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1.
Redox Biol ; 64: 102769, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328371

ABSTRACT

Cholesterol-24-hydroxylase (CH24H or Cyp46a1) is a reticulum-associated membrane protein that plays an irreplaceable role in cholesterol metabolism in the brain and has been well-studied in several neuro-associated diseases in recent years. In the present study, we found that CH24H expression can be induced by several neuroinvasive viruses, including vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), rabies virus (RABV), Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and murine hepatitis virus (MHV). The CH24H metabolite, 24-hydroxycholesterol (24HC), also shows competence in inhibiting the replication of multiple viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). 24HC can increase the cholesterol concentration in multivesicular body (MVB)/late endosome (LE) by disrupting the interaction between OSBP and VAPA, resulting in viral particles being trapped in MVB/LE, ultimately compromising VSV and RABV entry into host cells. These findings provide the first evidence that brain cholesterol oxidation products may play a critical role in viral infection.


Subject(s)
Virus Internalization , Animals , Mice , Cholesterol/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Homeostasis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Cholesterol 24-Hydroxylase/metabolism
2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 25(11): 7815-7824, 2023 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271741

ABSTRACT

N-terminal residues (770-788) of the S2 glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) have been recognized as a potential fusion peptide that can be involved in the entry of the virus into the host cell. Membrane composition plays an important role in lipid-peptide interaction and the oligomeric status of the peptide. SARS-CoV fusion peptide (S2 fusion peptide) is known to undergo cholesterol-dependent oligomerization in the membrane; however, its significance in membrane fusion is still speculative. This study aimed to investigate the oligomerization of SARS-CoV fusion peptide in a membrane containing phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol, with varying concentrations of cholesterol, and to evaluate peptide-induced membrane fusion to correlate the importance of peptide oligomerization with membrane fusion. Peptide-induced modulation of membrane organization and dynamics was explored by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic measurements using depth-dependent probes. The results clearly demonstrated the induction of S2 fusion peptide oligomerization by membrane cholesterol and the higher efficiency of the oligomer in promoting membrane fusion compared to its monomeric counterpart. Cholesterol-dependent peptide oligomerization and membrane fusion are important aspects of viral infection since the cholesterol level can change with age as well as with the onset of various pathophysiological conditions.


Subject(s)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Virus Internalization , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Peptides/chemistry , Cholesterol/metabolism
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(5)2023 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251648

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection goes beyond acute pneumonia, as it also impacts lipid metabolism. Decreased HDL-C and LDL-C levels have been reported in patients with COVID-19. The lipid profile is a less robust biochemical marker than apolipoproteins, components of lipoproteins. However, the association of apolipoprotein levels during COVID-19 is not well described and understood. The objective of our study is to measure plasma levels of 14 apolipoproteins in patients with COVID-19 and to evaluate the relationships between apolipoprotein levels, severity factors and patient outcomes. From November to March 2021, 44 patients were recruited on admission to the intensive care unit because of COVID-19. Fourteen apolipoproteins and LCAT were measured by LC-MS/MS in plasma of 44 COVID-19 patients on admission to the ICU and 44 healthy control subjects. Absolute apolipoprotein concentrations were compared between COVID-19 patients and controls. Plasma apolipoproteins (Apo) A (I, II, IV), C(I, II), D, H, J and M and LCAT were lower in COVID-19 patients, whereas Apo E was higher. COVID-19 severity factors such as PaO2/FiO2 ratio, SO-FA score and CRP were correlated with certain apolipoproteins. Lower Apo B100 and LCAT levels were observed in non-survivors of COVID-19 versus survivors. To conclude, in this study, lipid and apolipoprotein profiles are altered in COVID-19 patients. Low Apo B100 and LCAT levels may be predictive of non-survival in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholesterol , Humans , Cohort Studies , Chromatography, Liquid , Cholesterol/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Apolipoproteins , Apolipoproteins A , Apolipoprotein B-100 , Intensive Care Units , Apolipoprotein A-I , Apolipoproteins B , Apolipoprotein A-II
4.
J Virol ; 97(4): e0021023, 2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254654

