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1.
Med Trop Sante Int ; 1(1)2021 03 31.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893749

ABSTRACT

SAt a time when the Covid-19 pandemic is wreaking havoc around the world, it is certainly useful to take a step back epidemiologically. Reading Renaud Piarroux's book on his experience of fighting the cholera epidemic in Haiti between 2010 and 2018 is rich in lessons. It shows the fiasco and the wanderings of the United Nations system and some of its executives, but also the narrow vision of French diplomats and global health officials. But the book is also valuable for understanding the academic functioning of global public health, in the image of the contemporary Covidian disaster: biomedical public health, oriented towards certain diseases in particular, without an interdisciplinary vision and with its share of excesses, abuse and scientific clientelism. Students and young researchers should be able to use this analysis to change the situation…in the hope that they will be given space.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholera , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cholera/epidemiology , Haiti/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , United Nations
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 120: 83-87, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889486

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae caused outbreaks or sporadic cases of gastroenteritis that was rarely seen in good sanitary condition. It was described a case of systemic multiple organ lesions that worsened because of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae, suggesting that serogroups have a potential virulence in enhancing pathogenicity with patients with underlying diseases compared with a healthy population. DESIGN OR METHODS: Samples are identified by strain culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) virulence identification, and whole genome sequencing. RESULTS: A middle-aged man was diagnosed with cytotoxin-producing and nontoxin V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 serogroups. Although lacking the CT toxin encoded by ctxAB gene, the pathogenesis of cholera relies on the synergistic action of many other genes, especially virulence genes. CONCLUSIONS: This case suggested that the laborers engaging in agricultural production are at potential risk of V. cholerae infection by exposure of open wounds to contaminated water . However, epidemiological investigation should focus on the objective cause of the change of working environment. Furthermore, common diseases can possibly enhance the virulence of non-O1/non-O139 serogroups by attacking the tight junction of small intestinal epithelial cells, further triggering bacteremia, a process that may lead to death within 48-72 hours, which requires great attention.


Subject(s)
Cholera , Vibrio cholerae non-O1 , Cholera/epidemiology , Cholera Toxin/genetics , Endotoxins , Farmers , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vibrio cholerae non-O1/genetics
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(2): e0010163, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of ring vaccination and other outbreak-containment interventions during severe and rapidly-evolving epidemics presents a challenge for the choice of a feasible study design, and subsequently, for the estimation of statistical power. To support a future evaluation of a case-area targeted intervention against cholera, we have proposed a prospective observational study design to estimate the association between the strength of implementation of this intervention across several small outbreaks (occurring within geographically delineated clusters around primary and secondary cases named 'rings') and its effectiveness (defined as a reduction in cholera incidence). We describe here a strategy combining mathematical modelling and simulation to estimate power for a prospective observational study. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The strategy combines stochastic modelling of transmission and the direct and indirect effects of the intervention in a set of rings, with a simulation of the study analysis on the model results. We found that targeting 80 to 100 rings was required to achieve power ≥80%, using a basic reproduction number of 2.0 and a dispersion coefficient of 1.0-1.5. CONCLUSIONS: This power estimation strategy is feasible to implement for observational study designs which aim to evaluate outbreak containment for other pathogens in geographically or socially defined rings.


Subject(s)
Cholera/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Basic Reproduction Number , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Prospective Studies
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9989478, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403128

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent experiences from global outbreaks have highlighted the severe disruptions in sexual and reproductive health services that expose women and girls to preventable health risks. Yet, to date, there is no review studying the possible impact of outbreaks on sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Methodology. Studies reporting outbreaks impacting sexual and reproductive health and pregnancy outcomes were identified using MEDLINE, Embase, and ISI-WoS. Reported impacts were reviewed at systems, community, and legislative levels. RESULTS: The initial run listed 4423 studies; the 37 studies that met all inclusion criteria were mainly from Latin America and Africa. Studies on outbreaks of diseases like Zika and Ebola have documented declines in facility-based deliveries, contraceptive use, and antenatal and institutional care due to burdened healthcare system. Service usage was also impacted by a lack of trust in the healthcare system and system shocks, including workforce capacity and availability. At the community level, poverty and lack of awareness were critical contributors to poor access to SRH services. Assessing the target population's knowledge, attitude, beliefs, and behavior and using health literacy principles for communication were fundamental for designing service delivery. Online resources for SRH services were an acceptable medium of information among young adults. In outbreak situations, SRH and pregnancy outcomes were improved by implementing laboratory surveillance, free-of-cost contraceptive services, improved screening through professional training, and quality of care. In addition, mobile health clinics were reported to be effective in remote areas. Knowledge Contribution. In outbreaks, the interventions are categorized into preoutbreak, during, and postoutbreak periods. The proposed steps can help to improve and do course correction in emergencies. Though conducted before the COVID-19 crisis, the authors believe that lessons can be drawn from the paper to understand and mitigate the impact of the pandemic on sexual and reproductive health services.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Reproductive Health Services , Cholera/epidemiology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
9.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 36(6): 2030-2034, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321691

