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2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613772

ABSTRACT

Chronic diseases served as a silent global epidemic before the pandemic, and individuals living with chronic disease now form one of the groups most affected by COVID-19. This study aims to determine the problems that employees with chronic disease face during the COVID-19 pandemic. As part of the study, data were collected from 952 individuals who live with chronic disease in Turkey. Of these, 76.6% of respondents worked for the public sector, a large majority of whom (67.7%) have worked full time during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was found that the COVID-19 fear level of employees living with chronic disease was higher than moderate (21.061 ± 7.607). When the variables affecting the COVID-19 fear level are listed in order of relative significance, eating problems, residing in the Mediterranean region, having asthma, and working as a female employee made the greatest impact, respectively. Necessary conditions of work should be provided to those living with chronic disease who could adapt themselves to working flexibly or working from home, so that they would not feel isolated from business life. This group should be provided with essential protective equipment, their working conditions must be reviewed and vaccination priority could be given to them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Emotions , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e052495, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of mental health symptoms during the first surge of COVID-19 in the USA, and their associations with COVID-19-related emotional distress, health self-management and healthcare utilisation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of wave 3 (1-22 May 2020) survey data from the ongoing Chicago COVID-19 Comorbidities (C3) study. SETTING: Seven academic and community health centres in Chicago, Illinois. PARTICIPANTS: 565 adults aged 23-88 with one or more chronic conditions completing at least one prior C3 study wave. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinically relevant anxiety and depressive symptoms as measured using Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short forms. Self-reported emotional and health-related responses to COVID-19 were measured through a combination of single-item questions and validated measures. RESULTS: Rates of anxiety and depressive symptoms were 14% (81/563) and 15% (84/563), respectively. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were then each separately associated with greater worry about contracting COVID-19 (relative risk (RR) 2.32, 95% CI 1.52 to 3.53; RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.54), greater stress (RR 4.93, 95% CI 3.20 to 7.59; RR 3.01, 95% CI 1.96 to 4.61) and loneliness (RR 3.82, 95% CI 2.21 to 6.60; RR 5.37, 95% CI 3.21 to 8.98), greater avoidance of the doctor (RR 1.62, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.49; RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.36) and difficulty managing health (least square means (LS Means) 6.09, 95% CI 5.25 to 6.92 vs 4.23, 95% CI 3.70 to 4.75; LS Means 5.85, 95% CI 5.04 to 6.65 vs 4.22, 95% CI 3.70 to 4.75) and medications (LS Means 3.71, 95% CI 2.98 to 4.43 vs 2.47, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.92) due to the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying and addressing mental health concerns may be an important factor to consider in COVID-19 prevention and management among high-risk medical populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Management , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Chicago/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
4.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(12): e28285, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The digital age, with digital sensors, the Internet of Things (IoT), and big data tools, has opened new opportunities for improving the delivery of health care services, with remote monitoring systems playing a crucial role and improving access to patients. The versatility of these systems has been demonstrated during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Health remote monitoring systems (HRMS) present various advantages such as the reduction in patient load at hospitals and health centers. Patients that would most benefit from HRMS are those with chronic diseases, older adults, and patients that experience less severe symptoms recovering from SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to perform a systematic review of the literature of HRMS in primary health care (PHC) settings, identifying the current status of the digitalization of health processes, remote data acquisition, and interactions between health care personnel and patients. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines to identify articles that explored interventions with HRMS in patients with chronic diseases in the PHC setting. RESULTS: The literature review yielded 123 publications, 18 of which met the predefined inclusion criteria. The selected articles highlighted that sensors and wearables are already being used in multiple scenarios related to chronic disease management at the PHC level. The studies focused mostly on patients with diabetes (9/26, 35%) and cardiovascular diseases (7/26, 27%). During the evaluation of the implementation of these interventions, the major difficulty that stood out was the integration of information into already existing systems in the PHC infrastructure and in changing working processes of PHC professionals (83%). CONCLUSIONS: The PHC context integrates multidisciplinary teams and patients with often complex, chronic pathologies. Despite the theoretical framework, objective identification of problems, and involvement of stakeholders in the design and implementation processes, these interventions mostly fail to scale up. Despite the inherent limitations of conducting a systematic literature review, the small number of studies in the PHC context is a relevant limitation. This study aimed to demonstrate the importance of matching technological development to the working PHC processes in interventions regarding the use of sensors and wearables for remote monitoring as a source of information for chronic disease management, so that information with clinical value is not lost along the way.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Chronic Disease , Humans , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2141233, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596574

