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2.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on multiple lifestyle changes among adults in the United States (USA). METHODS: We conducted a survey, the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic (HEAP) Study, in October 2020 among USA adults. Participants were selected from the United States using 48 sampling strata, including age, race, ethnicity, education, and gender, and were asked to report five lifestyle behaviors (i.e., exercise time, screen time, fast-food meal consumption, alcohol drinking, and cigarette smoking) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The associations of sociodemographic factors with each lifestyle change were estimated using weighted multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: All 2709 HEAP participants were included in this study. Compared to pre-pandemic, the time spent on exercise decreased (32.06 vs. 38.65 min/day; p < 0.001) and screen time increased (6.79 vs. 5.06 h/day; p < 0.001) during the pandemic. The percentage of individuals who reported consuming fast-food meals ≥3 times/week decreased from 37.7% before the pandemic to 33.3% during the pandemic. The percentage of heavy drinkers (≥5 times/week) increased from 20.9% before the pandemic to 25.7% during the pandemic. Among smokers, heavy smoking (≥11 cigarettes/day) increased from 5.8% before the pandemic to 7.9% during the pandemic. We also identified subgroups who were more vulnerable to adverse influences from the pandemic, including racial/ethnic minority groups and young adults. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had negative impacts on multiple lifestyle behaviors among Americans. Mitigating such negative impacts of COVID-19 requires effective interventions, particularly for some vulnerable subgroups.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Exercise/psychology , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Screen Time , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , /statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , /statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288967

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has brought about drastic measures that have significantly altered the norms of daily living. These measures have affected human behaviors in disparate ways. This study seeks to understand the impact of the pandemic on physical activity and dietary behavior among adults living in Kuwait. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 18 June and 15 July 2020, using a questionnaire disseminated through social media, including WhatsApp and Facebook. The target population was individuals aged 21 years or older living in the State of Kuwait. The study included 679 respondents; 57.9% were females, and 67.7% were Kuwaiti nationals. Both genders reported an increased consumption of vegetables, fruits, and carbohydrates, and a decreased consumption of fish and sugary drinks. Compared to males, females reported eating more during the outbreak than their pre-pandemic eating behaviors (32.3% vs. 35.9%, p < 0.05). Approximately one-third of respondents (33.1%) reported performing less than 30 min of physical activity or exercise in a week, and 36.4% of respondents rated their quality of sleep as 'poor' or 'very poor'. The rate of smoking cigarettes among males was significantly higher than in females (40.6% vs. 5.3%, p < 0.001). Physical activity was positively correlated with vegetable consumption and quality of sleep. Quality of sleep was negatively correlated with the consumption of sweets and snacks, just as the consumption of vegetables was negatively correlated with the consumption of sugary drinks. The overall negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Kuwait necessitates the development of health promotion interventions to support positive physical activity and dietary behaviors using alternative coping strategies among the residents of Kuwait.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Diet/methods , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Kuwait/epidemiology , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vegetables , Young Adult
5.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224084

ABSTRACT

Lockdowns to contain the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 have disrupted routines and behaviors, which could lead to a worsening of lifestyle and an increase in the burden of non-communicable diseases. This study aimed to describe the changes in physical activity, diet, alcohol drinking, and cigarette smoking during lockdown. A self-administered online survey addressing adults living in a province in northern Italy was advertised through websites and social media. Citizens could access the survey in anonymity from 4 May until 15 June 2020. A total of 1826 adults completed the survey, with a worsening of physical activity (35.1%), diet (17.6%), alcohol drinking (12.5%), and cigarette smoking (7.7%) reported. In contrast, 33.5% reported an improvement in diet, 12.6% in alcohol drinking, 5.3% in physical activity and 4.1% in cigarette smoking. Female sex, young adult age, suspension of work activity, and symptoms of psychological distress were the factors associated with a greater likelihood of change, which was frequently for the worse. Lockdown had an impact on lifestyle, with some net beneficial effects on diet and mostly negative effects on physical activity. Public health measures should be implemented to avoid long-term negative effects of the lockdown, supporting individuals more prone to change for the worse.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health , Sex Factors
7.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 15, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145668

