothesis-generating study warrants the formal evaluation (i.e., clinical trial) of the potential benefit that cholecalciferol can offer in these comorbid COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/administration & dosage
15.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971891

ABSTRACT

The worldwide pandemic of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has posed the most substantial and severe public health issue for several generations, and therapeutic options have not yet been optimised. Vitamin D (in its "parent" form, cholecalciferol) has been proposed in the pharmacological management of COVID-19 by various sources. We aimed to determine whether COVID-19 mortality was affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, vitamin D status, or cholecalciferol therapy, and to elucidate any other predictors of COVID-19 mortality. Patients hospitalised with COVID-19 were opportunistically recruited from three UK hospitals, and their data were collected retrospectively. Logistic regression was used to determine any relationships between COVID-19 mortality and potential predictors, including 25(OH)D levels and cholecalciferol booster therapy. A total of 986 participants with COVID-19 were studied, of whom 151 (16.0%) received cholecalciferol booster therapy. In the primary cohort of 444 patients, cholecalciferol booster therapy was associated with a reduced risk of COVID-19 mortality, following adjustment for potential confounders (ORadj 0.13, 95% CI 0.05-0.35, p < 0.001). This finding was replicated in a validation cohort of 541 patients (ORadj 0.38, 95% CI 0.17-0.84, p = 0.018). In this observational study, treatment with cholecalciferol booster therapy, regardless of baseline serum 25(OH)D levels, appears to be associated with a reduced risk of mortality in acute in-patients admitted with COVID-19. Further work with large population studies needs to be carried out to determine adequate serum 25(OH)D levels, as well as multi-dose clinical trials of cholecalciferol therapy to assess maximum efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology
16.
Postgrad Med J ; 98(1156): 87-90, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has an immunomodulatory role but the effect of therapeutic vitamin D supplementation in SARS-CoV-2 infection is not known. AIM: Effect of high dose, oral cholecalciferol supplementation on SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance. DESIGN: Randomised, placebo-controlled. PARTICIPANTS: Asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D<20 ng/ml) individuals. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomised to receive daily 60 000 IU of cholecalciferol (oral nano-liquid droplets) for 7 days with therapeutic target 25(OH)D>50 ng/ml (intervention group) or placebo (control group). Patients requiring invasive ventilation or with significant comorbidities were excluded. 25(OH)D levels were assessed at day 7, and cholecalciferol supplementation was continued for those with 25(OH)D <50 ng/ml in the intervention arm. SARS-CoV-2 RNA and inflammatory markers fibrinogen, D-dimer, procalcitonin and (CRP), ferritin were measured periodically. OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNA negative before day-21 and change in inflammatory markers. RESULTS: Forty SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive individuals were randomised to intervention (n=16) or control (n=24) group. Baseline serum 25(OH)D was 8.6 (7.1 to 13.1) and 9.54 (8.1 to 12.5) ng/ml (p=0.730), in the intervention and control group, respectively. 10 out of 16 patients could achieve 25(OH)D>50 ng/ml by day-7 and another two by day-14 [day-14 25(OH)D levels 51.7 (48.9 to 59.5) ng/ml and 15.2 (12.7 to 19.5) ng/ml (p<0.001) in intervention and control group, respectively]. 10 (62.5%) participants in the intervention group and 5 (20.8%) participants in the control arm (p<0.018) became SARS-CoV-2 RNA negative. Fibrinogen levels significantly decreased with cholecalciferol supplementation (intergroup difference 0.70 ng/ml; P=0.007) unlike other inflammatory biomarkers. CONCLUSION: Greater proportion of vitamin D-deficient individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection turned SARS-CoV-2 RNA negative with a significant decrease in fibrinogen on high-dose cholecalciferol supplementation. TRIAL REGISTER NUMBER: NCT04459247.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood
17.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 204: 105771, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856926

