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1.
J Biol Rhythms ; 37(2): 152-163, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753024

ABSTRACT

Asthma has a striking temporal character, in which time-of-day, patient age, and season each influence disease activity. The extent to which rhythms in asthma activity reflect exposure to specific disease triggers remains unclear. In this study, we examined how virus mitigation strategies enacted during the COVID-19 pandemic ("lockdown measures") affected rhythms in asthma clinical activity in children. To this end, we retrospectively analyzed asthma clinical presentations in children aged <18 years to our regional academic medical center, comparing 4 years of medical records prior to COVID-19 lockdown measures with the 12 months immediately after the institution of such measures. We correlated these data to positive viral test results, febrile seizures, and allergic clinical surrogates (allergic reaction visits and Emergency Department [ED] antihistamine prescriptions, respectively) over the same time frame. In the 12 months following the institution of the COVID-19 lockdown, positivity rates for common respiratory viruses dropped by 70.2% and ED visits for asthma among children dropped by 62% compared to pre-COVID years. Lockdown suppressed seasonal variation in positive viral tests and asthma ED visits, while diurnal rhythms in asthma visits were unchanged. Asthma seasonality correlated most strongly with rhinovirus positivity both before and after the institution of COVID lockdown measures. Altogether, our data support a causal role for viruses in driving seasonal variability in asthma exacerbations in children.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Circadian Rhythm , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725891

ABSTRACT

In a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort (United Kingdom, N = 21,318, 1993-1998), we studied how associations between meal patterns and non-fasting triglyceride and glucose concentrations were influenced by the hour of day at which the blood sample was collected to ascertain face validity of reported meal patterns, as well as the influence of reporting bias (assessed using formula of energy expenditure) on this association. Meal size (i.e., reported energy content), mealtime and meal frequency were reported using pre-structured 7-day diet diaries. In ANCOVA, sex-specific means of biomarker concentrations were calculated by hour of blood sample collection for quartiles of reported energy intake at breakfast, lunch and dinner (meal size). Significant interactions were observed between breakfast size, sampling time and triglyceride concentrations and between lunch size, sampling time and triglyceride, as well as glucose concentrations. Those skipping breakfast had the lowest triglyceride concentrations in the morning and those skipping lunch had the lowest triglyceride and glucose concentrations in the afternoon, especially among acceptable energy reporters. Eating and drinking occasion frequency was weakly associated with glucose concentrations in women and positively associated with triglyceride concentrations in both sexes; stronger associations were observed for larger vs. smaller meals and among acceptable energy reporters. Associations between meal patterns and concentration biomarkers can be observed when accounting for diurnal variation and underreporting. These findings support the use of 7-day diet diaries for studying associations between meal patterns and health.


Subject(s)
Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Diet Records , Eating/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Meals/physiology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Triglycerides/blood , United Kingdom
4.
Appetite ; 172: 105951, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654055

ABSTRACT

The emerging field of chrononutrition provides useful information on how we manage food intake across the day. The COVID-19 emergency, and the corresponding restrictive measures, produced an unprecedented change in individual daily rhythms, possibly including the distribution of mealtimes. Designed as a cross-sectional study based on an online survey, this study aims to assess the chrononutrition profiles (Chrononutrition Profile Questionnaire, CP-Q) in a sample of 1298 Italian participants, during the first COVID-19 lockdown, and to explore the relationship with chronotype (reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, rMEQ), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI) and socio-demographics. Our findings confirm a change in eating habits for 58% of participants, in terms of mealtimes or content of meals. Being an evening chronotype and experiencing poor sleep imply a higher likelihood of changing eating habits, including a delay in the timing of meals. Also, under these unprecedented circumstances, we report that the timing of breakfast is a valuable proxy capable of estimating the chronotype. From a public health perspective, the adoption of this straightforward and low-cost proxy of chronotype might help in the early detection of vulnerable subgroups in the general population, eventually useful during prolonged stressful conditions, as the one caused by COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Circadian Rhythm , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Meals , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 38(1): 89-95, 2022 Jan.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642032

ABSTRACT

Melatonin is a naturally occurring molecule derived from tryptophan. Melatonin is a key player in relaying the circadian rhythm between our environment and our body. It has also a key role in rhythming the seasons (more production during long nights and less during short ones) as well as in the reproduction cycles of the mammals. Melatonin is often and surprisingly presented as a molecule with multiple therapeutic properties that can fix (or help to fix) many health issues, such as diseases (cancer, ageing, virus-induced affections including COVID-19, etc…) or toxicological situations (metals, venoms, chemical such as adriamycin [doxorubicin], methotrexate or paclitaxel). The mechanistics behind those wonders is still missing and this is puzzling. In the present commentary, the main well-established biological properties are presented and briefly discussed with the aim of delineating the borders between facts and wishful thinking.