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic led to the implementation of alternative care modalities (eg, teleconsultations and task shifting) that will continue to be implemented in parallel to traditional care after the pandemic. An ideal balance between alternative and traditional care modalities is unknown. Objectives: To quantify the ideal postpandemic balance between alternative and traditional care modalities among patients with chronic illness and to qualify the circumstances in which patients consider it appropriate to replace traditional care with alternative care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study invited 5999 adults with chronic illness in ComPaRe, a French nationwide e-cohort of adults with chronic conditions who volunteer their time to participate in research projects, to participate in this study, which was performed from January 27 to February 23, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Participants rated the ideal proportion at which they would use 3 alternative care modalities instead of the traditional care equivalent on a 0% to 100% scale (with 0% indicating using alternative care modalities for none of one's future care and 100% indicating using alternative care modalities for all of one's future care) of their overall future care: (1) teleconsultations, (2) online symptom-checkers to react to new symptoms, and (3) remote monitoring to adapt treatment outside consultations. The median ideal proportion of alternative care use was calculated. Perceived appropriate circumstances in which each alternative modality could replace traditional care were collected with open-ended questions. Analyses were performed on a weighted data set representative of patients with chronic illness in France. Results: Of the 5999 invited individuals, 1529 (mean [SD] age, 50.3 [14.7] years; 1072 [70.1%] female) agreed to participate (participation rate, 25.5%). Participants would choose teleconsultations for 50.0% of their future consultations (IQR, 11.0%-52.0%), online symptom-checkers over contacting their physician for 22.0% of new symptoms (IQR, 2.0%-50.0%), and remote monitoring instead of consultations for 52.3% of their treatment adaptations (IQR, 25.4%-85.4%). Participants reported 67 circumstances for which replacing traditional with alternative care modalities was considered appropriate, including 31 care activities (eg, prescription renewal and addressing acute or minor complaints), 25 patient characteristics (eg, stable chronic condition and established patient-physician relationship), and 11 required characteristics of the alternative care modalities (eg, quality assurance). Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this survey study suggest that after the pandemic, patients would choose alternative over traditional care for 22% to 52% of the time across different care needs. Participants proposed 67 criteria to guide clinicians in replacing traditional care with alternative care. These findings provide a guide for redesigning care in collaboration with patients after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Disease/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Preference , Adult , Female , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine
7.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e3, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593121

ABSTRACT

Chronic non-communicable diseases contribute significantly to Ghana's disease burden. Ghana's ability to achieve universal health coverage is threatened by the rising burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. There is a high unmet need for cardiovascular diseases care, with primary health care for cardiovascular diseases not being readily available, equitable, or sensitive to the requirements of target populations. The contribution of family physicians in the management of the chronic disease burden through care continuity cannot be overemphasised. This is a short report of the implementation of a chronic care clinic by a family physician in Manna Mission Hospital, which is located in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Before the implementation, there was no such clinic in the hospital and patients with chronic conditions who visited the facility were sometimes lost to follow-up. The clinic which commenced in January 2019 has provided care for patients with chronic non-communicable diseases to date. The most common chronic diseases managed at the clinic include hypertension and heart failure, diabetes, stroke, asthma, sickle cell disease, and joint disorders. This report gives an account of the contribution of family physicians to chronic disease burden management through continuity of care in a low-resource setting like Ghana.