ABSTRACT

Porcine enteric alphacoronavirus (PEAV) is a new bat HKU2-like porcine coronavirus, and its endemic outbreak has caused severe economic losses to the pig industry. Its broad cellular tropism suggests a potential risk of cross-species transmission. A limited understanding of PEAV entry mechanisms may hinder a rapid response to potential outbreaks. This study analyzed PEAV entry events using chemical inhibitors, RNA interference, and dominant-negative mutants. PEAV entry into Vero cells depended on three endocytic pathways: caveolae, clathrin, and macropinocytosis. Endocytosis requires dynamin, cholesterol, and a low pH. Rab5, Rab7, and Rab9 GTPases (but not Rab11) regulate PEAV endocytosis. PEAV particles colocalize with EEA1, Rab5, Rab7, Rab9, and Lamp-1, suggesting that PEAV translocates into early endosomes after internalization, and Rab5, Rab7, and Rab9 regulate trafficking to lysosomes before viral genome release. PEAV enters porcine intestinal cells (IPI-2I) through the same endocytic pathway, suggesting that PEAV may enter various cells through multiple endocytic pathways. This study provides new insights into the PEAV life cycle. IMPORTANCE Emerging and reemerging coronaviruses cause severe human and animal epidemics worldwide. PEAV is the first bat-like coronavirus to cause infection in domestic animals. However, the PEAV entry mechanism into host cells remains unknown. This study demonstrates that PEAV enters into Vero or IPI-2I cells through caveola/clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis, which does not require a specific receptor. Subsequently, Rab5, Rab7, and Rab9 regulate PEAV trafficking from early endosomes to lysosomes, which is pH dependent. The results advance our understanding of the disease and help to develop potential new drug targets against PEAV.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , Caveolae , Clathrin , Pinocytosis , Virus Internalization , rab GTP-Binding Proteins , Alphacoronavirus/physiology , rab GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Endosomes/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Dynamins/metabolism , Caveolae/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Clathrin/metabolism , Pinocytosis/physiology , Vero Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals
5.
J Pharm Sci ; 112(5): 1401-1410, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242056

ABSTRACT

Delivery of messenger RNA (mRNA) using lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) is expected to be applied to various diseases following the successful clinical use of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the cholesterol molar percentage of mRNA-LNPs on protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cells and in the liver after intramuscular or subcutaneous administration of mRNA-LNPs in mice. For mRNA-LNPs with cholesterol molar percentages reduced to 10 mol% and 20 mol%, we formulated neutral charge particles with a diameter of approximately 100 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) <0.25. After the intramuscular or subcutaneous administration of mRNA-LNPs with different cholesterol molar percentages in mice, protein expression in the liver decreased as the cholesterol molar percentage in mRNA-LNPs decreased from 40 mol% to 20 mol% and 10 mol%, suggesting that reducing the cholesterol molar percentage in mRNA-LNPs decreases protein expression in the liver. Furthermore, in HepG2 cells, protein expression decreased as cholesterol in mRNA-LNPs was reduced by 40 mol%, 20 mol%, and 10 mol%. These results suggest that the downregulated expression of mRNA-LNPs with low cholesterol content in the liver involves degradation in systemic circulating blood and decreased protein expression after hepatocyte distribution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Mice , Humans , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Liposomes/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics
6.
Elife ; 122023 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217494

ABSTRACT

Most of the cholesterol in the plasma membranes (PMs) of animal cells is sequestered through interactions with phospholipids and transmembrane domains of proteins. However, as cholesterol concentration rises above the PM's sequestration capacity, a new pool of cholesterol, called accessible cholesterol, emerges. The transport of accessible cholesterol between the PM and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is critical to maintain cholesterol homeostasis. This pathway has also been implicated in the suppression of both bacterial and viral pathogens by immunomodulatory oxysterols. Here, we describe a mechanism of depletion of accessible cholesterol from PMs by the oxysterol 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC). We show that 25HC-mediated activation of acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) in the ER creates an imbalance in the equilibrium distribution of accessible cholesterol between the ER and PM. This imbalance triggers the rapid internalization of accessible cholesterol from the PM, and this depletion is sustained for long periods of time through 25HC-mediated suppression of SREBPs and continued activation of ACAT. In support of a physiological role for this mechanism, 25HC failed to suppress Zika virus and human coronavirus infection in ACAT-deficient cells, and Listeria monocytogenes infection in ACAT-deficient cells and mice. We propose that selective depletion of accessible PM cholesterol triggered by ACAT activation and sustained through SREBP suppression underpins the immunological activities of 25HC and a functionally related class of oxysterols.


