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Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 47(3): 683-692, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141395


PURPOSE: To analyse acute cholecystitis (AC) management during the first pandemic outbreak after the recommendations given by the surgical societies estimating: morbidity, length of hospital stay, mortality and hospital-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection rate. METHODS: Multicentre-combined (retrospective-prospective) cohort study with AC patients in the Community of Madrid between 1st March and 30th May 2020. 257 AC patients were involved in 16 public hospital. Multivariant binomial logistic regression (MBLR) was applied to mortality. RESULTS: Of COVID-19 patients, 30 were diagnosed at admission and 12 patients were diagnosed during de admission or 30 days after discharge. In non-COVID-19 patients, antibiotic therapy was received in 61.3% of grade I AC and 40.6% of grade II AC. 52.4% of grade III AC were treated with percutaneous drainage (PD). Median hospital stay was 5 [3-8] days, which was higher in the non-surgical treatment group with 7.51 days (p < 0.001) and a 3.25% of mortality rate (p < 0.21). 93.3% of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection at admission were treated with non-surgical treatment (p = 0.03), median hospital stay was 11.0 [7.5-27.5] days (p < 0.001) with a 7.5% of mortality rate (p > 0.05). In patients with hospital-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection, 91.7% of grade I-II AC were treated with non-surgical treatment (p = 0.037), with a median hospital stay of 16 [4-21] days and a 18.2% mortality rate (p > 0.05). Hospital-acquired infection risk when hospital stay is > 7 days is OR 4.7, CI 95% (1.3-16.6), p = 0.009. COVID-19 mortality rate was 11.9%, AC severity adjusted OR 5.64 (CI 95% 1.417-22.64). In MBLR analysis, age (OR 1.15, CI 95% 1.02-1.31), SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR 14.49, CI 95% 1.33-157.81), conservative treatment failure (OR 8.2, CI 95% 1.34-50.49) and AC severity were associated with an increased odd of mortality. CONCLUSION: In our population, during COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increase of non-surgical treatment which was accompanied by an increase of conservative treatment failure, morbidity and hospital stay length which may have led to an increased risk hospital-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection. Age, SARS-CoV-2 infection, AC severity and conservative treatment failure were mortality risk factors.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cholecystectomy/statistics & numerical data , Cholecystitis, Acute , Conservative Treatment , Cross Infection , Infection Control , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cholecystitis, Acute/diagnosis , Cholecystitis, Acute/epidemiology , Cholecystitis, Acute/therapy , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Conservative Treatment/methods , Conservative Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/virology , Drainage/methods , Drainage/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
Int J Qual Health Care ; 33(1)2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045855


BACKGROUND: Deferral of surgeries due to COVID-19 has negatively affected access to elective surgery and may have deleterious consequences for patient's health. Delays in access to elective surgery are not uniform in their impact on patients with different attributes. The objective of this study is to measure the change in patient's cost utility due to delayed elective cholecystectomy. METHODS: This study is based on retrospective analysis of a longitudinal sample of participants who have had elective cholecystectomy and completed the EQ-5D(3L) measuring health status preoperatively and postoperatively. Emergent cases were excluded. Patients younger than 19 years of age, unable to communicate in English or residing in a long-term care facility were ineligible. Quality-adjusted life years attributable to cholecystectomy were calculated by comparing health state utility values between the pre- and postoperative time points. The loss in quality-adjusted life years due to delayed access was calculated under four assumed scenarios regarding the length of the delay. The mean cost per quality-adjusted life years are shown for the overall sample and by sex and age categories. RESULTS: Among the 646 eligible patients, 30.1% of participants (N = 195) completed their preoperative and postoperative EQ-5D(3L). A delay of 12 months resulted in a mean loss of 6.4%, or 0.117, of the quality-adjusted life years expected without the delay. Among patients older than 70 years of age, a 12-month delay in their surgery corresponded with a 25.1% increase in the cost per quality-adjusted life years, from $10 758 to $13 463. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to focus on minimizing loss of quality of life for patients affected by delayed surgeries. Faced with equal delayed access to elective surgery, triage may need to prioritize older patients to maximize their health over their remaining life years.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Cholecystectomy/psychology , Elective Surgical Procedures/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Canada/epidemiology , Cholecystectomy/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Expenditures , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 27(1): 34-42, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041556


BACKGROUND: Acute cholecystitis (AC), a common complication of gallstones, is responsible for a significant part of emergency applications, and cholecystectomy is the only definitive treatment method for AC. Early cholecystectomy has many reported advantages. Operation-related morbidity and mortality have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, our aim is to present our general clinical approach to patients who were diagnosed with AC during the pandemic and our percutaneous cholecystostomy experience during this period. METHODS: This study included 72 patients who were presented to our hospital's emergency room between March 11 and May 31, 2020, with AC. Patients were divided into three groups based on their treatment: outpatients (Group 1), inpatients (Group 2) and patients undergoing percutaneous cholecystostomy (Group 3). These three groups were compared by their demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: There were 36 (50%) patients in Group 1, 25 (34.7%) patients in Group 2, and 11 (15.3%) patients in Group 3. The demographic characteristics of the patients were similar. The CRP and WBC levels of the patients in Group 3 were significantly higher compared to the other groups. Moreover, the wall of the gallbladder was thicker and the size of the gallbladder was larger in Group 3. Patients had percutaneous cholecystostomy at the median of 3.5 days and the length of hospital stay was longer compared to Group 2 (3.9 days versus 9.2 days, p=0.00). The rate of re-hospitalization after discharge was similar in Group 2 and Group 3, but none of the patients in Group 1 required hospitalization. None of 72 patients developed an emergency condition requiring surgery, and there was no death. CONCLUSION: Although many publications emphasize that laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) can be performed with low morbidity at the first admission in acute cholecystitis, it is a clinical condition that can be delayed in the COVID-19 pandemic and other similar emergencies. Thus, percutaneous cholecystostomy should be effectively employed, and its indications should be extended if necessary (e.g., younger patients, patients with lower CCI or ASA). This approach may enable us to protect both patients and healthcare professionals that perform the operation from the risk of COVID-19.

Ambulatory Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Cholecystectomy , Cholecystitis, Acute , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Cholecystectomy/methods , Cholecystectomy/statistics & numerical data , Cholecystitis, Acute/epidemiology , Cholecystitis, Acute/surgery , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2