ABSTRACT

Recently, there has been a surge in cholera cases in Nigeria. With the exhausting health resources and the overwhelming attention towards COVID-19, Nigeria is in danger of worsening the epidemiological profile of cholera in the country. Thus, it is pertinent to address the surge to prevent further weakening of the country's health system. In this paper, we, therefore, explore the various interrelated factors accounting for the surge in Nigeria. It is therefore suggested that multifaceted public health strategies be employed that leverage the current level of disease preparedness and response capacities to the COVID-19 pandemic to reduce the impacts of cholera. These measures will not only help in strengthening the country's health system but also enhance the achievement of the relevant strategies toward eradicating cholera.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholera , Cholera/epidemiology , Cholera/prevention & control , Humans , Nigeria , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Anaesth Intensive Care ; 48(3_suppl): 28-38, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263985

ABSTRACT

The infectious pandemics and epidemics of the past 200 years have caused millions of deaths. However, these devastating events have also led to creative thinking, imaginative experimentation and the evolution of medical care. As a result, the history of critical care medicine is entwined with the story of these global disasters. This article will take case studies from recent pandemics and epidemics and examine their impact on the development of anaesthesia and intensive care medicine.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , COVID-19 , Cholera , Medicine , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Cholera/epidemiology , Critical Care , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Econ Hum Biol ; 41: 100968, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065028

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic poses the general question on how infectious diseases can persistently affect human health. A growing body of literature has found a significant amount of evidence on the long-term adverse effects of infectious diseases, such as influenza, typhoid fever, and yellow fever. However, we must be careful about the fact that little is known about the long-term consequences of the acute diarrheal disease pandemic cholera - Vibrio cholerae bacillus - which still threatens the health of the population in many developing countries. To bridge this gap in the body of knowledge, we utilized unique census-based data on army height at age 20 in early 20th-century Japan, with a difference-in-differences estimation strategy using regional variation in the intensity of cholera pandemics. We found that early-life exposure to a cholera pandemic had heterogeneous stunting effects on the final height of men; the magnitude of the stunting effects increased as the intensity of exposure increased.


Subject(s)
Body Height/physiology , Cholera/epidemiology , Cholera/history , History, 20th Century , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Young Adult
16.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1140): 633-638, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751465

ABSTRACT

After the dramatic coronavirus outbreak at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, on 11 March 2020, a pandemic was declared by the WHO. Most countries worldwide imposed a quarantine or lockdown to their citizens, in an attempt to prevent uncontrolled infection from spreading. Historically, quarantine is the 40-day period of forced isolation to prevent the spread of an infectious disease. In this educational paper, a historical overview from the sacred temples of ancient Greece-the cradle of medicine-to modern hospitals, along with the conceive of healthcare systems, is provided. A few foods for thought as to the conflict between ethics in medicine and shortage of personnel and financial resources in the coronavirus disease 2019 era are offered as well.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Ethics, Medical/history , Health Care Rationing/ethics , Hospitals/history , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/history , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cholera/epidemiology , Cholera/history , Health Workforce , Hippocratic Oath , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans , Leprosy/epidemiology , Leprosy/history , Plague/epidemiology , Plague/history , Resource Allocation , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
17.
Arch Iran Med ; 23(8): 578-581, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749392

ABSTRACT

In the past two centuries, several fatal infectious outbreaks have arisen in Iran. Presented here is a brief historical account of four fatal epidemics including cholera, plague, Spanish influenza of 1918 and smallpox between1796 and 1979. The lessons from these outbreaks could be helpful for better combatting other deadly epidemics including the present-day disastrous COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Cholera/history , Communicable Disease Control/history , Epidemics/history , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , Plague/history , Smallpox/history , Cholera/epidemiology , Cholera/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Plague/epidemiology , Plague/prevention & control , Smallpox/epidemiology , Smallpox/prevention & control
18.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 125: 164-169, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597209

ABSTRACT

The crisis spurred by the pandemic of COVID-19 has revealed weaknesses in our epidemiologic methodologic corpus, which scientists are struggling to compensate. This article explores whether this phenomenon is characteristic of pandemics or not. Since the emergence of population-based sciences in the 17th century, we can observe close temporal correlations between the plague and the discovery of population thinking, cholera and population-based group comparisons, tuberculosis and the formalization of cohort studies, the 1918 Great Influenza and the creation of an academic epidemiologic counterpart to the public health service, the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and the formalization of causal inference concepts. The COVID-19 pandemic seems to have promoted the widespread understanding of population thinking both with respect to ways of flattening an epidemic curve and the societal bases of health inequities. If the latter proves true, it will support my hypothesis that pandemics did accelerate profound changes in epidemiologic methods and concepts.


Subject(s)
Epidemiologic Methods , Pandemics/history , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cholera/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , History, 17th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Plague/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
20.
J Community Health ; 45(3): 437-439, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72168

ABSTRACT

Recently, the cholera outbreak in Haiti demonstrated just how unprepared the country is to rapidly isolate an outbreak of this magnitude, and its vulnerability to the COVID-19 pandemic. This communication briefly examines the health system in Haiti and its vulnerability toward the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disaster Planning , Disease Outbreaks , Health Resources , Health Services Accessibility , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cholera/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Haiti/epidemiology , Health Resources/organization & administration , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vulnerable Populations
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