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2.
Talanta ; 246: 123497, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799705

ABSTRACT

It is established that vitamin D deficiency is correlated with the disease severity in COVID-19 patients. However, the reliable and sensitive quantitation of vitamin D3 (D3) and its metabolites remains a difficult challenge. Herein, a novel ultrasensitive and reliable UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantitation of D3 and its major metabolites in COVID-19 patients. The mass spectral sensitivity was augmented via controlled microwave-assisted derivatization reaction (CMDR) with 2-nitrosopyridine (Pyr-NO) at 65 °C for 2 min. CMDR hyphenation with UHPLC-MS/MS improves detection sensitivity while shortening separation and derivatization reaction times. The precursor to product ion transitions for D3, 25-hydroxy D3 (25(OH)D3), 1,25-dihydroxy D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) and calcipotriol (CPT) as an internal standard were m/z 493.4 â†’ 231.3, m/z 509.4 â†’ 231.3, m/z 525.4 â†’ 247.3, and m/z 521.4 â†’ 247.3; respectively. The separation of the formed derivatives was conducted using a gradient elution mode with mobile phase A: formic acid (0.1%) in water and mobile phase B: formic acid (0.1%) in acetonitrile. The elution started with 40% (v/v) of B for 0.3 min then increased linearly to 90% (v/v) at 2 min on an Agilent EclipsePlus C18 (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm) column at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min-1. The method was validated using FDA standards for bioanalytical method validation over a concentration range of 0.02-50 ng mL-1 with correlation coefficient ≥0.9987 and the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) were 0.02-0.05 ng mL-1 in human plasma. The developed method has demonstrated excellent comparability to a well-established chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) method for the analysis of D3 metabolites in human samples. The developed UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was implemented for routine and reliable quantitation of D3 and its major metabolites in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cholecalciferol , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Humans , Microwaves , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
3.
Analyst ; 147(9): 1931-1936, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778653

ABSTRACT

The kynurenine metabolite is associated with many diseases and disorders, ranging from diabetes and sepsis to more recently COVID-19. Here we report a fluorescence-based assay for the detection of kynurenine in urine using a specific chemosensor, 3-formyl-4-(ethylthio)-7-(diethylamino)-coumarin. The assay produces a linear response at clinically relevant ranges (1-20 µM), with a limit of detection of 0.7 µM. The average standard addition recoveries of kynurenine in synthetic urine samples are near to 100%, and the relative standard deviation values are less than 8%. The established fluorescence assay for quantitative analysis of kynurenine in urine is facile, sensitive and accurate and holds great potential for low-cost and high-throughput analysis of kynurenine in clinical laboratory settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kynurenine , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Humans
4.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776291

ABSTRACT

Following the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, a race was initiated to find a successful regimen for postinfections. Among those trials, a recent study declared the efficacy of an antiviral combination of favipiravir (FAV) and molnupiravir (MLP). The combined regimen helped in a successful 60% eradication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from the lungs of studied hamster models. Moreover, it prevented viral transmission to cohosted sentinels. Because both medications are orally bioavailable, the coformulation of FAV and MLP can be predicted. The developed study is aimed at developing new green and simple methods for the simultaneous determination of FAV and MLP and then at their application in the study of their dissolution behavior if coformulated together. A green micellar HPLC method was validated using an RP-C18 core-shell column (5 µm, 150 × 4.6 mm) and an isocratic mixed micellar mobile phase composed of 0.1 M SDS, 0.01 M Brij-35, and 0.02 M monobasic potassium phosphate mixture and adjusted to pH 3.1 at 1.0 mL min-1 flow rate. The analytes were detected at 230 nm. The run time was less than five minutes under the optimized chromatographic conditions. Four other multivariate chemometric model methods were developed and validated, namely, classical least square (CLS), principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS-1), and genetic algorithm-partial least squares (GA-PLS-1). The developed models succeeded in resolving the great similarity and overlapping in the FAV and MLP UV spectra unlike the traditional univariate methods. All methods were organic solvent-free, did not require extraction or derivatization steps, and were applied for the construction of the simultaneous dissolution profile for FAV tablets and MLP capsules. The methods revealed that the amount of the simultaneously released cited drugs increases up until reaching a plateau after 15 and 20 min for FAV and MLP, respectively. The greenness was assessed on GAPI and found to be in harmony with green analytical chemistry concepts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Amides , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Micelles , Pandemics , Pyrazines , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet/methods
5.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 36(6): e5363, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748781