Title: Mélatonine - Petit précis à l'usage des trop enthousiastes. Abstract: La mélatonine est une molécule naturelle dérivée du tryptophane. Son rôle est de servir de relai entre la rythmicité jour/nuit et notre corps. Elle sert donc de marqueur circadien : concentration haute pendant la nuit et basse pendant la journée. Elle sert aussi de marque saisonnière : plus les nuits sont longues et plus longuement elle est produite (et vice-versa), ce qui a un rôle primordial dans les cycles reproductifs des animaux. Mais elle est aussi affublée de multiples propriétés thérapeutiques concernant la plupart des maladies humaines, du cancer à la COVID-19 en passant par l'infection par le virus Ebola, ainsi que de capacités thérapeutiques vis-à-vis de multiples toxicités (métaux, venins, produits chimiques comme l'adriamycine [doxorubicine], le méthotrexate ou le paclitaxel). Alors que l'enthousiasme à propos de cette molécule est troublant, l'assise scientifique de ces descriptions est dans le meilleur des cas faible et dans la plupart des cas, inexistante. Dans ce commentaire, les données scientifiques bien établies liées à la mélatonine sont résumées et brièvement discutées, en tâchant de redessiner les limites entre ce qui est connu et bien établi et ce qui reste du domaine du fantasme.


Subject(s)
Circadian Rhythm/drug effects , Communication , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Reproducibility of Results , Seasons
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(19): 28062-28069, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603944

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the world gained dramatic experience of the development of the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recent researches notice an increasing prevalence of anxiety and circadian rhythm disorders during COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study was describing clinical features of circadian rhythm disorders and the level of anxiety in persons who have had COVID-19. We have conducted a cohort retrospective study that included 278 patients who were divided into 2 study groups according to medical history: group 1 includes patients with a history of COVID-19; group 2 consists of patients who did not have clinically confirmed COVID-19 and are therefore considered not to have had this disease. To objectify circadian rhythm disorders, they were verified in accordance with the criteria of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-3. The level of anxiety was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The most common circadian rhythm disorders were sleep phase shifts. We found that COVID-19 in the anamnesis caused a greater predisposition of patients to the development of circadian rhythm disorders, in particular delayed sleep phase disorder. In addition, it was found that after COVID-19 patients have increased levels of both trait and state anxiety. In our study, it was the first time that relationships between post-COVID-19 anxiety and circadian rhythm disorders had been indicated. Circadian rhythm disorders are associated with increased trait and state anxiety, which may indicate additional ways to correct post-COVID mental disorders and their comorbidity with sleep disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronobiology Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Circadian Rhythm , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594999

ABSTRACT

The sleep/wake rhythm is one of the most important biological rhythms. Quality and duration of sleep change during lifetime. The aim of our study was to determine differences in sleep efficiency, movement, and fragmentation during sleep period between genders and according to age. Sleep period was monitored by wrist actigraphy under home-based conditions. Seventy-four healthy participants-47 women and 27 men participated in the study. The participants were divided by age into groups younger than 40 years and 40 years and older. Women showed lower sleep fragmentation and mobility during sleep compared to men. Younger women showed a higher actual sleep and sleep efficiency compared to older women and younger men. Younger men compared to older men had a significantly lower actual sleep, lower sleep efficiency and significantly more sleep and wake bouts. Our results confirmed differences in sleep parameters between genders and according to age. The best sleep quality was detected in young women, but gender differences were not apparent in elderly participants, suggesting the impact of sex hormones on sleep.


