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1.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on multiple lifestyle changes among adults in the United States (USA). METHODS: We conducted a survey, the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic (HEAP) Study, in October 2020 among USA adults. Participants were selected from the United States using 48 sampling strata, including age, race, ethnicity, education, and gender, and were asked to report five lifestyle behaviors (i.e., exercise time, screen time, fast-food meal consumption, alcohol drinking, and cigarette smoking) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The associations of sociodemographic factors with each lifestyle change were estimated using weighted multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: All 2709 HEAP participants were included in this study. Compared to pre-pandemic, the time spent on exercise decreased (32.06 vs. 38.65 min/day; p < 0.001) and screen time increased (6.79 vs. 5.06 h/day; p < 0.001) during the pandemic. The percentage of individuals who reported consuming fast-food meals ≥3 times/week decreased from 37.7% before the pandemic to 33.3% during the pandemic. The percentage of heavy drinkers (≥5 times/week) increased from 20.9% before the pandemic to 25.7% during the pandemic. Among smokers, heavy smoking (≥11 cigarettes/day) increased from 5.8% before the pandemic to 7.9% during the pandemic. We also identified subgroups who were more vulnerable to adverse influences from the pandemic, including racial/ethnic minority groups and young adults. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had negative impacts on multiple lifestyle behaviors among Americans. Mitigating such negative impacts of COVID-19 requires effective interventions, particularly for some vulnerable subgroups.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Exercise/psychology , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Screen Time , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , /statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , /statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 50(4): 295-304, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091316

ABSTRACT

Preliminary data suggest that cigarette smokers could have an increased mortality risk from the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), and that certain factors (e.g., increased age, medical comorbidities) can also increase risk of poor coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outcomes. Between April 30th, 2020 and May 28th, 2020, we evaluated self-reported changes in recent smoking patterns and motivation to quit smoking among current daily cigarette smokers (N = 103) on Amazon Mechanical Turk. We also assessed the relationship of these outcomes to age, medical comorbidity status, and fear of COVID-19. Most participants (68.9%) reported smoking less frequently than usual in the last 28 days. Among daily smokers, increased fear of COVID-19 predicted increased motivation to quit smoking and actual smoking reductions (ps < .05). Endorsement of one or more medical comorbidities, but not increased age, predicted increased motivation to quit smoking (p < .05). These data suggest the potentially greater relevance of psychological factors (e.g., fear of COVID-19) over external risk factors (e.g., medical comorbidity, increased age) on motivation to quit smoking and actual reductions in smoking patterns, and may reflect that the pandemic is a suitable time for offering smoking cessation intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Fear/psychology , Motivation , Smokers/psychology , Smoking Cessation/psychology , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Self Report , Smoking/psychology , Young Adult
4.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(5): 866-871, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054317

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: New Zealand's response to the COVID-19 pandemic was one of the most restrictive lockdowns of any country, inevitably causing stress for many people. Because situations that increase stress and anxiety are associated with higher smoking prevalence, we examined self-reported smoking before and during the lockdown, and analyzed factors associated with reported changes in cigarette consumption. AIMS AND METHODS: We conducted an online panel survey of a demographically representative sample of 2010 adult New Zealanders during the COVID-19 lockdown; the final, weighted sample included 261 daily smokers and 71 weekly smokers. We measured psychological distress and anxiety, as well as situational factors, tobacco consumption, and demographic attributes. RESULTS: Nearly half of daily smokers reported smoking more during than before the lockdown, on average, an increase of six cigarettes a day; increased daily cigarette consumption was associated with loneliness and isolation. Most weekly smokers reported either that their smoking during the lockdown had not changed or had slightly reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation services need to anticipate that unexpected disruptions, such as pandemic lockdowns, may be associated with increased daily tobacco consumption, and that this increase may be sustained after lockdown. While public health responses to pandemics predictably focus on immediate and obvious consequences, interventions to support recent quitters and those making quit attempts should also form a key component of pandemic planning. IMPLICATIONS: As governments introduce unprecedented measures to manage COVID-19, they need also to consider other public health risks, such as increased smoking among current smokers or relapse among recent quitters. Evidence that loneliness was associated with increased smoking during a lockdown suggests a need for cessation out-reach strategies that promote and support smoke-free practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/trends , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Smoking Cessation/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New Zealand/epidemiology , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
Addict Behav ; 115: 106783, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986887