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir finished dosage was approved for emergency use in many countries to treat SARS-CoV-2 patients. A specific, accurate, linear, robust, simple, and stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of degradation impurities present in favipiravir film-coated tablets. The separation of all impurities was achieved from the stationary phase (Inert sustain AQ-C18, 250 × 4.6 mm, 5-µm particle) and mobile phase. Mobile phase A contained KH2 PO4 buffer (pH 2.5 ± 0.05) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 98:2 (v/v), and mobile phase B contained water and acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50 (v/v). The chromatographic conditions were optimized as follows: flow rate, 0.7 mL/min; UV detection, 210 nm; injection volume, 20 µL; and column temperature, 33°C. The proposed method was validated per the current International Conference on Harmonization Q2 (R1) guidelines. The recovery study and linearity ranges were established from the limit of quantification to 150% optimal concentrations. The method validation results were found to be between 98.6 and 106.2% for recovery and r2  = 0.9995-0.9999 for linearity of all identified impurities. The method precision results were achieved below 5% of relative standard deviation. Forced degradation studies were performed in chemical and physical stress conditions. The compound was sensitive to chemical stress conditions. During the study, the analyte degraded and converted to unknown degradation impurities, and its molecular mass was found using the LC-MS technique and established degradation pathways supported by reaction of mechanism. The developed method was found to be suitable for routine analysis of research and development and quality control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Acetonitriles , Amides , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Drug Contamination , Drug Stability , Humans , Pyrazines , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
6.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 36(7): e5370, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748780

ABSTRACT

Ribavirin is a synthetic, broad-spectrum antiviral drug. Ribavirin is recommended as an antiviral drug in the Interim Guidance for Diagnosis and Treatment (the seventh edition) of COVID-19. The ribavirin levels in red blood cells may be closely related to both its efficacy and adverse drug reactions. In this study, a simple and fast HPLC-UV method was established to determine the concentrations of total ribavirin in the red blood cells of 13 patients with COVID-19. Phosphorylated ribavirin was dephosphorylated by phosphatase incubation to obtain the total amount of ribavirin in red blood cells. The chromatographic column was an Atlantis C18 . The recoveries were 85.45-89.05% at three levels. A good linear response was from 1 to 200 µg/ml, with a correlation coefficient of r2 = 0.9991. The concentration of total ribavirin in the red blood cells of the patients ranged from 30.83 to 133.34 µg/ml. The same samples without phosphatase incubation ranged from 4.07 to 20.84 µg/ml. About 85% of ribavirin was phosphorylated in red blood cells. In addition, we observed changes in these patients' hematological parameters and found that the erythrocyte, hemoglobin and hematocrit declined to the lowest levels on the fifth day after discontinuation of ribavirin (p < 0.05).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ribavirin , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Erythrocytes , Humans , Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases/analysis , Ribavirin/analysis , Ribavirin/therapeutic use
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 291: 115038, 2022 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739924