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has modified the cardiovascular care of ambulatory patients. The aim of this survey was to study changes in lifestyle habits, treatment adherence, and mental health status in patients with cardiometabolic disease, but no clinical evidence of COVID-19. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in ambulatory patients with cardiometabolic disease using paper/digital surveys. Variables investigated included socioeconomic status, physical activity, diet, tobacco use, alcohol intake, treatment discontinuation, and psychological symptoms. Results: A total of 4,216 patients (50.9% males, mean age 60.3 ± 15.3 years old) from 13 Spanish-speaking Latin American countries were enrolled. Among the study population, 46.4% of patients did not have contact with a healthcare provider, 31.5% reported access barriers to treatments and 17% discontinued some medication. Multivariate analysis showed that non-adherence to treatment was more prevalent in the secondary prevention group: peripheral vascular disease (OR 1.55, CI 1.08-2.24; p = 0.018), heart failure (OR 1.36, CI 1.05-1.75; p = 0.017), and coronary artery disease (OR 1.29 CI 1.04-1.60; p = 0.018). No physical activity was reported by 38% of patients. Only 15% of patients met minimum recommendations of physical activity (more than 150 minutes/week) and vegetable and fruit intake. Low/very low income (45.5%) was associated with a lower level of physical activity (p < 0.0001), less fruit and vegetables intake (p < 0.0001), more tobacco use (p < 0.001) and perception of depression (p < 0.001). Low educational level was also associated with the perception of depression (OR 1.46, CI 1.26-1.70; p < 0.01). Conclusions: Patients with cardiometabolic disease but without clinical evidence of COVID-19 showed significant medication non-adherence, especially in secondary prevention patients. Deterioration in lifestyle habits and appearance of depressive symptoms during the pandemic were frequent and related to socioeconomic status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Depression/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diet , Dyslipidemias/therapy , Exercise , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Educational Status , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/therapy , Latin America/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Peripheral Vascular Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Secondary Prevention , Social Class , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e3, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089009

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread throughout the world, with devastating effects of the virus as well as the repercussions of the resulting 'lockdowns'. South Africa went into a national lockdown in March 2020 to mitigate the impact of the virus. This included a ban on the sales of tobacco and electronic cigarette products. The ban has been a highly contentious issue in South Africa, discussed worldwide, which has drawn many criticisms. The prevalence rate of smoking in South Africa was around 21.5%, with the Western Cape province having a prevalence rate of 39%. We compared the number of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presentations at a large regional referral hospital in the Western Cape province from January to August 2019 with the same period in 2020. Electronic emergency centre data showed a reduction of 69.28% in COPD presentations. To control for some confounders for the same period, we also reviewed patients presenting with urinary tract infections, which showed only a 30.60% reduction. This notable reduction in COPD presentations reduced service pressure of emergency centre and most likely benefitted patients' health. Further research and policies are needed to ensure ongoing reduction in the prevalence of smoking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Emergency Service, Hospital , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Tobacco Products/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Cigarette Smoking/prevention & control , Commerce/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology , Symptom Flare Up , Tobacco Products/adverse effects , Tobacco Products/economics
9.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(5): 866-871, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054317

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: New Zealand's response to the COVID-19 pandemic was one of the most restrictive lockdowns of any country, inevitably causing stress for many people. Because situations that increase stress and anxiety are associated with higher smoking prevalence, we examined self-reported smoking before and during the lockdown, and analyzed factors associated with reported changes in cigarette consumption. AIMS AND METHODS: We conducted an online panel survey of a demographically representative sample of 2010 adult New Zealanders during the COVID-19 lockdown; the final, weighted sample included 261 daily smokers and 71 weekly smokers. We measured psychological distress and anxiety, as well as situational factors, tobacco consumption, and demographic attributes. RESULTS: Nearly half of daily smokers reported smoking more during than before the lockdown, on average, an increase of six cigarettes a day; increased daily cigarette consumption was associated with loneliness and isolation. Most weekly smokers reported either that their smoking during the lockdown had not changed or had slightly reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation services need to anticipate that unexpected disruptions, such as pandemic lockdowns, may be associated with increased daily tobacco consumption, and that this increase may be sustained after lockdown. While public health responses to pandemics predictably focus on immediate and obvious consequences, interventions to support recent quitters and those making quit attempts should also form a key component of pandemic planning. IMPLICATIONS: As governments introduce unprecedented measures to manage COVID-19, they need also to consider other public health risks, such as increased smoking among current smokers or relapse among recent quitters. Evidence that loneliness was associated with increased smoking during a lockdown suggests a need for cessation out-reach strategies that promote and support smoke-free practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/trends , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Smoking Cessation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New Zealand/epidemiology , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 185: 114431, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051487