Subject(s)
Oxysterols , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , Humans , Mice , Oxysterols/metabolism , Acyltransferases/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Bacteria/metabolism
7.
Nature ; 609(7928): 815-821, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050415

ABSTRACT

Lysosomal dysfunction has been increasingly linked to disease and normal ageing1,2. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), a hallmark of lysosome-related diseases, can be triggered by diverse cellular stressors3. Given the damaging contents of lysosomes, LMP must be rapidly resolved, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, using an unbiased proteomic approach, we show that LMP stimulates a phosphoinositide-initiated membrane tethering and lipid transport (PITT) pathway for rapid lysosomal repair. Upon LMP, phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase type 2α (PI4K2A) accumulates rapidly on damaged lysosomes, generating high levels of the lipid messenger phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. Lysosomal phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate in turn recruits multiple oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related protein (ORP) family members, including ORP9, ORP10, ORP11 and OSBP, to orchestrate extensive new membrane contact sites between damaged lysosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum. The ORPs subsequently catalyse robust endoplasmic reticulum-to-lysosome transfer of phosphatidylserine and cholesterol to support rapid lysosomal repair. Finally, the lipid transfer protein ATG2 is also recruited to damaged lysosomes where its activity is potently stimulated by phosphatidylserine. Independent of macroautophagy, ATG2 mediates rapid membrane repair through direct lysosomal lipid transfer. Together, our findings identify that the PITT pathway maintains lysosomal membrane integrity, with important implications for numerous age-related diseases characterized by impaired lysosomal function.


Subject(s)
Lysosomes , Phosphatidylinositols , Signal Transduction , Autophagy-Related Proteins/metabolism , Biological Transport , Cholesterol/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Intracellular Space/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Lysosomes/pathology , Oxysterols/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositols/metabolism , Phosphatidylserines/metabolism , Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/metabolism , Proteomics , Receptors, Steroid/metabolism
8.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024295

ABSTRACT

Rotaviruses (RVs) are a significant cause of severe diarrheal illness in infants and young animals, including pigs. Group C rotavirus (RVC) is an emerging pathogen increasingly reported in pigs and humans worldwide, and is currently recognized as the major cause of gastroenteritis in neonatal piglets that results in substantial economic losses to the pork industry. However, little is known about RVC pathogenesis due to the lack of a robust cell culture system, with the exception of the RVC Cowden strain. Here, we evaluated the permissiveness of porcine crypt-derived 3D and 2D intestinal enteroid (PIE) culture systems for RVC infection. Differentiated 3D and 2D PIEs were infected with porcine RVC (PRVC) Cowden G1P[1], PRVC104 G3P[18], and PRVC143 G6P[5] virulent strains, and the virus replication was measured by qRT-PCR. Our results demonstrated that all RVC strains replicated in 2D-PIEs poorly, while 3D-PIEs supported a higher level of replication, suggesting that RVC selectively infects terminally differentiated enterocytes, which were less abundant in the 2D vs. 3D PIE cultures. While cellular receptors for RVC are unknown, target cell surface carbohydrates, including histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs) and sialic acids (SAs), are believed to play a role in cell attachment/entry. The evaluation of the selective binding of RVCs to different HBGAs revealed that PRVC Cowden G1P[1] replicated to the highest titers in the HBGA-A PIEs, while PRVC104 or PRVC143 achieved the highest titers in the HBGA-H PIEs. Further, contrasting outcomes were observed following sialidase treatment (resulting in terminal SA removal), which significantly enhanced Cowden and RVC143 replication, but inhibited the growth of PRVC104. These observations suggest that different RVC strains may recognize terminal (PRVC104) as well as internal (Cowden and RVC143) SAs on gangliosides. Finally, several cell culture additives, such as diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-dextran, cholesterol, and bile extract, were tested to establish if they could enhance RVC replication. We observed that only DEAE-dextran significantly enhanced RVC attachment, but it had no effect on RVC replication. Additionally, the depletion of cellular cholesterol by MßCD inhibited Cowden replication, while the restoration of the cellular cholesterol partially reversed the MßCD effects. These results suggest that cellular cholesterol plays an important role in the replication of the PRVC strain tested. Overall, our study has established a novel robust and physiologically relevant system to investigate RVC pathogenesis. We also generated novel, experimentally derived evidence regarding the role of host glycans, DEAE, and cholesterol in RVC replication, which is critical for the development of control strategies.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Animals , Blood Group Antigens/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Humans , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Swine
9.
Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997728