ABSTRACT

We examined tobacco use changes in young adult college students in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on smoking and vaping. First, we evaluated changes in tobacco use from pre to post campus closure focusing on smoking and electronic nicotine vaping frequency (days) and quantity (cigarettes/cartridges per day). Also, given the potential protective effects of pausing (temporarily or permanently discontinuing) smoking or vaping, we evaluated its predictors. We hypothesized that generalized anxiety and moving home would increase the odds of pausing. We also explored effects of COVID-related news exposure and seeking on tobacco use. We re-contacted young adults two years after they completed a study on alcohol and marijuana co-use. A subset (N = 83; 26.6% of the 312 respondents) were enrolled in college and reported use of cigarettes (n = 35) and/or e-cigarettes (n = 69) in the week prior to their campus closing (PC). Paired sample t-tests compared smoking and vaping frequency and quantity PC to past-week use since closing (SC). Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to examine predictors of pausing. Both smoking and vaping frequency decreased from PC to SC; however, decreased frequency did not correspond to reduced quantity. Twenty-four participants (28.9%) paused past-week use SC. Higher anxiety and moving home (versus living independently) were related to increased odds of pausing, whereas COVID-19 related news exposure and seeking were related to decreased odds of pausing. Characterizing COVID-19 related tobacco use change provides insights into how college students respond to novel health threats and informs potential interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Vaping/epidemiology , Vaping/psychology , Adult , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Universities , Young Adult
6.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 218: 108438, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking may increase the risk of COVID-19 complications, reinforcing the urgency of smoking cessation in populations with high smoking prevalence such as individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD). Whether the COVID-19 pandemic has altered perceptions, motivation to quit, or tobacco use among cigarette smokers and nicotine e-cigarette vapers with OUD is unknown. METHODS: A telephone survey was conducted in March-July 2020 of current cigarette smokers or nicotine vapers with OUD who were stable on buprenorphine treatment at five Boston (MA) area community health centers. The survey assessed respondents' perceived risk of COVID-19 due to smoking or vaping, interest in quitting, quit attempts and change in tobacco consumption during the pandemic. RESULTS: 222/520 patients (43 %) completed the survey, and 145 were asked questions related to COVID-19. Of these, 61 % smoked cigarettes only, 13 % vaped nicotine only, and 26 % were dual users. Nearly 80 % of participants believed that smoking and vaping increased their risk of COVID-19 infection or complications. Smokers with this belief reported an increased interest in quitting (AOR 4.6, 95 % CI:1.7-12.4). Overall, 49 % of smokers and 42 % of vapers reported increased interest in quitting due to the pandemic; 24 % and 20 %, respectively, reported attempting to quit since the pandemic. However, 35 % of smokers and 27 % of vapers reported increasing smoking and vaping, respectively, during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with OUD believed that smoking and vaping increased their vulnerability to COVID-19, half reported increased interest in quitting, but others reported increasing smoking and vaping during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Attitude , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Narcotic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/psychology , Pandemics , Vaping/psychology , Adult , Aged , Boston , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Smoking Cessation , Young Adult
7.
Eur Addict Res ; 26(6): 309-315, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has led to measures of social distancing and quarantine worldwide. This stressful period may lead to psychological problems, including increases in substance use. OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis consumption before and during COVID-19 lockdown and motives for these changes in substance use. METHOD: A web-based survey was filled out by an unselected population during the social distancing measures of the COVID-19 pandemic in Belgium that assessed changes in alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis consumption in the period before and during the COVID-19 lockdown and also asked about reasons for change. RESULTS: A total of 3,632 respondents (mean age 42.1 ± 14.6 years; 70% female) filled out the survey. Overall, respondents reported consuming more alcohol (d = 0.21) and smoking more cigarettes (d = 0.13) than before the COVID-19 pandemic (both p < 0.001), while no significant changes in the consumption of cannabis were noted. The odds of consuming more alcohol during the lockdown were associated with younger age (OR = 0.981, p < 0.001), more children at home (OR = 1.220, p < 0.001), non-healthcare workers (p < 0.001), and being technically unemployed related to COVID-19 (p = 0.037). The odds of smoking more cigarettes during the lockdown were associated with younger age (OR = 0.988, p = 0.027), current living situation (p < 0.001), lower education (p = 0.015), and working situation related to COVID-19 (p = 0.018). Boredom, lack of social contacts, loss of daily structure, reward after a hard-working day, loneliness, and conviviality were the main reasons for consuming more of the various substances. CONCLUSIONS: During the lockdown, individuals consumed slightly more alcohol and smoked marginally more cigarettes compared to the period before the lockdown. Further research focussing on follow-up of individuals at risk may be useful to provide appropriate care in post-COVID times.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Marijuana Use/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Age Factors , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Belgium/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Boredom , COVID-19 , Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Marijuana Use/psychology , Middle Aged , Motivation , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Sex Factors , Social Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
Psychol Assess ; 32(10): 903-914, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-644465

ABSTRACT

Schools are increasingly concerned with the well-being of the whole child - likely, more so since the COVID-19 pandemic - and goals here were to document the psychometric properties of a brief new measure of adolescent mental health, the Well-Being Index (WBI). The measure assesses 4 symptom areas, 2 each of internalizing and externalizing symptoms-Depression, Anxiety, Rule-Breaking, and Substance Use-and an optional scale on Isolation at School. A total of 2,444 students from 2 high schools completed the WBI, the Youth Self-Report (YSR), and other related measures. Alpha coefficients showed acceptable internal consistency, with values for the 5 WBI subscales at .83, .84, .78, .79, and .74, respectively. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated consistent factorial validity. Correlations with corresponding YSR subscales indicated good convergent and discriminant validity. The WBI Substance Use and Isolation at School subscales, similarly, had high correlations with subscales from preexisting measures. Criterion-related validity was indicated in significant correlations between WBI subscales and conceptually related dimensions of close relationships. Also examined was the percentage of youth falling above clinical cutoffs on both the WBI and YSR, and findings demonstrated high concurrent validity. Collectively, results suggest the promise of the WBI as a brief, psychometrically sound measure to assess the adjustment of adolescents, along with perceptions of school climate that can be modified toward fostering their overall well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health , Anxiety/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Depression/psychology , Marijuana Use/psychology , Mental Health , Underage Drinking/psychology , Vaping/psychology , Adolescent , Anxiety/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Depression/diagnosis , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Family , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Self Report , Students/psychology
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