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Red sage (Lantana camara L.) (Verbenaceae) is a widely spread plant that was traditionally used in Brazil, India, Kenya, Thailand, Mexico, Nigeria, Australia and Southeast Asia for treating several ailments including rheumatism and leprosy. Despite its historical role in relieving respiratory diseases, limited studies progressed to the plant's probable inhibition to respiratory viruses especially after the striking spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory activity of different L. camara cultivars to SARS-CoV-2, that was not previously inspected, and clarify their mechanisms of action in the metabolomics viewpoint, and to determine the biomarkers that are related to such activity using UPLC-MS/MS coupled to in vitro-studies and chemometric analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chemical profiling of different cultivars was accomplished via UPLC-MS/MS. Principle component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) models were built using SIMCA® (multivariate data analysis software). Cytotoxicity and COVID-19 inhibitory activity testing were done followed by TaqMan Real-time RT-PCR (Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) assay that aimed to study extracts' effects on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and E-genes expression levels. Detected biomarkers from OPLS analysis were docked into potential targets pockets to investigate their possible interaction patterns using Schrodinger® suite. RESULTS: UPLC-MS/MS analysis of different cultivars yielded 47 metabolites, most of them are triterpenoids and flavonoids. PCA plots revealed that inter-cultivar factor has no pronounced effect on the chemical profiles of extracts except for L. camara, cultivar Drap d'or flowers and leaves extracts as well as for L. camara cv Chelsea gem leaves extract. Among the tested extracts, flowers and leaves extracts of L. camara cv Chelsea gem, flowers extracts of L. camara cv Spreading sunset and L. camara cv Drap d'or showed the highest selectivity indices scoring 12.3, 10.1, 8.6 and 7.8, respectively, indicating their relative high safety and efficacy. Leaves and flowers extracts of L. camara cv Chelsea gem, flowers extracts of L. camara cv Spreading sunset and L. camara cv Drap d'or were the most promising inhibitors to viral plaques exhibiting IC50 values of 3.18, 3.67, 4.18 and 5.01 µg/mL, respectively. This was incremented by OPLS analysis that related their promising COVID-19 inhibitory activities to the presence of twelve biomarkers. Inhibiting the expression of RdRp gene is the major mechanism behind the antiviral activity of most extracts at almost all concentration levels. Molecular docking of the active biomarkers against RdRp revealed that isoverbascoside, luteolin-7,4'-O-diglucoside, camarolic acid and lantoic acid exhibited higher docking scores of -11.378, -10.64, -6.72 and -6.07 kcal/mol, respectively, when compared to remdesivir (-5.75 kcal/mol), thus these four compounds can serve as promising anti-COVID-19 candidates. CONCLUSION: Flowers and leaves extracts of four L. camara cultivars were recognized as rich sources of phytoconstituents possessing anti-COVID-19 activity. Combination of UPLC-MS/MS and chemometrics is a promising approach to detect chemical composition differences among the cultivars and correlate them to COVID-19 inhibitory activities allowing to pinpoint possible biomarkers. Further in-vitro and in-vivo studies are required to verify their activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lantana , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Lantana/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
8.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 36(6): e5365, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739127

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is a potential antiviral medication that has been recently licensed for Covid-19 treatment. In this work, a gadolinium-based magnetic ionic liquid was prepared and used as an extractant in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) of favipiravir in human plasma. The high enriching ability of DLLME allowed the determination of favipiravir in real samples using HPLC/UV with sufficient sensitivity. The effects of several variables on extraction efficiency were investigated, including type of extractant, amount of extractant, type of disperser and disperser volume. The maximum enrichment was attained using 50 mg of the Gd-magnetic ionic liquid (MIL) and 150 µl of tetrahydrofuran. The Gd-based MIL could form a supramolecular assembly in the presence of tetrahydrofuran, which enhanced the extraction efficiency of favipiravir. The developed method was validated according to US Food and Drug Administration bioanalytical method validation guidelines. The coefficient of determination was 0.9999, for a linear concentration range of 25 to 1.0 × 105  ng/ml. The percentage recovery (accuracy) varied from 99.83 to 104.2%, with RSD values (precision) ranging from 4.07 to 11.84%. The total extraction time was about 12 min and the HPLC analysis time was 5 min. The method was simple, selective and sensitive for the determination of favipiravir in real human plasma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ionic Liquids , Liquid Phase Microextraction , Amides , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Furans , Gadolinium , Humans , Liquid Phase Microextraction/methods , Magnetic Phenomena , Pyrazines
9.
Molecules ; 27(5)2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732129

ABSTRACT

Quality control of human immunoglobulin formulations produced by caprylic acid precipitation necessitates a simple, rapid, and accurate method for determination of residual caprylic acid. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for that purpose was developed and validated. The method involves depletion of immunoglobulins, the major interfering components that produce high background noise, by precipitation with acetonitrile (1:1, v/v). Chromatographic analysis of caprylic acid, preserved in supernatant with no loss, was performed using a reverse-phase C18 column (2.1 × 150 mm, 3 µm) as a stationary phase and water with 0.05% TFA-acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min and run time of 10 min. The developed method was successfully validated according to the ICH guidelines. The validation parameters confirmed that method was linear, accurate, precise, specific, and able to provide excellent separation of peaks corresponding to caprylic acid and the fraction of remaining immunoglobulins. Furthermore, a 24-1 fractional factorial design was applied in order to test the robustness of developed method. As such, the method is highly suitable for the quantification of residual caprylic acid in formulations of human immunoglobulins for therapeutic use, as demonstrated on samples produced by fractionation of convalescent anti-SARS-CoV-2 human plasma at a laboratory scale. The obtained results confirmed that the method is convenient for routine quality control.


Subject(s)
Caprylates/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drug Compounding , Immunoglobulins/chemistry , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Caprylates/chemistry , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Limit of Detection , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 214: 114693, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701941

ABSTRACT

Antiviral drugs have gained much more attention in recent years due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and many drug candidates are currently under investigation in order to end pandemic. Molnupiravir, a prodrug of the synthetic nucleoside derivative N4-hydroxycytidine, is one of the promising candidates for SARS-CoV-2 treatment. In this study, a RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of Molnupiravir and applied for in vitro permeability studies of self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) formulations using Caco-2 cell line. Discovery® HS C18 Column (75 ×4.6 mm, 3 µm) was used at 30 °C. Isocratic elution was performed with ACN:water (20:80 v/v) mixture. The flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and UV detection was at 240 nm. Molnupiravir eluted within 5 min. Molnupiravir was exposed to thermal, photolytic, hydrolytic, and oxidative stress conditions. Peak homogeneity data of Molnupiravir in the stressed samples peak obtained using photodiode array detector, in the stressed sample chromatograms, demonstrated the specificity of the method for their estimation in presence of degradants. The developed method was validated according to the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines and found to be linear within the range 0.1-60.0 µg/mL. The method was simple, rapid, selective, sensitive, accurate, precise, robust and rugged. Thus, it was applied successfully for permeability quantitation of Molnupiravir in nanoformulations. The apparent permeability of Molnupiravir in SEDDS formulations, which have droplet size under 350 nm, was calculated as 3.20 ± 0.44 × 10-6 cm/s.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caco-2 Cells , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Stability , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Permeability , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(12): 1011-1018, 2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692261

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the chemical stability of Captisol-enabled (CE) melphalan ("CE-melphalan"; Evomela, Acrotech Biopharma LLC) and propylene glycol (PG)-based melphalan ("PG-melphalan"; Alkeran, GlaxoSmithKline) admixtures prepared with 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags or reconstituted vials stored at room temperature (RT) and under refrigeration. METHODS: Lyophilized CE-melphalan and generic PG-melphalan were reconstituted to 5 mg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or manufacturer-supplied diluent, respectively. The reconstituted vials were then diluted to the desired concentrations with 0.9% sodium chloride injection in PVC bags and were stored at RT (23oC) or under refrigeration (4oC). Aliquots were withdrawn from the bags and reconstituted vials of CE-melphalan and PG-melphalan immediately after preparation and at predetermined time intervals. Melphalan concentrations were measured using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. RESULTS: CE-melphalan reconstituted in PVC bags at concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/mL was stable for 6 and 24 hours, respectively, at RT and for 8 and 24 hours, respectively, at 4oC. PG-melphalan reconstituted in bags at 1, 1.5, and 2 mg/mL was stable for 1, 2, and 2 hours, respectively, at RT and for 2, 4, and 4 hours, respectively, at 4oC. Reconstituted CE-melphalan vials were stable for 48 hours at both RT and 4oC, whereas PG-melphalan vials were stable for 6 hours at RT but formed precipitate within 2 hours at 4oC. CONCLUSION: CE-melphalan remained stable longer than generic PG-melphalan under the test conditions. CE-melphalan at 2 mg/mL has 24-hour stability at RT and can be used for extended infusion times or may be compounded ahead of time. Reconstituted CE-melphalan vials are stable for 48 hours at both RT and 4oC.