ABSTRACT

Lipid rafts in cell plasma membranes play a critical role in the life cycle of many viruses. However, the involvement of membrane cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into target cells is not well known. In this study, we investigated whether the presence of cholesterol-rich microdomains is required for the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells. Our results show that depletion of cholesterol in the rafts by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MßCD) treatment impaired the expression of the cell surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), resulting in a significant increase in SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. The effects exerted by MßCD could be substantially reversed by exogenous cholesterol replenishment. In contrast, disturbance of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis by statins or siRNA knockdown of key genes involved in the cholesterol biosynthesis and transport pathways reduced SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. Our study also reveals that SREBP2-mediated cholesterol biosynthesis is involved in the process of SARS-CoV-2 entry in target cells. These results suggest that the host membrane cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts and cellular cholesterol homeostasis are essential for SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. Pharmacological manipulation of intracellular cholesterol might provide new therapeutic strategies to alleviate SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cholesterol/metabolism , Homeostasis , Humans , Membrane Microdomains , Virus Internalization
10.
ACS Chem Biol ; 17(8): 2109-2120, 2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947197

ABSTRACT

Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITM1, 2, and 3) are important antiviral proteins that are active against many viruses, including influenza A virus (IAV), dengue virus (DENV), Ebola virus (EBOV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). IFITM proteins exhibit specificity in activity, but their distinct mechanisms of action and regulation are unclear. Since S-palmitoylation and cholesterol homeostasis are crucial for viral infections, we investigated IFITM interactions with cholesterol by photoaffinity cross-linking in mammalian cells along with molecular dynamic simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis in vitro. These studies suggest that cholesterol can directly interact with S-palmitoylated IFITMs in cells and alter the conformation of IFITMs in membrane bilayers. Notably, we discovered that the S-palmitoylation levels regulate differential IFITM protein interactions with cholesterol in mammalian cells and specificity of antiviral activity toward IAV, SARS-CoV-2, and EBOV. Our studies suggest that modulation of IFITM S-palmitoylation levels and cholesterol interaction influence host susceptibility to different viruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Lipoylation , Membrane Proteins , Sterols , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cholesterol/metabolism , Influenza A virus , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sterols/metabolism , Zika Virus
11.
Antiviral Res ; 205: 105373, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914152

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is marked by extensive damage to the respiratory system, often accompanied by systemic manifestations, due to both viral cytopathic effects and hyperinflammatory syndrome. Therefore, the development of new therapeutic strategies or drug repurposing aiming to control virus replication and inflammation are required to mitigate the impact of the disease. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-BCD) is a cholesterol-sequestering agent with antiviral activity that has been demonstrated against enveloped viruses in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. We also demonstrated that HP-BCD has an immunomodulatory effect, inhibiting the production of selected proinflammatory cytokines induced by microbial products. Importantly, this drug has been used in humans for decades as an excipient in drug delivery systems and as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of Niemann pick C disease. The safety profile for this compound is well established. Here, we investigated whether HP-BCD would affect SARS-CoV-2 replication and virus-induced inflammatory response, using established cell lines and primary human cells. Treating virus or cells with HP-BCD significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication with a high selective index. A broad activity against distinct SARS-CoV-2 variants was evidenced by a remarkable reduction in the release of infectious particles. The drug did not alter ACE2 surface expression, but affected cholesterol accumulation into intracellular replication complexes, lowering virus RNA and protein levels, and reducing virus-induced cytopathic effects. Virus replication was also impaired by HP-BCD in Calu-3 pulmonary cell line and human primary monocytes, in which not only the virus, but also the production of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly inhibited. Given the pathophysiology of COVID-19 disease, these data indicate that the use HP-BCD, which inhibits both SARS-CoV2 replication and production of proinflammatory cytokines, as a potential COVID-19 therapeutic warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , 2-Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin/pharmacology , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , RNA, Viral , Virus Replication
12.
mBio ; 13(3): e0073122, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865140