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the binding-site and entry-point for SARS-CoV-2 in human and highly expressed in the lung. Cigarette smoking (CS) is the leading cause of pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Chronic CS leads to upregulation of bronchial ACE2 inducing a high vulnerability in COVID-19 smoker patients. Interestingly, CS-induced dysregulation of pulmonary renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in part contributing into the potential pathogenesis COVID-19 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Since, CS-mediated ACE2 activations is not the main pathway for increasing the risk of COVID-19, it appeared that AngII/AT1R might induce an inflammatory-burst in COVID-19 response by up-regulating cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4), which hydrolyses specifically the second intracellular messenger 3', 5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP). It must be pointed out that CS might induce PDE4 up-regulation similarly to the COVID-19 inflammation, and therefore could potentiate COVID-19 inflammation opening the potential therapeutic effects of PDE4 inhibitor in both COVID-19-inflammation and CS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cigarette Smoking/drug therapy , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , Lung/drug effects , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/metabolism , Humans , Lung/physiology , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(3): 1152-1162.e3, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of information on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes in asthmatics. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with admission and subsequent mortality among COVID-19-infected asthmatics. METHODS: Adults at our institution with a positive polymerase chain reaction for COVID-19 between March 14 and April 27, 2020, were retrospectively identified. Comorbidities, laboratory results, and mortality rates during hospitalization were recorded. RESULTS: In total, 737 of 951 (77.5%) asthma patients with COVID-19 were seen in the emergency department (ED), and 78.8% of these ED patients (581 of 737) were admitted. Individuals with previously measured mean absolute eosinophil counts (AEC) ≥150 cells/µL were less likely to be admitted (odds ratio [OR] = 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-0.98, P = .04), whereas concomitant heart failure (CHF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were risk factors for admission. Hospitalized patients with asthma with peak hospital-measured AEC ≥150 cells/µL (n = 104) were less likely to die compared with those whose AEC remained <150 cells/µL (n = 213) (mortality rate 9.6% vs 25.8%; OR = 0.006, 95% CI: 0.0001-0.64, P = .03). This group had also higher preadmission mean AEC (237 ± 181 vs 163 ± 147 cells/µL, P = .001, OR = 2012, 95% CI: 27.3-14,816). The mortality rate in patients with asthma alone (no associated CHF, CKD, COPD, diabetes, or hypertension) was similar to that of patients without asthma or any of these comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: In asthmatics, pre-existing eosinophilia (AEC ≥150 cells/µL) was protective from COVID-19-associated admission, and development of eosinophilia (AEC ≥150 cells/µL) during hospitalization was associated with decreased mortality. Preadmission AEC influenced the AEC trend during hospitalization. Having a Th2-asthma phenotype might be an important predictor for reduced COVID-19 morbidity and mortality that should be further explored in prospective and mechanistic studies.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Eosinophilia/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Health Status , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
12.
Addict Behav ; 115: 106783, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986887

ABSTRACT

We examined tobacco use changes in young adult college students in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on smoking and vaping. First, we evaluated changes in tobacco use from pre to post campus closure focusing on smoking and electronic nicotine vaping frequency (days) and quantity (cigarettes/cartridges per day). Also, given the potential protective effects of pausing (temporarily or permanently discontinuing) smoking or vaping, we evaluated its predictors. We hypothesized that generalized anxiety and moving home would increase the odds of pausing. We also explored effects of COVID-related news exposure and seeking on tobacco use. We re-contacted young adults two years after they completed a study on alcohol and marijuana co-use. A subset (N = 83; 26.6% of the 312 respondents) were enrolled in college and reported use of cigarettes (n = 35) and/or e-cigarettes (n = 69) in the week prior to their campus closing (PC). Paired sample t-tests compared smoking and vaping frequency and quantity PC to past-week use since closing (SC). Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to examine predictors of pausing. Both smoking and vaping frequency decreased from PC to SC; however, decreased frequency did not correspond to reduced quantity. Twenty-four participants (28.9%) paused past-week use SC. Higher anxiety and moving home (versus living independently) were related to increased odds of pausing, whereas COVID-19 related news exposure and seeking were related to decreased odds of pausing. Characterizing COVID-19 related tobacco use change provides insights into how college students respond to novel health threats and informs potential interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Vaping/epidemiology , Vaping/psychology , Adult , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Universities , Young Adult
13.
Laeknabladid ; 106(12): 574-579, 2020 Dec.
Article in Icelandic | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948771