Subject(s)
Actigraphy , Wrist , Adult , Aged , Circadian Rhythm , Female , Humans , Male , Movement , Sleep
8.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580552

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence supports the importance of lifestyle and environmental exposures-collectively referred to as the 'exposome'-for ensuring immune health. In this narrative review, we summarize and discuss the effects of the different exposome components (physical activity, body weight management, diet, sun exposure, stress, sleep and circadian rhythms, pollution, smoking, and gut microbiome) on immune function and inflammation, particularly in the context of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We highlight the potential role of 'exposome improvements' in the prevention-or amelioration, once established-of this disease as well as their effect on the response to vaccination. In light of the existing evidence, the promotion of a healthy exposome should be a cornerstone in the prevention and management of the COVID-19 pandemic and other eventual pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exposome , Pandemics , Body Weight Maintenance/immunology , Circadian Rhythm/immunology , Diet/methods , Environmental Pollutants/immunology , Exercise/immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep/immunology , Smoking/immunology , Stress, Psychological/immunology , Sunlight
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e26107, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Changes in autonomic nervous system function, characterized by heart rate variability (HRV), have been associated with infection and observed prior to its clinical identification. OBJECTIVE: We performed an evaluation of HRV collected by a wearable device to identify and predict COVID-19 and its related symptoms. METHODS: Health care workers in the Mount Sinai Health System were prospectively followed in an ongoing observational study using the custom Warrior Watch Study app, which was downloaded to their smartphones. Participants wore an Apple Watch for the duration of the study, measuring HRV throughout the follow-up period. Surveys assessing infection and symptom-related questions were obtained daily. RESULTS: Using a mixed-effect cosinor model, the mean amplitude of the circadian pattern of the standard deviation of the interbeat interval of normal sinus beats (SDNN), an HRV metric, differed between subjects with and without COVID-19 (P=.006). The mean amplitude of this circadian pattern differed between individuals during the 7 days before and the 7 days after a COVID-19 diagnosis compared to this metric during uninfected time periods (P=.01). Significant changes in the mean and amplitude of the circadian pattern of the SDNN was observed between the first day of reporting a COVID-19-related symptom compared to all other symptom-free days (P=.01). CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinally collected HRV metrics from a commonly worn commercial wearable device (Apple Watch) can predict the diagnosis of COVID-19 and identify COVID-19-related symptoms. Prior to the diagnosis of COVID-19 by nasal swab polymerase chain reaction testing, significant changes in HRV were observed, demonstrating the predictive ability of this metric to identify COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Rate/physiology , Wearable Electronic Devices , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
J Biol Rhythms ; 37(1): 124-129, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551148

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global crisis with unprecedented challenges for public health. Vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2 have slowed the incidence of new infections and reduced disease severity. As the time of day of vaccination has been reported to influence host immune responses to multiple pathogens, we quantified the influence of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination time, vaccine type, participant age, sex, and days post-vaccination on anti-Spike antibody responses in health care workers. The magnitude of the anti-Spike antibody response is associated with the time of day of vaccination, vaccine type, participant age, sex, and days post-vaccination. These results may be relevant for optimising SARS-CoV-2 vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Circadian Rhythm , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
13.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 553, 2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wearable devices enable monitoring and measurement of physiological parameters over a 24-h period, and some of which exhibit circadian rhythm characteristics. However, the currently available R package cosinor could only analyze daily cross-sectional data and compare the parameters between groups with two levels. To evaluate longitudinal changes in the circadian patterns, we need to extend the model to a mixed-effect model framework, allowing for random effects and interaction between COSINOR parameters and time-varying covariates. RESULTS: We developed the cosinoRmixedeffects R package for modelling longitudinal periodic data using mixed-effects cosinor models. The model allows for covariates and interactions with the non-linear parameters MESOR, amplitude, and acrophase. To facilitate ease of use, the package utilizes the syntax and functions of the widely used emmeans package to obtain estimated marginal means and contrasts. Estimation and hypothesis testing involving the non-linear circadian parameters are carried out using bootstrapping. We illustrate the package functionality by modelling daily measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) collected among health care workers over several months. Differences in circadian patterns of HRV between genders, BMI, and during infection with SARS-CoV2 are evaluated to illustrate how to perform hypothesis testing. CONCLUSION: cosinoRmixedeffects package provides the model fitting, estimation and hypothesis testing for the mixed-effects COSINOR model, for the linear and non-linear circadian parameters MESOR, amplitude and acrophase. The model accommodates factors with any number of categories, as well as complex interactions with circadian parameters and categorical factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Circadian Rhythm , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Work ; 70(3): 695-700, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 emerged as a serious pandemic in 2019 and billions of people were infected. Various precautionary methods were taken to contain the spread of virus such as social distancing, public lockdown, sanitation, and closure of schools and colleges. Many colleges started online classes to resume their syllabus and to complete the course curriculum. These evening online sessions resulted in late night sleep, long term mobile/computer exposure, and disturbed sleep pattern. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to determine the impact of COVID-19 online classes on morningness- eveningness personality and to compare it with different age groups, gender, and body mass index. METHODS: The cluster sampling method was used to collect the subjects from the total of 1153 adult college students, 897 subjects were selected based on the selection criteria and instructed to submit an online survey consists of the Morningness-eveningness Questionnaire and demographic and anthropometric data through mail, social media, or through a researcher by direct interview. RESULTS: The mean score for the 897 participants is 56.7, indicating intermediate morningness-eveningness personality type. On comparing the different groups, the youngest group (18-20 years) scored 4.23%(mean = 46.7), female subjects scored 6.13%(mean = 58.1), the underweight 2.67%(mean = 59.2) and overweight groups scored 2.89%(mean = 59.7) indicating definite eveningness. Among the 897 collected samples of the population 8.13%of the subjects experienced definite eveningness, 14.93%has moderate eveningness, 17.38%are under intermediate category, 22.4%have moderate morningness, and 37.11%have definite morningness. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with eveningness personality have high risk of developing mental illness, thus it's important to determine the eveningness personality among student population to avoid serious complications in later age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Circadian Rhythm , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Personality , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
J Clin Invest ; 131(19)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488299