Subject(s)
Continuity of Patient Care , Physicians, Family , Chronic Disease , Disease Management , Ghana , Humans
8.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 469, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582108

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is now included in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in many settings. However, different clinical trials report different outcomes without consensus. This study aims to evaluate the impact of CBT on the mental state, quality of life and disease activity of patients with IBD. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: This systematic review searched eligible studies from 1946 to December 8, 2019, in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane library, ClinicalTrials.gov, PsycINFO, Web of Science for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCT). RESULTS: Among the initial identified 1807 references, 11 studies met inclusion criteria. CBT was shown to improve patient's quality of life and reduce the level of depression and anxiety post-intervention but was not sustained. Evidence is not enough for the effect of CBT on disease activity, or C-reactive protein level. CONCLUSIONS: CBT has shown short-term positive psychological effects on IBD patients, but there is insufficient evidence for sustained physical and psychological improvements of IBD patients. PROSPERO registration: CRD42019152330.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Chronic Disease , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23795, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been widely communicated that individuals with underlying health conditions are at higher risk of severe disease due to COVID-19 than healthy peers. As social distancing measures continue during the COVID-19 pandemic, experts encourage individuals with underlying conditions to engage in telehealth appointments to maintain continuity of care while minimizing risk exposure. To date, however, little information has been provided regarding telehealth uptake among this high-risk population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the telehealth use, resource needs, and information sources of individuals with chronic conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Secondary objectives include exploring differences in telehealth use by sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: Data for this study were collected through an electronic survey distributed between May 12-14, 2020, to members of 26 online health communities for individuals with chronic disease. Descriptive statistics were run to explore telehealth use, support needs, and information sources, and z tests were run to assess differences in sociodemographic factors and information and support needs among those who did and did not use telehealth services. RESULTS: Among the 2210 respondents, 1073 (49%) reported engaging in telehealth in the past 4 months. Higher proportions of women engaged in telehealth than men (890/1781, 50% vs 181/424, 43%; P=.007), and a higher proportion of those earning household incomes of more than US $100,000 engaged in telehealth than those earning less than US $30,000 (195/370, 53% vs 241/530 45%; P=.003). Although 59% (133/244) of those younger than 40 years and 54% (263/486) of those aged 40-55 years used telehealth, aging populations were less likely to do so, with only 45% (677/1500) of individuals 56 years or older reporting telehealth use (P<.001 and P=.001, respectively). Patients with cystic fibrosis, lupus, and ankylosing spondylitis recorded the highest proportions of individuals using telehealth when compared to those with other diagnoses. Of the 2210 participants, 1333 (60%) participants either looked up information about the virus online or planned to in the future, and when asked what information or support would be most helpful right now, over half (1151/2210, 52%) responded "understanding how COVID-19 affects people with my health condition." CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of the study sample reported participating in telehealth in the past 4 months. Future efforts to engage individuals with underlying medical conditions in telehealth should focus on outreach to men, members of lower-income households, and aging populations. These results may help inform and refine future health communications to further engage this at-risk population in telehealth as the pandemic continues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Telemedicine/methods , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Internet , Learning Health System , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
J Opioid Manag ; 17(6): 489-497, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to a rapid transition to telehealth services. It is unclear how subspecialists managing painful chronic diseases-such as sickle cell disease (SCD), an inherited hemoglobinopathy with significant disparities in access and outcomes-have viewed the transition to tele-health or altered their pain management practices. This study elicits the views of sickle cell providers regarding their transition to telehealth and their opioid prescribing patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: An anonymous online survey was sent to eligible sickle cell providers. SETTING: Comprehensive sickle cell centers and/or clinics across the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Physicians and advanced practice providers providing care to SCD patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Respondents answered questions regarding their (1) views of telehealth compared to in-person encounters and (2) opioid prescribing practices during the early months of the pandemic. RESULTS: Of the 130 eligible participants, 53 respondents from 35 different sickle cell centers completed at least 90 percent of the survey. Respondents reported a significant increase in telehealth encounters for routine and acute appointments (mean difference and standard deviation: 57.6 ± 31.9 percent, p < 0.001 and 24.4 ± 34.1 percent, p < 0.001, respectively) since COVID-19. The overwhelming majority of respondents reported no changes in their opioid prescribing patterns since COVID-19, despite increased telehealth use. Only a minority copre-scribed naloxone as a risk mitigation strategy. CONCLUSION: The rapid uptake of telehealth has not suppressed ambulatory providers' prescribing of opioids for SCD. Studies assessing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and telehealth on opioid prescribing practices in other painful chronic diseases are needed to ensure health equity for vulnerable pain patients.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnosis , Anemia, Sickle Cell/drug therapy , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Humans , Pain , Pandemics , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1646-1652, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572708

