Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 5 de 5
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580552


Growing evidence supports the importance of lifestyle and environmental exposures-collectively referred to as the 'exposome'-for ensuring immune health. In this narrative review, we summarize and discuss the effects of the different exposome components (physical activity, body weight management, diet, sun exposure, stress, sleep and circadian rhythms, pollution, smoking, and gut microbiome) on immune function and inflammation, particularly in the context of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We highlight the potential role of 'exposome improvements' in the prevention-or amelioration, once established-of this disease as well as their effect on the response to vaccination. In light of the existing evidence, the promotion of a healthy exposome should be a cornerstone in the prevention and management of the COVID-19 pandemic and other eventual pandemics.

COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exposome , Pandemics , Body Weight Maintenance/immunology , Circadian Rhythm/immunology , Diet/methods , Environmental Pollutants/immunology , Exercise/immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep/immunology , Smoking/immunology , Stress, Psychological/immunology , Sunlight
J Int Med Res ; 48(9): 300060520958594, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788437


OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows a wide range of severity, ranging from an asymptomatic presentation to a severe illness requiring intensive care unit admission. Identification of a strategy to manage the severity of this disease will not only help to reduce its case fatality but also help to remove some of the burden from the already overwhelmed health care systems. While successful management of symptoms in general is important, identifying measures to modify the severity of the illness is a key factor in the fight against this pandemic. METHODS: This paper presents a short literature review to suggest a new treatment modality for COVID-19. RESULTS: COVID-19 is less severe and rarely fatal in children than in adults, which could be caused by greater fluctuations of plasma epinephrine in children. Our literature survey endorses this hypothesis according to both the epidemiological and immunological findings. CONCLUSION: Application of epinephrine pulses with a specific amplitude may be considered an intervention to minimize the severity of COVID-19.

CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Circadian Rhythm/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Asymptomatic Diseases , Biomarkers/blood , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19 , Child , Circadian Rhythm/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Epinephrine/blood , Epinephrine/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Models, Immunological , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
Int Rev Immunol ; 39(4): 153-162, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-141729


The current COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most devastating events in recent history. The virus causes relatively minor damage to young, healthy populations, imposing life-threatening danger to the elderly and people with diseases of chronic inflammation. Therefore, if we could reduce the risk for vulnerable populations, it would make the COVID-19 pandemic more similar to other typical outbreaks. Children don't suffer from COVID-19 as much as their grandparents and have a much higher melatonin level. Bats are nocturnal animals possessing high levels of melatonin, which may contribute to their high anti-viral resistance. Viruses induce an explosion of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, and melatonin is the best natural antioxidant that is lost with age. The programmed cell death coronaviruses cause, which can result in significant lung damage, is also inhibited by melatonin. Coronavirus causes inflammation in the lungs which requires inflammasome activity. Melatonin blocks these inflammasomes. General immunity is impaired by anxiety and sleep deprivation. Melatonin improves sleep habits, reduces anxiety and stimulates immunity. Fibrosis may be the most dangerous complication after COVID-19. Melatonin is known to prevent fibrosis. Mechanical ventilation may be necessary but yet imposes risks due to oxidative stress, which can be reduced by melatonin. Thus, by using the safe over-the-counter drug melatonin, we may be immediately able to prevent the development of severe disease symptoms in coronavirus patients, reduce the severity of their symptoms, and/or reduce the immuno-pathology of coronavirus infection on patients' health after the active phase of the infection is over.

Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Nonprescription Drugs/administration & dosage , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Age Factors , Aged , Aging/immunology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/immunology , Chiroptera/virology , Circadian Rhythm/drug effects , Circadian Rhythm/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Photoperiod , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2