ABSTRACT

Circadian disruption is pervasive and can occur at multiple organizational levels, contributing to poor health outcomes at individual and population levels. Evidence points to a bidirectional relationship, in that circadian disruption increases disease severity and many diseases can disrupt circadian rhythms. Importantly, circadian disruption can increase the risk for the expression and development of neurologic, psychiatric, cardiometabolic, and immune disorders. Thus, harnessing the rich findings from preclinical and translational research in circadian biology to enhance health via circadian-based approaches represents a unique opportunity for personalized/precision medicine and overall societal well-being. In this Review, we discuss the implications of circadian disruption for human health using a bench-to-bedside approach. Evidence from preclinical and translational science is applied to a clinical and population-based approach. Given the broad implications of circadian regulation for human health, this Review focuses its discussion on selected examples in neurologic, psychiatric, metabolic, cardiovascular, allergic, and immunologic disorders that highlight the interrelatedness between circadian disruption and human disease and the potential of circadian-based interventions, such as bright light therapy and exogenous melatonin, as well as chronotherapy to improve and/or modify disease outcomes.


Subject(s)
Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Mental Disorders/physiopathology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Metabolic Diseases/physiopathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/physiopathology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/physiopathology , Public Health
16.
Chronobiol Int ; 39(2): 261-268, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488068

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the relationship between chronotype preferences/sleep problems and trauma symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak of adolescents diagnosed with Anxiety Disorder (AD) in the pre-COVID-19 period. The sample of this study consisted of 71 adolescents with AD. Trauma symptoms were evaluated using the Children's Event Impact Scale (CRIES-13); sleep habits were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); and chronotype was evaluated using the Children's Chronotype Questionnaire (CCQ). The CRIES-13 arousal scores and PSQI sleep latency scores were significantly higher in the eveningness type group compared with the non-eveningness type group. The CRIES-13 arousal scores of adolescents with AD were related to the CCQ and PSQI scores. In linear regression analysis, sleep problems were found to be an associated factor on the CRIES-13 scores. The findings of the present study suggest that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the chronotype may play an important role in the adversities experienced by adolescents with AD. In addition, it was thought that the association between sleep problems and trauma in adolescents with AD who spent a lot of time in the home environment during the pandemic period needs further evaluation.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Adolescent , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Circadian Rhythm , Humans , Pandemics , Sleep , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
J Biol Rhythms ; 36(6): 595-601, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484227