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused public health and economic turmoil across the globe. Severe COVID-19 disease most often presents with pneumonia and complications in acutely ill patients often stem from the lungs. The associations of lung disease, smoking and e-cigarette use with the incidence and severity of COVID-19 are unclear on a population level. METHODS: Data on 1761 patients from the Icelandic outpatient Landspitali COVID-19 Clinic were used. The prevalence of smoking, e-cigarette use and underlying lung diseases was calculated in the cohort, with stratification based on age groups and a clinical classification of symptom severity. It was tested whether these prevalences differed between age groups and classes of symptom severity. RESULTS: Most patients were in the age group between 35-54 years of age and a large majority had mild symptoms at diagnosis. The prevalence of smoking was 6% with the highest prevalence among 35-54 year olds. The prevalence of e-cigarette use was 4%. It was most prevalent in the age group between 18-34 years. There was no difference in the prevalence of smoking or e-cigarette use between classes of symptom severity. The prevalence of lung disease was 9%. It was higher among older patients and patients with more severe symptoms. CONCLUSION: The age distribution and prevalence of lung disease and their risk factors are described in the context of COVID-19 incidence and symptom severity in a whole-nation cohort of Icelanders. The cohort is younger and had less severe symptoms than in many previosly published studies of COVID-19. Interestingly, the prevalences of smoking and e-cigarette use were lower than in the Icelandic general population and they were not associated with symptom severity at diagnosis. To conclude, the results presented here indicate that underlying lung diseases are prevalent among people with severe COVID-19 symptoms but fail to demonstrate an association between cigarette smoking or e-cigarette smoking with COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Vaping/adverse effects , Adult , Age Distribution , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iceland/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Vaping/epidemiology
14.
Eur Addict Res ; 26(6): 309-315, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has led to measures of social distancing and quarantine worldwide. This stressful period may lead to psychological problems, including increases in substance use. OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis consumption before and during COVID-19 lockdown and motives for these changes in substance use. METHOD: A web-based survey was filled out by an unselected population during the social distancing measures of the COVID-19 pandemic in Belgium that assessed changes in alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis consumption in the period before and during the COVID-19 lockdown and also asked about reasons for change. RESULTS: A total of 3,632 respondents (mean age 42.1 ± 14.6 years; 70% female) filled out the survey. Overall, respondents reported consuming more alcohol (d = 0.21) and smoking more cigarettes (d = 0.13) than before the COVID-19 pandemic (both p < 0.001), while no significant changes in the consumption of cannabis were noted. The odds of consuming more alcohol during the lockdown were associated with younger age (OR = 0.981, p < 0.001), more children at home (OR = 1.220, p < 0.001), non-healthcare workers (p < 0.001), and being technically unemployed related to COVID-19 (p = 0.037). The odds of smoking more cigarettes during the lockdown were associated with younger age (OR = 0.988, p = 0.027), current living situation (p < 0.001), lower education (p = 0.015), and working situation related to COVID-19 (p = 0.018). Boredom, lack of social contacts, loss of daily structure, reward after a hard-working day, loneliness, and conviviality were the main reasons for consuming more of the various substances. CONCLUSIONS: During the lockdown, individuals consumed slightly more alcohol and smoked marginally more cigarettes compared to the period before the lockdown. Further research focussing on follow-up of individuals at risk may be useful to provide appropriate care in post-COVID times.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Marijuana Use/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Age Factors , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Belgium/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Boredom , COVID-19 , Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Marijuana Use/psychology , Middle Aged , Motivation , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Sex Factors , Social Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(4): 519-523, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-773592

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess whether youth cigarette and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use are associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms, testing, and diagnosis. METHODS: An online national survey of adolescents and young adults (n = 4,351) aged 13-24 years was conducted in May 2020. Multivariable logistic regression assessed relationships among COVID-19-related symptoms, testing, and diagnosis and cigarettes only, e-cigarettes only and dual use, sociodemographic factors, obesity, and complying with shelter-in-place. RESULTS: COVID-19 diagnosis was five times more likely among ever-users of e-cigarettes only (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.82-13.96), seven times more likely among ever-dual-users (95% CI: 1.98-24.55), and 6.8 times more likely among past 30-day dual-users (95% CI: 2.40-19.55). Testing was nine times more likely among past 30-day dual-users (95% CI: 5.43-15.47) and 2.6 times more likely among past 30-day e-cigarette only users (95% CI: 1.33-4.87). Symptoms were 4.7 times more likely among past 30-day dual-users (95% CI: 3.07-7.16). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with youth use of e-cigarettes only and dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes, suggesting the need for screening and education.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Vaping/adverse effects , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaping/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Croat Med J ; 61(4): 309-318, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743513

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the effect of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown on lifestyle behaviors and mood changes in the Croatian general population. METHODS: During ten days of the COVID-19 lockdown in Croatia, 3027 respondents (70.3% female) from the general population completed an online, self-report questionnaire. Demographic data and data on lifestyle habits and mood changes before and during the COVID-19 lockdown were collected. RESULTS: A total of 95.64% of respondents reported to follow most or all restrictions, with female sex (P<0.001) and higher education level (P<0.001) being associated with higher restriction compliance. Women smoked an increased number of cigarettes (P<0.001). The proportion of respondents of both sexes who did not drink or drank 7 drinks per week or more increased (P<0.001). Women also reported lower frequency (P=0.001) and duration of physical exercise (P<0.001). In total, 30.7% of respondents gained weight, with female sex (OR, 2.726) and higher BMI (OR, 1.116; both P<0.001) being associated with an increased likelihood of gaining weight. Both men and women felt more frequently afraid (P<0.001), discouraged (P<0.001), and sad (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Public health authorities should promote the adoption of healthy lifestyles in order to reduce long-term negative effects of the lockdown.


Subject(s)
Affect , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Exercise , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Weight Gain , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Croatia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sadness , Surveys and Questionnaires
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