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1.
Headache ; 60(10): 2389-2405, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this experimental study, we aimed to determine whether guided music listening (GML) - a music intervention based on models of mood mediation and attention modulation - modulates masticatory muscle activity and awake bruxism in subjects with chronic painful muscular temporomandibular disorders (TMD myalgia, mTMD), a condition causing a significant burden to patients, their families, and healthcare systems. BACKGROUND: Awake bruxism - a stress behavior characterized by clenching of the teeth - is a strong contributor to chronic mTMD. GML modulates psychological stress and motor responses and could thus reduce muscle activity in chronic musculoskeletal conditions, including mTMD. METHODS: We recorded the electromyographic (EMG) activity in the right masseter of 14 women with chronic (>6 months) mTMD (median [IQR] = 39.5.3 [24.3] years) and 15 pain-free women (median [IQR] = 30.0 [3.5] years) during a GML session, including 3 music (stressful, relaxing, and participants' favorite music) and a no-music (pink noise) control blocks, each lasting 15 minutes. We measured the motor effort of the right masseter relative to the participants' maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), the muscular effort to maintain mandibular posture (EMGposture ), and to produce spontaneous awake bruxism episodes (EMGbruxism ), and the duration and frequency of spontaneous awake bruxism episodes. We tested between-group and within-group (between blocks) differences, as well as the effect of the interaction group by experimental block on these outcome measures. RESULTS: In both groups, EMGposture was significantly affected by the interaction group by experimental block (P < .001). Compared to pink noise [mean (95% CI); mTMD: 2.2 (1.6-2.8) %MVC; Controls: 1.1 (0.5-1.7) %MVC], EMGposture increased during the stressful music block [contrast estimate (95% CI); mTMD: +0.8 (0.7-0.8) %MVC; Controls: +0.3 (0.3-0.4) %MVC; both P < .001], and decreased during the relaxing [mTMD: -0.4 (-0.5 to -0.4) %MVC; Controls: -0.3 (-0.4 to -0.3) %MVC; both P < .001] and favorite [mTMD: -0.5 (-0.6 to -0.5) %MVC; Controls: -0.5 (-0.5 to -0.4) %MVC; both P < .001] music blocks. EMGposture was greater in mTMD individuals than controls during the favorite music [contrast estimate (95% CI): +1.1 (0.2-1.9) %MVC; P = .019] and the pink noise [+1.1 (0.2-2.0) %MVC; P = .014] blocks. EMGbruxism was significantly affected by the interaction group by experimental block (P < .001). In mTMD participants, compared to the pink noise block [mean (95% CI); 23.8 (16.0-31.6) %MVC], EMGbruxism increased during the stressful music block [contrast estimate (95% CI); +10.2 (8.6-11.8) %MVC], and decreased during the relaxing [-6.2 (-8.1 to -4.3) %MVC; P < .001] and favorite [-10.2 (-12.2 to -9.1) %MVC; P < .001] music blocks. These effects were not observed in the control group [mean (95% CI); pink noise: 19.3 (10.9-27.6); stressful: 21.2 (12.9-29.4) %MVC; relaxing: 21.6 (13.3-29.9) %MVC; favorite: 24.2 (15.8-32.7) %MVC; all P > .05]. EMGbruxism was significantly greater in mTMD participants than controls during the stressful music block [contrast estimate (95% CI): +12.9 (1.6-24.2) %MVC; P = .026). GML did not affect the duration or the frequency of awake bruxism in either group (median [IQR], mTMD: 23.5 [96.7] s, range 1-1300 seconds; Controls: 5.5 [22.5], range 0-246 seconds; P = .108). The frequency of awake bruxism episodes was greater in the mTMD group compared to controls only during the pink noise block (median [IQR], mTMD: 5 [15.3] episodes, range 0-62 episodes; Controls: 1 [3] episode, range 0-27 episodes; P = .046). No significant between-group differences were found in either the overall time spent engaging in awake bruxism (median [IQR], mTMD: 23.5 [96.7] s, range 1-1300 seconds; Controls: 5.5 [22.5], range 0-246 seconds; P = .108), or during each block (all P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: In subjects with chronic mTMD, relaxing music and the individual's favorite music decreased the muscular effort during spontaneous awake bruxism episodes by 26% and 44% (relative changes), respectively. In contrast, stressful music increases it by about 43%. Because of its positive effects on awake bruxism, GML with selected music could be a promising and non-invasive component of a multimodal approach for the management of chronic mTMD.