ABSTRACT

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic reemerging virus replicating in plasma membrane-derived compartments termed "spherules." Here, we identify the human transmembrane protein CD81 as host factor required for CHIKV replication. Ablation of CD81 results in decreased CHIKV permissiveness, while overexpression enhances infection. CD81 is dispensable for virus uptake but critically required for viral genome replication. Likewise, murine CD81 is crucial for CHIKV permissiveness and is expressed in target cells such as dermal fibroblasts, muscle and liver cells. Whereas related alphaviruses, including Ross River virus (RRV), Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Sindbis virus (SINV) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), also depend on CD81 for infection, RNA viruses from other families, such as coronaviruses, replicate independently of CD81. Strikingly, the replication-enhancing function of CD81 is linked to cholesterol binding. These results define a mechanism exploited by alphaviruses to hijack the membrane microdomain-modeling protein CD81 for virus replication through interaction with cholesterol. IMPORTANCE In this study, we discover the tetraspanin CD81 as a host factor for the globally emerging chikungunya virus and related alphaviruses. We show that CD81 promotes replication of viral genomes in human and mouse cells, while virus entry into cells is independent of CD81. This provides novel insights into how alphaviruses hijack host proteins to complete their life cycle. Alphaviruses replicate at distinct sites of the plasma membrane, which are enriched in cholesterol. We found that the cholesterol-binding ability of CD81 is important for its function as an alphavirus host factor. This discovery thus broadens our understanding of the alphavirus replication process and the use of host factors to reprogram cells into virus replication factories.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever , Chikungunya virus , Viruses , Animals , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Cholesterol/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Tetraspanins/metabolism , Virus Replication/genetics , Viruses/metabolism
13.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 926: 175033, 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850999

ABSTRACT

Efficient antiviral drug discovery has been a pressing issue of global public health concern since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), a reactive oxysterol catalyzed by cholesterol-25-hydroxylase, exerts broad-spectrum antiviral activity with high efficiency and low toxicity. 25HC restricts viral internalization and disturbs the maturity of viral proteins using multiple mechanisms. First, 25HC reduces lipid rafts and cholesterol in the cytomembrane by inhibiting sterol-regulatory element binding proteins-2, stimulating liver X receptor, and activating Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyl-transferase. Second, 25HC impairs endosomal pathways by restricting the function of oxysterol-binding protein or Niemann-pick protein C1, causing the virus to fail to release nucleic acid. Third, 25HC disturbs the prenylation of viral proteins by suppressing the sterol-regulatory element binding protein pathway and glycosylation by increasing the sensitivity of glycans to endoglycosidase. This paper reviews previous studies on the antiviral activity of 25HC in order to fully understand its role in innate immunity and how it may contribute to the development of urgently needed broad-spectrum antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxysterols , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cholesterol/metabolism , Homeostasis , Humans , Hydroxycholesterols/pharmacology , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Viral Proteins/metabolism
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 791267, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834396

ABSTRACT

Host cholesterol metabolism remodeling is significantly associated with the spread of human pathogenic coronaviruses, suggesting virus-host relationships could be affected by cholesterol-modifying drugs. Cholesterol has an important role in coronavirus entry, membrane fusion, and pathological syncytia formation, therefore cholesterol metabolic mechanisms may be promising drug targets for coronavirus infections. Moreover, cholesterol and its metabolizing enzymes or corresponding natural products exert antiviral effects which are closely associated with individual viral steps during coronavirus replication. Furthermore, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections are associated with clinically significant low cholesterol levels, suggesting cholesterol could function as a potential marker for monitoring viral infection status. Therefore, weaponizing cholesterol dysregulation against viral infection could be an effective antiviral strategy. In this review, we comprehensively review the literature to clarify how coronaviruses exploit host cholesterol metabolism to accommodate viral replication requirements and interfere with host immune responses. We also focus on targeting cholesterol homeostasis to interfere with critical steps during coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cholesterol/metabolism , Humans , Virus Replication
15.
Prog Lipid Res ; 87: 101166, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815048