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus Disease 2019 is a life-threatening disease, especially for people suffering from chronic diseases. As the vaccine is considered an essential tool to confront pandemics, many international medical institutions have developed vaccines. Countries around the world started immunizing their citizens. This study aims to assess the acceptance and barriers of COVID-19 vaccine uptake among Saudi Arabian people who suffer from chronic diseases. METHODOLOGY: In February-March 2021, a cross-sectional study of Saudi Arabian people who have chronic diseases was undertaken. It was based on an Arabic self-administered online questionnaire and used a convenience sampling technique. 310 people were invited. The response rate was 97%. RESULTS: 51.95% of the participants agreed to take the COVID-19 vaccine, 33.5% were unsure about being vaccinated, and 14.5% refused. The most frequent concerns between participants and receiving the vaccine were about the side effects and the perceived misconception that following preventative measures is enough to protect against the virus. Significant associations between age, education, and occupation with acceptance rate were found (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although a higher acceptance for the targeted group was expected, the participants showed a moderate acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine. Addressing the barriers in the current study regarding vaccine uptake and focusing on building trust in the safety and efficacy of the vaccine will aid in hesitancy and resistance toward the vaccine, specifically if these measures were undertaken by an authority such as the Saudi Ministry of Health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Chronic Disease , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2138464, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1567894

ABSTRACT

Importance: Persons experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe illness due to COVID-19 because of a limited ability to physically distance and a higher burden of underlying health conditions. Objective: To describe and assess a hotel-based protective housing intervention to reduce incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PEH in Chicago, Illinois, with increased risk of severe illness due to COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study analyzed PEH who were provided protective housing in individual hotel rooms in downtown Chicago during the COVID-19 pandemic from April 2 through September 3, 2020. Participants were PEH at increased risk for severe COVID-19, defined as (1) aged at least 60 years regardless of health conditions, (2) aged at least 55 years with any underlying health condition posing increased risk, or (3) aged less than 55 years with any underlying health condition posing substantially increased risk (eg, HIV/AIDS). Exposures: Participants were housed in individual hotel rooms to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection; on-site health care workers provided daily symptom monitoring, regular SARS-CoV-2 testing, and care for chronic health conditions. Additional on-site services included treatment of mental health and substance use disorders and social services. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome measured was SARS-CoV-2 incidence, with SARS-Cov2 infection defined as a positive upper respiratory specimen using any polymerase chain reaction diagnostic assay authorized for emergency use by the Food and Drug Administration. Secondary outcomes were blood pressure control, glycemic control as measured by hemoglobin A1c, and housing placements at departure. Results: Of 259 participants from 16 homeless shelters in Chicago, 104 (40.2%) were aged at least 65 years, 190 (73.4%) were male, 185 (71.4%) were non-Hispanic Black, and 49 (18.9%) were non-Hispanic White. There was an observed reduction in SARS-CoV-2 incidence during the study period among the protective housing cohort (54.7 per 1000 people [95% CI, 22.4-87.1 per 1000 people]) compared with citywide rates for PEH residing in shelters (137.1 per 1000 people [95% CI, 125.1-149.1 per 1000 people]; P = .001). There was also an adjusted change in systolic blood pressure at a rate of -5.7 mm Hg (95% CI, -9.3 to -2.1 mm Hg) and hemoglobin A1c at a rate of -1.4% (95% CI, -2.4% to -0.4%) compared with baseline. More than half of participants (51% [n = 132]) departed from the intervention to housing of some kind (eg, supportive housing). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that protective housing was associated with a reduction in SARS-CoV-2 infection among high-risk PEH during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Chicago. These findings suggest that with appropriate wraparound supports (ie, multisector services to address complex needs), such housing interventions may reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, improve noncommunicable disease control, and provide a pathway to permanent housing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Homeless Persons , Housing , Noncommunicable Diseases , Program Evaluation , Adult , Aged , Blood Pressure , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Chicago , Chronic Disease , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Problems
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 145: 112385, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565522