Subject(s)
Bruxism , Chronic Pain , Music Therapy , Music , Myalgia , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders , Adult , Bruxism/complications , Bruxism/physiopathology , Bruxism/psychology , Bruxism/therapy , Chronic Pain/etiology , Chronic Pain/physiopathology , Chronic Pain/psychology , Chronic Pain/therapy , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Masseter Muscle/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/physiopathology , Myalgia/psychology , Myalgia/therapy , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/physiopathology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/psychology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/therapy
2.
Pain Med ; 22(2): 470-480, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Individuals with chronic pain are uniquely challenged by the COVID-19 pandemic, as increased stress may exacerbate chronic pain, and there are new barriers to receiving chronic pain treatment. In light of this, using a large online sample in the United States, we examined 1) the early impact of COVID-19 on pain severity, pain interference, and chronic pain management; and 2) variables associated with perceived changes in pain severity and pain interference. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: Online survey data for 1,453 adults with chronic pain were collected via Amazon's Mechanical Turk platform. RESULTS: Although a large proportion of participants reported no perceived changes in their pain severity and pain interference since the outbreak, approximately 25-30% of individuals reported exacerbation in these domains. Individuals identifying as Black and of non-Hispanic origin, who experienced greater disruptions in their mood and sleep quality, were more likely to report worsened pain interference. The majority of participants reported engaging in self-management strategies as usual. However, most appointments for chronic pain treatment were either postponed or canceled, with no future session scheduled. Furthermore, a notable proportion of participants had concerns about or difficulty accessing prescription opioids due to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: We may expect to see a long-term exacerbation of chronic pain and related interference in functioning and chronic pain management among individuals most impacted by the pandemic. These individuals may benefit from remotely delivered intervention to effectively mitigate COVID-19-related exacerbations in chronic pain and interruptions in face-to-face treatment.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19 , Chronic Pain/physiopathology , Health Services Accessibility , Self-Management , Time-to-Treatment , Adult , Affect , African Americans , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Chronic Pain/psychology , Chronic Pain/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pain Management , Pain Measurement , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
4.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 40(1): 397-403, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023302

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic poses a challenge to treatment of patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain (UCPP), who are at risk to be postponed in the priority of care. We investigated pain, catastrophizing, and psychological status in UCPP patients during SARS-CoV-2 by means of Skype telephone calls. METHODS: A total of 28 UCPP patients underwent Skype video consultations. Pain intensity was assessed with Pain Numerical Rating Scale (PNRS). Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) were used to assess catastrophizing and psychological status. RESULTS: During SARS-CoV-2, UCPP patients showed higher intensity of pain than before (mean ± SD PNRS score: 7.25 ± 0.9 vs. 5.4 ± 0.7; p < .0001), with pain exacerbation in 75%; they showed higher PCS and DASS-21 scores as compared to before the pandemic (mean ± SD PCS total score: 32.4 ± 1.2 vs. 23.7 ± 3.5; mean ± SD DASS-21 total score: 42.03 ± 4.5 vs. 34.4 ± 2.2; p < .001 and p < .001, respectively). CONCLUSION: During SARS-CoV-2 pandemic UCPP patients presented with high intensity of pain, marked catastrophizing thoughts and severe alteration of the psychological status. These observations impose the need not to postpone assessment and treatment of these patients during the pandemic. Remote visits with video telephone calls are a simple way of continuing care in UCPP patients.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Catastrophization/physiopathology , Chronic Pain/physiopathology , Depression/psychology , Pelvic Pain/physiopathology , Telemedicine , Adult , COVID-19 , Catastrophization/psychology , Chronic Pain/psychology , Chronic Pain/therapy , Continuity of Patient Care , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pain Measurement , Pandemics , Pelvic Pain/psychology , Pelvic Pain/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Urology , Videoconferencing