Subject(s)
Melphalan , Refrigeration , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Packaging , Drug Stability , Drug Storage , Humans , Melphalan/chemistry , Polyvinyl Chloride/chemistry , Propylene Glycols , Sodium Chloride/chemistry , Temperature , beta-Cyclodextrins
12.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667252

ABSTRACT

Aspirin (also known as acetylsalicylic acid) is a drug intended to treat fever, pain, or inflammation. Treatment of moderate to severe cases of COVID-19 using aspirin along with dexamethasone has gained major attention globally in recent times. Thus, the purpose of this study was to use High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to evaluate the in vitro inhibition of CYP3A2 enzyme activity using aspirin in rat liver microsomes (RLMs). In this study, an efficient and sensitive HPLC method was developed using a reversed phase C18 column (X Bridge 4.6 mm × 150 mm, 3.5 µm) at 243 nm using acetonitrile and water (70:30 v/v). The linearity (r2 > 0.999), precision (<15%), accuracy and recovery (80-120%), limit of detection (5.60 µM and 0.06 µM), limit of quantification (16.98 µM and 0.19 µM), and stability of the newly developed method were validated for dexamethasone and 6ß-hydroxydexamethasone, respectively, following International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This method was applied in vitro to measure CYP3A2 activity. The results showed that aspirin competitively inhibits 6ß-hydroxylation (CYP3A2 activity) with an inhibition constant (Ki) = 95.46 µM and the concentration of the inhibitor causing 50% inhibition of original enzyme activity (IC50) = 190.92 µM. This indicated that there is a minimal risk of toxicity when dexamethasone and aspirin are co-administrated and a very low risk of toxicity and drug interaction with drugs that are a substrate for CYP3A2 in healthcare settings.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/metabolism , Animals , Aspirin/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/drug effects , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Dexamethasone/analogs & derivatives , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Male , Microsomes, Liver/metabolism , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
13.
Microb Cell Fact ; 21(1): 21, 2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666655

ABSTRACT

We have developed a method for the inexpensive, high-level expression of antigenic protein fragments of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in Escherichia coli. Our approach uses the thermophilic family 9 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM9) as an N-terminal carrier protein and affinity tag. The CBM9 module was joined to SARS-CoV-2 protein fragments via a flexible proline-threonine linker, which proved to be resistant to E. coli proteases. Two CBM9-spike protein fragment fusion proteins and one CBM9-nucleocapsid fragment fusion protein largely resisted protease degradation, while most of the CBM9 fusion proteins were degraded at some site in the SARS-CoV-2 protein fragment. All of the fusion proteins were highly expressed in E. coli and the CBM9-ID-H1 fusion protein was shown to yield 122 mg/L of purified product. Three purified CBM9-SARS-CoV-2 fusion proteins were tested and found to bind antibodies directed to the appropriate SARS-CoV-2 antigenic regions. The largest intact CBM9 fusion protein, CBM9-ID-H1, incorporates spike protein amino acids 540-588, which is a conserved region overlapping and C-terminal to the receptor binding domain that is widely recognized by human convalescent sera and contains a putative protective epitope.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/analysis , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
14.
J Nat Prod ; 85(2): 327-336, 2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655431