ABSTRACT

The role of cholesterol in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other coronavirus-host cell interactions is currently being discussed in the context of two main scenarios: i) the presence of the neutral lipid in cholesterol-rich lipid domains involved in different steps of the viral infection and ii) the alteration of metabolic pathways by the virus over the course of infection. Cholesterol-enriched lipid domains have been reported to occur in the lipid envelope membrane of the virus, in the host-cell plasma membrane, as well as in endosomal and other intracellular membrane cellular compartments. These membrane subdomains, whose chemical and physical properties distinguish them from the bulk lipid bilayer, have been purported to participate in diverse phenomena, from virus-host cell fusion to intracellular trafficking and exit of the virions from the infected cell. SARS-CoV-2 recruits many key proteins that participate under physiological conditions in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in general. This review analyses the status of cholesterol and lipidome proteins in SARS-CoV-2 infection and the new horizons they open for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholesterol/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776249

ABSTRACT

The quantity of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) is represented as the serum HDL-C concentration (mg/dL), while the HDL quality manifests as the diverse features of protein and lipid content, extent of oxidation, and extent of glycation. The HDL functionality represents several performance metrics of HDL, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cholesterol efflux activities. The quantity and quality of HDL can change during one's lifetime, depending on infection, disease, and lifestyle, such as dietary habits, exercise, and smoking. The quantity of HDL can change according to age and gender, such as puberty, middle-aged symptoms, climacteric, and the menopause. HDL-C can decrease during disease states, such as acute infection, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune disease, while it can be increased by regular aerobic exercise and healthy food consumption. Generally, high HDL-C at the normal level is associated with good HDL quality and functionality. Nevertheless, high HDL quantity is not always accompanied by good HDL quality or functionality. The HDL quality concerns the morphology of the HDL, such as particle size, shape, and number. The HDL quality also depends on the composition of the HDL, such as apolipoproteins (apoA-I, apoA-II, apoC-III, serum amyloid A, and α-synuclein), cholesterol, and triglyceride. The HDL quality is also associated with the extent of HDL modification, such as glycation and oxidation, resulting in the multimerization of apoA-I, and the aggregation leads to amyloidogenesis. The HDL quality frequently determines the HDL functionality, which depends on the attached antioxidant enzyme activity, such as the paraoxonase and cholesterol efflux activity. Conventional HDL functionality is regression, the removal of cholesterol from atherosclerotic lesions, and the removal of oxidized species in low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Recently, HDL functionality was reported to expand the removal of ß-amyloid plaque and inhibit α-synuclein aggregation in the brain to attenuate Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, respectively. More recently, HDL functionality has been associated with the susceptibility and recovery ability of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by inhibiting the activity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The appearance of dysfunctional HDL is frequently associated with many acute infectious diseases and chronic aging-related diseases. An HDL can be a suitable biomarker to diagnose many diseases and their progression by monitoring the changes in its quantity and quality in terms of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory abilities. An HDL can be a protein drug used for the removal of plaque and as a delivery vehicle for non-soluble drugs and genes. A dysfunctional HDL has poor HDL quality, such as a lower apoA-I content, lower antioxidant ability, smaller size, and ambiguous shape. The current review analyzes the recent advances in HDL quantity, quality, and functionality, depending on the health and disease state during one's lifetime.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lipoproteins, HDL , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants/metabolism , Apolipoprotein A-I/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL , Female , Humans , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha-Synuclein
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765732