5.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 40(1): 397-403, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942443

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic poses a challenge to treatment of patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain (UCPP), who are at risk to be postponed in the priority of care. We investigated pain, catastrophizing, and psychological status in UCPP patients during SARS-CoV-2 by means of Skype telephone calls. METHODS: A total of 28 UCPP patients underwent Skype video consultations. Pain intensity was assessed with Pain Numerical Rating Scale (PNRS). Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) were used to assess catastrophizing and psychological status. RESULTS: During SARS-CoV-2, UCPP patients showed higher intensity of pain than before (mean ± SD PNRS score: 7.25 ± 0.9 vs. 5.4 ± 0.7; p < .0001), with pain exacerbation in 75%; they showed higher PCS and DASS-21 scores as compared to before the pandemic (mean ± SD PCS total score: 32.4 ± 1.2 vs. 23.7 ± 3.5; mean ± SD DASS-21 total score: 42.03 ± 4.5 vs. 34.4 ± 2.2; p < .001 and p < .001, respectively). CONCLUSION: During SARS-CoV-2 pandemic UCPP patients presented with high intensity of pain, marked catastrophizing thoughts and severe alteration of the psychological status. These observations impose the need not to postpone assessment and treatment of these patients during the pandemic. Remote visits with video telephone calls are a simple way of continuing care in UCPP patients.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Catastrophization/physiopathology , Chronic Pain/physiopathology , Depression/psychology , Pelvic Pain/physiopathology , Telemedicine , Adult , COVID-19 , Catastrophization/psychology , Chronic Pain/psychology , Chronic Pain/therapy , Continuity of Patient Care , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pain Measurement , Pandemics , Pelvic Pain/psychology , Pelvic Pain/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Urology , Videoconferencing
6.
Pain ; 162(2): 619-629, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940829

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a tremendous impact, including on individuals with chronic pain. The social distancing policies necessary to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2 have involved increased levels of social isolation. This cross-sectional survey study examined pain severity and interference among individuals with chronic pain during an early phase of social distancing mandates and identified characteristics of individuals who were most impacted. Approximately 4 to 8 weeks after social distancing mandates commenced in the state of Massachusetts, 150 patients with fibromyalgia, chronic spine, and postsurgical pain completed demographic, pain, social distancing, and validated psychosocial questionnaires. Patients self-reported an overall significant increase in pain severity and pain interference, compared with before social distancing, although both pain severity and interference were quite variable among individuals under conditions of social distancing. Several demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors were associated with greater pain severity and interference during social distancing. Multivariable linear regression demonstrated that female sex, nonwhite race, lower education, disability, fibromyalgia, and higher pain catastrophizing were independently associated with greater pain severity, while female sex and pain catastrophizing were independently associated greater pain interference. The findings suggest that individual differences among patients with chronic pain should be considered in the planning, development, and prioritization of interventions to improve pain care and to prevent worsening of symptoms during the continuing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Back Pain/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Catastrophization/physiopathology , Chronic Pain/physiopathology , Fibromyalgia/physiopathology , Pain, Postoperative/physiopathology , Physical Distancing , Adult , African Americans , Back Pain/psychology , Catastrophization/psychology , Chronic Pain/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disabled Persons , Educational Status , Female , Fibromyalgia/psychology , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pain Measurement , Pain, Postoperative/psychology , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Sex Factors , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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