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D may be a central biological determinant of COVID-19 outcomes. The objective of this quasi-experimental study was to determine whether bolus vitamin D3 supplementation taken during or just before COVID-19 was effective in improving survival among frail elderly nursing-home residents with COVID-19. Sixty-six residents with COVID-19 from a French nursing-home were included in this quasi-experimental study. The "Intervention group" was defined as those having received bolus vitamin D3 supplementation during COVID-19 or in the preceding month, and the "Comparator group" corresponded to all other participants. The primary and secondary outcomes were COVID-19 mortality and Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement (OSCI) score in acute phase, respectively. Age, gender, number of drugs daily taken, functional abilities, albuminemia, use of corticosteroids and/or hydroxychloroquine and/or antibiotics (i.e., azithromycin or rovamycin), and hospitalization for COVID-19 were used as potential confounders. The Intervention (n = 57; mean ± SD, 87.7 ± 9.3years; 79 %women) and Comparator (n = 9; mean, 87.4 ± 7.2years; 67 %women) groups were comparable at baseline, as were the COVID-19 severity and the use of dedicated COVID-19 drugs. The mean follow-up time was 36 ± 17 days. 82.5 % of participants in the Intervention group survived COVID-19, compared to only 44.4 % in the Comparator group (P = 0.023). The full-adjusted hazard ratio for mortality according to vitamin D3 supplementation was HR = 0.11 [95 %CI:0.03;0.48], P = 0.003. Kaplan-Meier distributions showed that Intervention group had longer survival time than Comparator group (log-rank P = 0.002). Finally, vitamin D3 supplementation was inversely associated with OSCI score for COVID-19 (ß=-3.84 [95 %CI:-6.07;-1.62], P = 0.001). In conclusion, bolus vitamin D3 supplementation during or just before COVID-19 was associated in frail elderly with less severe COVID-19 and better survival rate.


Subject(s)
Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Vitamin D/genetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate , Vitamin D/metabolism
18.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721514

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic goes along with increased mortality from acute respiratory disease. It has been suggested that vitamin D3 supplementation might help to reduce respiratory disease mortality. We assessed the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, defined by 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) blood levels of 30-50 and <30 nmol/L, respectively, and their association with mortality from respiratory diseases during 15 years of follow-up in a cohort of 9548 adults aged 50-75 years from Saarland, Germany. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency were common (44% and 15%, respectively). Compared to those with sufficient vitamin D status, participants with vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency had strongly increased respiratory mortality, with adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 2.1 (1.3-3.2) and 3.0 (1.8-5.2) overall, 4.3 (1.3-14.4) and 8.5 (2.4-30.1) among women, and 1.9 (1.1-3.2) and 2.3 (1.1-4.4) among men. Overall, 41% (95% confidence interval: 20-58%) of respiratory disease mortality was statistically attributable to vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are common and account for a large proportion of respiratory disease mortality in older adults, supporting the hypothesis that vitamin D3 supplementation could be helpful to limit the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among women.


Subject(s)
Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiratory Tract Diseases/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/mortality , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dietary Supplements , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Prevalence , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiratory Tract Diseases/blood , Respiratory Tract Diseases/complications , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy
19.
Am J Ther ; 27(5): e485-e490, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 4.4 million people and caused more than 300,000 deaths partly through acute respiratory distress syndrome with propensity to affect African American and Hispanic communities disproportionately. Patients with worse outcomes have exhibited higher blood plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Activation of the vitamin D receptor expressed on immune cells has been shown to directly reduce the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6, and indirectly affect C-reactive protein. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: The significance of the vitamin D pathway in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. THERAPEUTIC INNOVATION: Vitamin D supplementation in patients after diagnosis of COVID-19. PATIENTS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS: We report 4 vitamin D deficient patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in April 2020 who were provided with either cholecalciferol of 1000 IU daily (standard dose) or ergocalciferol 50,000 IU daily for 5 days (high dose) as part of supplementation. CLINICAL OUTCOMES: Patients that received a high dose of vitamin D supplementation achieved normalization of vitamin D levels and improved clinical recovery evidenced by shorter lengths of stay, lower oxygen requirements, and a reduction in inflammatory marker status. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation may serve as a viable alternative for curtailing acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients in underserved communities where resources to expensive and sought-after medications may be scarce. Randomized clinical trials will serve as an appropriate vessel to validate the efficacy of the therapeutic regimen and dissection of the pathway.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections , Ergocalciferols/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Vitamin D Deficiency , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Receptors, Calcitriol/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/metabolism , Vitamins/administration & dosage
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 99: 286-290, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694042

ABSTRACT

The world is desperately seeking for a sustainable solution to combat the coronavirus strain SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Recent research indicated that optimizing Vitamin D blood levels could offer a solution approach that promises a heavily reduced fatality rate as well as solving the public health problem of counteracting the general vitamin D deficiency. This paper dived into the immunoregulatory effects of supplementing Vitamin D3 by elaborating a causal loop diagram. Together with D3, vitamin K2 and magnesium should be supplemented to prevent long-term health risks. Follow up clinical randomized trials are required to verify the current circumstantial evidence.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Vitamin K 2/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Cholecalciferol/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Immunologic Factors , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin K 2/blood
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL