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1.
JAMA ; 327(15): 1478-1487, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756509

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is limited comparative epidemiological evidence on outcomes associated with COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy; monitoring pregnancy outcomes in large populations is required. Objective: To evaluate peripartum outcomes following COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada, using a birth registry linked with the provincial COVID-19 immunization database. All births between December 14, 2020, and September 30, 2021, were included. Exposures: COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy, COVID-19 vaccination after pregnancy, and no vaccination. Main Outcomes and Measures: Postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis, cesarean delivery (overall and emergency cesarean delivery), admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and low newborn 5-minute Apgar score (<7). Linear and robust Poisson regression was used to generate adjusted risk differences (aRDs) and risk ratios (aRRs), respectively, comparing cumulative incidence of outcomes in those who received COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy with those vaccinated after pregnancy and those with no record of COVID-19 vaccination at any point. Inverse probability of treatment weights were used to adjust for confounding. Results: Among 97 590 individuals (mean [SD] age, 31.9 [4.9] years), 22 660 (23%) received at least 1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy (63.6% received dose 1 in the third trimester; 99.8% received an mRNA vaccine). Comparing those vaccinated during vs after pregnancy (n = 44 815), there were no significantly increased risks of postpartum hemorrhage (incidence: 3.0% vs 3.0%; aRD, -0.28 per 100 individuals [95% CI, -0.59 to 0.03]; aRR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.82-1.02]), chorioamnionitis (0.5% vs 0.5%; aRD, -0.04 per 100 individuals [95% CI, -0.17 to 0.09]; aRR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.70-1.21]), cesarean delivery (30.8% vs 32.2%; aRD, -2.73 per 100 individuals [95% CI, -3.59 to -1.88]; aRR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.89-0.95]), NICU admission (11.0% vs 13.3%; aRD, -1.89 per 100 newborns [95% CI, -2.49 to -1.30]; aRR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.80-0.90]), or low Apgar score (1.8% vs 2.0%; aRD, -0.31 per 100 newborns [95% CI, -0.56 to -0.06]; aRR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.73-0.97]). Findings were qualitatively similar when compared with individuals who did not receive COVID-19 vaccination at any point (n = 30 115). Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada, COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy, compared with vaccination after pregnancy and with no vaccination, was not significantly associated with increased risk of adverse peripartum outcomes. Study interpretation should consider that the vaccinations received during pregnancy were primarily mRNA vaccines administered in the second and third trimester.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Chorioamnionitis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Postpartum Hemorrhage , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Chorioamnionitis/epidemiology , Chorioamnionitis/etiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Ontario/epidemiology , Peripartum Period , Postpartum Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Postpartum Hemorrhage/etiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
Am J Perinatol ; 39(3): 329-336, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514438

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the effect of the lockdown measures during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on pregnancy outcomes of women who were not affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. STUDY DESIGN: We used data from the perinatal health program and neonatal databases to conduct a cohort analysis of pregnancy outcomes during the COVID-19 lockdown in the Calgary region, Canada. Rates of preterm birth were compared between the lockdown period (March 16 to June 15, 2020) and the corresponding pre-COVID period of 2015 to 2019. We also compared maternal and neonatal characteristics of preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Calgary between the two periods. FINDINGS: A total of 4,357 and 24,160 live births occurred in the lockdown and corresponding pre-COVID period, respectively. There were 366 (84.0 per 1,000 live births) and 2,240 (92.7 per 1,000 live births) preterm births in the lockdown and corresponding pre-COVID period, respectively (p = 0.07). Rates of very preterm and very-low-birth-weight births were lower in the lockdown period compared with the corresponding pre-COVID period (11.0 vs. 15.6 and 9.0 vs. 14.4 per 1,000 live births, p = 0.02 and p = 0.005, respectively). There was no difference in spontaneous stillbirth between the two periods (3.7 vs. 4.1 per 1,000 live birth, p = 0.71). During the lockdown period, the likelihood of multiple births was lower (risk ratio [RR] 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.60-0.88), while gestational hypertension and clinical chorioamnionitis increased (RR 1.24, 95%CI: 1.10-1.40; RR 1.33, 95%CI 1.10-1.61, respectively). CONCLUSION: Observed rates of very preterm and very-low-birth-weight births decreased during the COVID-19 lockdown. Pregnant women who delivered during the lockdown period were diagnosed with gestational hypertension and chorioamnionitis more frequently than mothers in the corresponding pre-COVID period. KEY POINTS: · Lockdown measures to reduce COVID-19 transmission were associated with a lower rate of preterm birth.. · Mental and physical wellbeing of pregnant women were significantly affected by the lockdown measures.. · A comprehensive public health plan to relieve psychosocial stress during pregnancy is required..