ABSTRACT

Chemically modified mRNA represents a unique, efficient, and straightforward approach to produce a class of biopharmaceutical agents. It has been already approved as a vaccination-based method for targeting SARS-CoV-2 virus. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the prospect of synthetic modified mRNA to efficiently and safely combat various diseases. Recently, various optimization advances have been adopted to overcome the limitations associated with conventional gene therapeutics leading to wide-ranging applications in different disease conditions. This review sheds light on emerging directions of chemically modified mRNAs to prevent and treat widespread chronic diseases, including metabolic disorders, cancer vaccination and immunotherapy, musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory conditions, cardiovascular diseases, and liver diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/therapy , Genetic Therapy/methods , Immunotherapy/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic , Biological Availability , Drug Carriers , Forecasting , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Genetic Vectors/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunotherapy, Active , RNA Stability , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology
14.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258704, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Finland, both mRNA and adenovirus vector (AdV) Covid-19 vaccines have been used after the vaccination campaign started on December 27, 2020. Vaccination of the elderly and chronically ill was prioritized and the interval between doses set to 12 weeks. The objective of this interim analysis was to evaluate first and second dose vaccine effectiveness (VE) in a real-world setting. METHODS: During the first five months of the campaign, a register-based cohort study was conducted in the Finnish elderly aged 70+ years and those aged 16-69 years with medical conditions predisposing to severe Covid-19 (chronically ill). Using Cox regression, VE against SARS-CoV-2 infection and Covid-19 hospitalisation was estimated comparing the hazard in the vaccinated with that in the unvaccinated. RESULTS: The cohorts included 901092 elderly (89% vaccinated) and 774526 chronically ill (69% vaccinated) individuals. Three weeks after the first dose, mRNA VE against infection was 45% (95% confidence interval, 36-53%) and 40% (26-51%) in elderly and chronically ill; mRNA VE against hospitalisation was 63% (49-74%) and 82% (56-93%). In chronically ill, AdV VE was 42% (32-50) and 62% (42-75%) against infection and hospitalisation, respectively. One week after the second dose, mRNA VE against infection was 75% (65-82%) and 77% (65-85%) in elderly and chronically ill; mRNA VE against hospitalisation was 93% (70-98%) and 90% (29-99%). CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 vaccines protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection and Covid-19 hospitalisation. A single dose provides moderate protection in elderly and chronically ill, although two doses are clearly superior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chronic Disease , Treatment Outcome , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Finland/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
15.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(12): 2577-2584, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526062

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionally affected communities of color. We aimed to determine what factors are associated with COVID-19 testing and test positivity in an underrepresented, understudied, and underreported (U3) population of mothers. METHODS: This study included 2996 middle-aged mothers of the Boston Birth Cohort (a sample of predominantly urban, low-income, Black and Hispanic mothers) who were enrolled shortly after they gave birth and followed onward at the Boston Medical Center. COVID-19 testing and test positivity were defined by the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test. Two-probit Heckman selection models were performed to identify factors associated with test positivity while accounting for potential selection associated with COVID testing. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of study mothers was 41.9 (±7.7) years. In the sample, 1741 (58.1%) and 667 (22.3%) mothers were self-identified as Black and Hispanic, respectively. A total of 396 mothers had COVID-19 testing and of those, 95 mothers tested positive from March 2020 to February 2021. Among a multitude of factors examined, factors associated with the probability of being tested were obesity (RR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.49); and presence of preexisting chronic medical conditions including hypertension, asthma, stroke, and other comorbidities (coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, and sickle cell disease) with a corresponding RR = 1.40 (95% CI: 1.23-1.60); 1.29 (95% CI: 1.11-1.50); 1.44 (95% CI: 1.23-1.68); and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.12-1.67), respectively. Factors associated with higher incident risk of a positive COVID-19 test were body mass index, birthplace outside of the USA, and being without a college-level education. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the intersectionality of obesity and social factors in modulating incident risk of COVID-19 in this sample of US Black and Hispanic middle-aged mothers. Methodologically, our findings underscore the importance of accounting for potential selection bias in COVID-19 testing in order to obtain unbiased estimates of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Social Factors , Adult , African Americans , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Testing , Chronic Disease/ethnology , Comorbidity , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Middle Aged , Mothers , Obesity/ethnology , Poverty , Risk Factors
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512568