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to more than 5 million deaths worldwide to date. Due to the limited therapeutic options so far available, target-based virtual screening with LC/MS support was applied to identify the novel and high-content compounds 1-4 with inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 cells from the plant Dryopteris wallichiana. These compounds were also evaluated against SARS-CoV-2 in Calu-3 cells and showed unambiguous inhibitory activity. The inhibition assay of targets showed that compounds 3 and 4 mainly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro, with effective Kd values. Through docking and molecular dynamics modeling, the binding site is described, providing a comprehensive understanding of 3CLpro and interactions for 3, including hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic bonds, and the spatial occupation of the B ring. Compounds 3 and 4 represent new, potential lead compounds for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. This study has led to the development of a target-based virtual screening method for exploring the potency of natural products and for identifying natural bioactive compounds for possible COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Phloroglucinol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Terpenes/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Crystallography, X-Ray , Drug Delivery Systems , Dryopteris/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Virtual Reality
15.
J Sep Sci ; 45(6): 1162-1169, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616030

ABSTRACT

Qingfei Paidu Decoction is a Chinese medicine formula that has been proved effective in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019. However, the comprehensive separation and characterization of Qingfei Paidu Decoction are of a great challenge due to the diversity of chemical components in a wide range of polarity. In this study, a triplex off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry is developed for the analysis of Qingfei Paidu Decoction. One reversed-phase liquid chromatography×hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography system and two reversed-phase liquid chromatography×reversed phase liquid chromatography systems were constructed to separate polar components and weak-polar components in Qingfei Paidu Decoction, respectively. Benefiting from the good orthogonality of two-dimensional liquid chromatography and high sensitivity of quadrupole time-of-flight MS, chemical components with different polarities and content were discovered. A total of 749 peaks were detected in positive and negative ionization mode and presented as a four-dimensional data plot. Meanwhile, 498 compounds belonging to 14 categories were tentatively identified. These results provide good supplementary to elucidate the material basis of Qingfei Paidu Decoction. The triplex off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry strategy can be a powerful and efficient tool for the separation and characterization of chemical substances in traditional Chinese medicine formulas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Humans , Mass Spectrometry/methods
16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 280: 119006, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588175

ABSTRACT

Caulerpa lentillifera (Bryopsidophyceae, Chlorophyta) is an edible seaweed attracting great attention for its expansion of farming scale and increasing consumption in these years. In the present study, a sulfated polysaccharide (CLSP-2) was isolated and separated from C. lentillifera, and its chemical structure was elucidated by a series of chemical and spectroscopic methods. Among these methods, mild acid hydrolysis and photocatalytic degradation were applied to release mono- and oligo-saccharide fragments which were further identified by HPLC-MSn analysis, affording the information of the sugar sequences and the sulfate substitution in CLSP-2. Results indicated that the backbone of CLSP-2 was constructed of →6)-ß-Manp-(1→ with sulfated branches at C2, which were comprised of prevalent →3)-ß-Galp4S-(1→, →3)-ß-Galp2,4S-(1→, and minor Xyl. In addition, the virus neutralization assay revealed that CLSP-2 could effectively protect HeLa cells against SARS-CoV-2 infection with an IC50 of 48.48 µg/mL. Hence, the present study suggests CLSP-2 as a promising agent against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Caulerpa/chemistry , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , HeLa Cells , Humans , Hydrolysis , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Molecular Weight , Polysaccharides/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Seaweed/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Sulfates/chemistry
17.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1189: 123087, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587335