Subject(s)
Live Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Quarantine , Adult , COVID-19 , Canada/epidemiology , Chorioamnionitis/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Multiple , Retrospective Studies
3.
Vaccine ; 40(11): 1572-1582, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several countries have introduced maternal immunisation with pertussis vaccine to provide protection against pertussis in early infancy. There is increasing interest in non-specific effects of vaccines including that non-live vaccines may enhance susceptibility to non-targeted infections in females. Some studies have shown increased risk of chorioamnionitis among women receiving pertussis vaccine during pregnancy. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal pertussis immunisation on the risk of chorioamnionitis, as well as the secondary outcomes of non-pertussis infections in women, non-pertussis infections in infants, spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, maternal death and infant death. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase for articles published until January 14, 2021. We screened articles for eligibility and extracted data using Covidence. Quality was assessed using Cochrane RoB tool and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were imported into RevMan for pooling and conduction of a meta-analysis stratified by study type. Outcomes are presented as risk ratios. RESULTS: We identified 13 observational studies and six randomized controlled trials eligible for inclusion. We pooled data on chorioamnionitis from six observational studies and found maternal pertussis vaccine (mostly compared with other maternal immunizations with non-live vaccines) to be associated with an increased risk among the pertussis vaccinated women, RR = 1.27 [CI 95%: 1.14-1.42]. We found no difference in the analysis of our secondary outcomes of non-pertussis infections, spontaneous abortion or stillbirth and death. CONCLUSION: We found an increased risk of chorioamnionitis among women who received pertussis vaccine in pregnancy. The large number of women receiving pertussis vaccine during pregnancy, as well as the growing evidence of non-live vaccines causing increased susceptibility to infections, indicates a need for further randomised trials to assess potential adverse effects of maternal immunisation with pertussis-containing vaccines.


Subject(s)
Chorioamnionitis , Communicable Diseases , Whooping Cough , Chorioamnionitis/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/complications , Female , Humans , Infant , Pertussis Vaccine/adverse effects , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Whooping Cough/complications , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
4.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(8): 857-868, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193615

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to review 4 weeks of universal novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) screening among delivery hospitalizations, at two hospitals in March and April 2020 in New York City, to compare outcomes between patients based on COVID-19 status and to determine whether demographic risk factors and symptoms predicted screening positive for COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study evaluated all patients admitted for delivery from March 22 to April 18, 2020, at two New York City hospitals. Obstetrical and neonatal outcomes were collected. The relationship between COVID-19 and demographic, clinical, and maternal and neonatal outcome data was evaluated. Demographic data included the number of COVID-19 cases ascertained by ZIP code of residence. Adjusted logistic regression models were performed to determine predictability of demographic risk factors for COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 454 women delivered, 79 (17%) had COVID-19. Of those, 27.9% (n = 22) had symptoms such as cough (13.9%), fever (10.1%), chest pain (5.1%), and myalgia (5.1%). While women with COVID-19 were more likely to live in the ZIP codes quartile with the most cases (47 vs. 41%) and less likely to live in the ZIP code quartile with the fewest cases (6 vs. 14%), these comparisons were not statistically significant (p = 0.18). Women with COVID-19 were less likely to have a vaginal delivery (55.2 vs. 51.9%, p = 0.04) and had a significantly longer postpartum length of stay with cesarean (2.00 vs. 2.67days, p < 0.01). COVID-19 was associated with higher risk for diagnoses of chorioamnionitis and pneumonia and fevers without a focal diagnosis. In adjusted analyses, including demographic factors, logistic regression demonstrated a c-statistic of 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69, 0.80). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 symptoms were present in a minority of COVID-19-positive women admitted for delivery. Significant differences in obstetrical outcomes were found. While demographic risk factors demonstrated acceptable discrimination, risk prediction does not capture a significant portion of COVID-19-positive patients. KEY POINTS: · COVID-19 symptoms were present in a minority of COVID-19-positive women admitted.. · COVID-19 symptomatology did not appear to differ before or after the apex of infection in New York.. · Demographic risk factors are unlikely to capture a significant portion of COVID-19-positive patients..


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , Carrier State/epidemiology , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Chorioamnionitis/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Delivery, Obstetric , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Maternal Age , New York City/epidemiology , Obesity, Maternal/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Residence Characteristics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(4): 1344-1352, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035343

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate perinatal outcomes regarding clinical presentation in pregnancy and the vertical transmission potential of COVID-19. METHODS: Clinical records, laboratory findings, and chest computed tomography (CT) scans were retrospectively reviewed from 20 pregnant patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University and The Third Hospital of Wuhan, from Jan 20 to Mar 16, 2020, including three in the first-trimester, two in the second-trimester, and 15 in the third-trimester. Evidence of vertical transmission was assessed by testing for neonatal throat swab samples. The pathological changes of COVID-19 on the placenta is evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining. RESULTS: The most common symptoms of the pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection were fever and cough, which is comparable to the nonpregnant adults with COVID-19 infection. Nobody was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) for treatment and there were no maternal and neonatal deaths. However, there was one case with induced abortions on first-trimester (due to pregnant woman's concerns about COVID-19), one diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy, no intrauterine fetal deaths during the study period. Delivery occurred in 15 patients in the third trimester. Their incidence of preterm birth was 20%. Three of the four preterm births were spontaneous. The average length of stay was 20.77 days. No neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected. There were two placentas found with acute chorioamnionitis, one showed normal placenta morphology. CONCLUSION: In this case series study, COVID-19 had no short-term adverse effect on pregnant women except premature birth. The vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 did not occur in our study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , China/epidemiology , Chorioamnionitis/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Length of Stay , Male , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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