ABSTRACT

Formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a two-faced innate host defense mechanism, which, on the one hand, can counteract microbial infections, but on the other hand, can contribute to massive detrimental effects on the host. Cholesterol depletion from the cellular membrane by Methyl-ß-cyclodextrin (MßCD) is known as one of the processes initiating NET formation. Since neutrophils mainly act in an inflammatory environment with decreased, so-called hypoxic, oxygen conditions, we aimed to study the effect of oxygen and the oxygen stress regulator hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α on cholesterol-dependent NET formation. Thus, murine bone marrow-derived neutrophils from wild-type and HIF-knockout mice or human neutrophils were stimulated with MßCD under normoxic (21% O2) compared to hypoxic (1% O2) conditions, and the formation of NETs were studied by immunofluorescence microscopy. We found significantly induced NET formation after treatment with MßCD in murine neutrophils derived from wild-type as well as HIF-1α KO mice at both hypoxic (1% O2) as well as normoxic (21% O2) conditions. Similar observations were made in freshly isolated human neutrophils after stimulation with MßCD or statins, which block the HMG-CoA reductase as the key enzyme in the cholesterol metabolism. HPLC was used to confirm the reduction of cholesterol in treated neutrophils. In summary, we were able to show that NET formation via MßCD or statin-treatment is oxygen and HIF-1α independent.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Traps , Animals , Cholesterol/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Mice , Neutrophils/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 796855, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607033

ABSTRACT

Since its appearance, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the causal agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), represents a global problem for human health that involves the host lipid homeostasis. Regarding, lipid rafts are functional membrane microdomains with highly and tightly packed lipid molecules. These regions enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol recruit and concentrate several receptors and molecules involved in pathogen recognition and cellular signaling. Cholesterol-rich lipid rafts have multiple functions for viral replication; however, their role in SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. In this review, we discussed the novel evidence on the cholesterol-rich lipid rafts as a platform for SARS-CoV-2 entry, where receptors such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2), heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), human Toll-like receptors (TLRs), transmembrane serine proteases (TMPRSS), CD-147 and HDL-scavenger receptor B type 1 (SR-B1) are recruited for their interaction with the viral spike protein. FDA-approved drugs such as statins, metformin, hydroxychloroquine, and cyclodextrins (methyl-ß-cyclodextrin) can disrupt cholesterol-rich lipid rafts to regulate key molecules in the immune signaling pathways triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Taken together, better knowledge on cholesterol-rich lipid rafts in the SARS-CoV-2-host interactions will provide valuable insights into pathogenesis and the identification of novel therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Membrane Microdomains/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , beta-Cyclodextrins/pharmacology
19.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(2): 210-221, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608557

ABSTRACT

Exploring the cross-talk between the immune system and advanced biomaterials to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection is a promising strategy. Here, we show that ACE2-overexpressing A549 cell-derived microparticles (AO-MPs) are a potential therapeutic agent against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Intranasally administered AO-MPs dexterously navigate the anatomical and biological features of the lungs to enter the alveoli and are taken up by alveolar macrophages (AMs). Then, AO-MPs increase the endosomal pH but decrease the lysosomal pH in AMs, thus escorting bound SARS-CoV-2 from phago-endosomes to lysosomes for degradation. This pH regulation is attributable to oxidized cholesterol, which is enriched in AO-MPs and translocated to endosomal membranes, thus interfering with proton pumps and impairing endosomal acidification. In addition to promoting viral degradation, AO-MPs also inhibit the proinflammatory phenotype of AMs, leading to increased treatment efficacy in a SARS-CoV-2-infected mouse model without side effects. These findings highlight the potential use of AO-MPs to treat SARS-CoV-2-infected patients and showcase the feasibility of MP therapies for combatting emerging respiratory viruses in the future.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cell-Derived Microparticles/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Endosomes/chemistry , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lysosomes/chemistry , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Mice, Transgenic , Oxidation-Reduction , RAW 264.7 Cells , Treatment Outcome , Vero Cells
20.
Cell Metab ; 33(10): 1911-1925, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588059

ABSTRACT

High levels of cholesterol are generally considered to be associated with atherosclerosis. In the past two decades, however, a number of studies have shown that excess cholesterol accumulation in various tissues and organs plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases. Here, we summarize the effects of excess cholesterol on disease pathogenesis, including liver diseases, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, pituitary-thyroid axis dysfunction, immune disorders, and COVID-19, while proposing that excess cholesterol-induced toxicity is ubiquitous. We believe this concept will help broaden the appreciation of the toxic effect of excess cholesterol, and thus potentially expand the therapeutic use of cholesterol-lowering medications.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Hypercholesterolemia/metabolism , Animals , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia/diagnosis , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy , Hypercholesterolemia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
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