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is a promising antiviral agent that has been recently approved for treatment of COVID-19 infection. In this study, a menthol-assisted homogenous liquid-liquid microextraction method has been developed for favipiravir determination in human plasma using HPLC/UV. The different factors that could affect the extraction efficiency were studied, including extractant type, extractant volume, menthol amount and vortex time. The optimum extraction efficiency was achieved using 300 µL of tetrahydrofuran, 30 mg of menthol and vortexing for 1 min before centrifuging the sample for 5 min at 3467g. Addition of menthol does not only induce phase separation, but also helps to form reverse micelles to facilitate extraction. The highly polar favipiravir molecules would be incorporated into the hydrophilic core of the formed reverse micelle to be extracted by the non-polar organic extractant. The method was validated according to the FDA bioanalytical method guidelines. The developed method was found linear in the concentration range of 0.1 to 100 µg/mL with a coefficient of determination of 0.9992. The method accuracy and precision were studied by calculating the recovery (%) and the relative standard deviation (%), respectively. The recovery (%) was in the range of 97.1-103.9%, while the RSD (%) values ranged between 2.03 and 8.15 %. The developed method was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of Flupirava® 200 mg versus Avigan® 200 mg, after a single oral dose of favipiravir administered to healthy adult volunteers. The proposed method was simple, cheap, more eco-friendly and sufficiently sensitive for biomedical application.


Subject(s)
Amides/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , COVID-19/drug therapy , Liquid Phase Microextraction/methods , Pyrazines/isolation & purification , Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/blood , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Humans , Liquid Phase Microextraction/instrumentation , Menthol/chemistry , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/blood , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
18.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2005507, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585297

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has triggered a serious public health crisis worldwide, and considering the novelty of the disease, preventative and therapeutic measures alike are urgently needed. To accelerate such efforts, the development of JS016, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody directed against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, was expedited from a typical 12- to 18-month period to a 4-month period. During this process, transient Chinese hamster ovary cell lines are used to support preclinical, investigational new drug-enabling toxicology research, and early Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls development; mini-pool materials to supply Phase 1 clinical trials; and a single-clone working cell bank for late-stage and pivotal clinical trials were successively adopted. Moreover, key process performance and product quality investigations using a series of orthogonal and state-of-the-art techniques were conducted to demonstrate the comparability of products manufactured using these three processes, and the results indicated that, despite observed variations in process performance, the primary and high-order structures, purity and impurity profiles, biological and immunological functions, and degradation behaviors under stress conditions were largely comparable. The study suggests that, in particular situations, this strategy can be adopted to accelerate the development of therapeutic biopharmaceuticals and their access to patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibody Affinity/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Circular Dichroism , Clone Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Isoelectric Point , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
19.
STAR Protoc ; 3(1): 101051, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575581

ABSTRACT

Here we describe a protocol for identifying metabolites in respiratory specimens of patients that are SARS-CoV-2 positive, SARS-CoV-2 negative, or H1N1 positive. This protocol provides step-by-step instructions on sample collection from patients, followed by metabolite extraction. We use ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for data acquisition and describe the steps for data analysis. The protocol was standardized with specific customization for SARS-CoV-2-containing respiratory specimens. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Maras et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Metabolomics/methods , COVID-19/metabolism , Computational Biology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Gene Expression Profiling , Genetic Techniques , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Metabolome , Reference Standards , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Specimen Handling/methods
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23561, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559302

ABSTRACT

N-glycosylation plays an important role in the structure and function of membrane and secreted proteins. The spike protein on the surface of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, is heavily glycosylated and the major target for developing vaccines, therapeutic drugs and diagnostic tests. The first major SARS-CoV-2 variant carries a D614G substitution in the spike (S-D614G) that has been associated with altered conformation, enhanced ACE2 binding, and increased infectivity and transmission. In this report, we used mass spectrometry techniques to characterize and compare the N-glycosylation of the wild type (S-614D) or variant (S-614G) SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins prepared under identical conditions. The data showed that half of the N-glycosylation sequons changed their distribution of glycans in the S-614G variant. The S-614G variant showed a decrease in the relative abundance of complex-type glycans (up to 45%) and an increase in oligomannose glycans (up to 33%) on all altered sequons. These changes led to a reduction in the overall complexity of the total N-glycosylation profile. All the glycosylation sites with altered patterns were in the spike head while the glycosylation of three sites in the stalk remained unchanged between S-614G and S-614D proteins.


Subject(s)
Glycopeptides/analysis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Glycosylation , Humans , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Tertiary , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
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