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological trends over the past decade show a significant worldwide increase in the burden of chronic diseases. At the same time, the human resources of health care are becoming increasingly scarce and expensive. One of the management concepts that can help in solving this problem is business process management (BPM). The results of research conducted in the healthcare sector thus far prove that BPM is an effective tool for optimizing clinical processes, as it allows for the ongoing automatic tracking of key health parameters of an individual patient without the need to involve medical personnel. The aim of this article is to present and evaluate the redesign of diagnostic and therapeutic processes enabling the patient-centric organization of therapy thanks to the use of new telemedicine techniques and elements of hyperautomation. By using an illustrative case study of one of the most common chronic diseases, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), we discuss the use of clinical pathways (CPs) prepared on the basis of the current version of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as a communication tool between healthcare professionals, the patient and his or her caregivers, as well as the method of identifying and verifying new knowledge generated on an ongoing basis in diagnostic and therapeutic processes. We also show how conducting comprehensive, patient-focused primary health care relieves the health care system, and at the same time, thanks to the use of patient engagement and elements of artificial intelligence (predictive analyses), reduces the significant clinical risk of therapy.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Telemedicine , Artificial Intelligence , Chronic Disease , Critical Pathways , Female , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy
18.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259822, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes among COVID-19 patients vary greatly with age and underlying comorbidities. We aimed to determine the demographic and clinical factors, particularly baseline chronic conditions, associated with an increased risk of severity in COVID-19 patients from a population-based perspective and using data from electronic health records (EHR). METHODS: Retrospective, observational study in an open cohort analyzing all 68,913 individuals (mean age 44.4 years, 53.2% women) with SARS-CoV-2 infection between 15 June and 19 December 2020 using exhaustive electronic health registries. Patients were followed for 30 days from inclusion or until the date of death within that period. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association between each chronic disease and severe infection, based on hospitalization and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: 5885 (8.5%) individuals showed severe infection and old age was the most influencing factor. Congestive heart failure (odds ratio -OR- men: 1.28, OR women: 1.39), diabetes (1.37, 1.24), chronic renal failure (1.31, 1.22) and obesity (1.21, 1.26) increased the likelihood of severe infection in both sexes. Chronic skin ulcers (1.32), acute cerebrovascular disease (1.34), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.21), urinary incontinence (1.17) and neoplasms (1.26) in men, and infertility (1.87), obstructive sleep apnea (1.43), hepatic steatosis (1.43), rheumatoid arthritis (1.39) and menstrual disorders (1.18) in women were also associated with more severe outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Age and specific cardiovascular and metabolic diseases increased the risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infections in men and women, whereas the effects of certain comorbidities are sex specific. Future studies in different settings are encouraged to analyze which profiles of chronic patients are at higher risk of poor prognosis and should therefore be the targets of prevention and shielding strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
19.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 220, 2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505868

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects all components of the respiratory system, including the neuromuscular breathing apparatus, conducting and respiratory airways, pulmonary vascular endothelium, and pulmonary blood flow. In contrast to other respiratory viruses, children have less severe symptoms when infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A minority of children experience a post-infectious inflammatory syndrome, the pathology and long-term outcomes of which are poorly understood. The reason for the lower burden of symptomatic disease in children is not yet clear, but several pathophysiological characteristics are postulated. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought distinct challenges to the care of children globally. Proper recommendations have been proposed for a range of non-asthmatic respiratory disorders in children, including primary ciliary dyskinesia and cystic fibrosis. These recommendations involve the continuation of the treatment during this period and ways to maintain stability. School closures, loss of follow-up visit attendance, and loss of other protective systems for children are the indirect outcomes of measures to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, COVID-19 has reshaped the delivery of respiratory care in children, with non-urgent and elective procedures being postponed, and distancing imperatives have led to rapid scaling of telemedicine. The pandemic has seen an unprecedented reorientation in clinical trial research towards COVID-19 and a disruption in other trials worldwide, which will have long-lasting effects on medical science. In this narrative review, we sought to outline the most recent findings on the direct and indirect effects of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on pediatric respiratory chronic diseases other than asthma, by critically revising the most recent literature on the subject.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Respiratory Tract Diseases/complications
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