ABSTRACT

False negative tests for SARS-CoV-2 are common and have important public health and medical implications. We tested the hypothesis of diurnal variation in viral shedding by assessing the proportion of positive versus negative SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests and cycle time (Ct) values among positive samples by the time of day. Among 86,342 clinical tests performed among symptomatic and asymptomatic patients in a regional health care network in the southeastern United States from March to August 2020, we found evidence for diurnal variation in the proportion of positive SARS-CoV-2 tests, with a peak around 1400 h and 1.7-fold variation over the day after adjustment for age, sex, race, testing location, month, and day of week and lower Ct values during the day for positive samples. These findings have important implications for public health testing and vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Circadian Rhythm , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1509, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Light at night (LAN) as a circadian disruption factor may affect the human immune system and consequently increase an individual's susceptibility to the severity of infectious diseases, such as COVID-19. COVID-19 infections spread differently in each state in the United States (US). The current analysis aimed to test whether there is an association between LAN and COVID-19 cases in 4 selected US states: Connecticut, New York, California, and Texas. METHODS: We analyzed clustering patterns of COVID-19 cases in ArcMap and performed a multiple linear regression model using data of LAN and COVID-19 incidence with adjustment for confounding variables including population density, percent below poverty, and racial factors. RESULTS: Hotspots of LAN and COVID-19 cases are located in large cities or metro-centers for all 4 states. LAN intensity is associated with cases/1 k for overall and lockdown durations in New York and Connecticut (P < 0.001), but not in Texas and California. The overall case rates are significantly associated with LAN in New York (P < 0.001) and Connecticut (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant positive correlation between LAN intensity and COVID-19 cases-rate/1 k, suggesting that circadian disruption of ambient light may increase the COVID-19 infection rate possibly by affecting an individual's immune functions. Furthermore, differences in the demographic structure and lockdown policies in different states play an important role in COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Circadian Rhythm , Communicable Disease Control , Connecticut/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
19.
Biol Psychol ; 167: 108212, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474360

ABSTRACT

Aberrant patterns of diurnal cortisol, a marker of stress reactivity, predict adverse physical and mental health among adolescents. However, the mechanisms underlying aberrant diurnal cortisol production are poorly understood. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate, for the first time, whether the core emotion regulation (ER) strategies of rumination (brooding, reflection), reappraisal, and suppression were prospectively associated with individual differences in diurnal cortisol during the COVID-19 pandemic, a period of significant stress. A community sample of 48 early adolescents (Mage = 13.45; 60% males) was recruited from British Columbia, Canada. Participants completed ER measures before the pandemic, and diurnal cortisol was assessed by collecting eight saliva samples over two days during the first COVID-19-related lockdown in the region. As expected, brooding predicted elevated waking cortisol and a blunted cortisol awakening response (CAR), whereas reflection predicted lower waking cortisol and suppression predicted a steeper CAR. Unexpectedly, reappraisal was not associated with diurnal cortisol production. Results indicate that ER strategies may represent a mechanism underlying individual differences in biological markers of wellbeing during stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotional Regulation , Adolescent , Circadian Rhythm , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Stress, Psychological
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463631

ABSTRACT

As the primary environmental cue for the body's master biological clock, light-dark patterns are key for circadian alignment and are ultimately fundamental to multiple dimensions of health including sleep and mental health. Although daylight provides the proper qualities of light for promoting circadian alignment, our modern indoor lifestyles offer fewer opportunities for adequate daylight exposure. This field study explores how increasing circadian-effective light in residences affects circadian phase, sleep, vitality, and mental health. In this crossover study, 20 residents spent one week in their apartments with electrochromic glass windows and another week with functionally standard windows with blinds. Calibrated light sensors revealed higher daytime circadian-effective light levels with the electrochromic glass windows, and participants exhibited consistent melatonin onset, a 22-min earlier sleep onset, and higher sleep regularity. In the blinds condition, participants exhibited a 15-min delay in dim light melatonin onset, a delay in subjective vitality throughout the day, and an overall lower positive affect. This study demonstrates the impact of daytime lighting on the physiological, behavioral, and subjective measures of circadian health in a real-world environment and stresses the importance of designing buildings that optimize daylight for human health and wellbeing.


Subject(s)
Melatonin , Mental Health , Adult , Circadian Rhythm , Cross-Over Studies , Humans , Sleep
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