Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 13 de 13
Filter
1.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 160, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721596

ABSTRACT

The role of dimer formation for the onset of catalytic activity of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MProWT) was assessed using a predominantly monomeric mutant (MProM). Rates of MProWT and MProM catalyzed hydrolyses display substrate saturation kinetics and second-order dependency on the protein concentration. The addition of the prodrug GC376, an inhibitor of MProWT, to MProM leads to an increase in the dimer population and catalytic activity with increasing inhibitor concentration. The activity reaches a maximum corresponding to a dimer population in which one active site is occupied by the inhibitor and the other is available for catalytic activity. This phase is followed by a decrease in catalytic activity due to the inhibitor competing with the substrate. Detailed kinetics and equilibrium analyses are presented and a modified Michaelis-Menten equation accounts for the results. These observations provide conclusive evidence that dimer formation is coupled to catalytic activity represented by two equivalent active sites.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Catalysis , Catalytic Domain , Circular Dichroism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Pyrrolidines/chemistry , Sulfonic Acids/chemistry , Thermodynamics
2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 200: 428-437, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633983

ABSTRACT

Nucleocapsid protein (N protein) is the primary antigen of the virus for development of sensitive diagnostic assays of COVID-19. In this paper, we demonstrate the significant impact of dimerization of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) N-protein on sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based diagnostics. The expressed purified protein from E. coli is composed of dimeric and monomeric forms, which have been further characterized using biophysical and immunological techniques. Indirect ELISA indicated elevated susceptibility of the dimeric form of the nucleocapsid protein for identification of protein-specific monoclonal antibody as compared to the monomeric form. This finding also confirmed with the modelled structure of monomeric and dimeric nucleocapsid protein via HHPred software and its solvent accessible surface area, which indicates higher stability and antigenicity of the dimeric type as compared to the monomeric form. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA at 95% CI are 99.0% (94.5-99.9) and 95.0% (83.0-99.4), respectively, for the highest purified dimeric form of the N protein. As a result, using the highest purified dimeric form will improve the sensitivity of the current nucleocapsid-dependent ELISA for COVID-19 diagnosis, and manufacturers should monitor and maintain the monomer-dimer composition for accurate and robust diagnostics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Circular Dichroism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/biosynthesis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/isolation & purification , Dimerization , Epitopes/chemistry , Escherichia coli/genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Models, Molecular , Phosphoproteins/biosynthesis , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins/isolation & purification , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2005507, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585297

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has triggered a serious public health crisis worldwide, and considering the novelty of the disease, preventative and therapeutic measures alike are urgently needed. To accelerate such efforts, the development of JS016, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody directed against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, was expedited from a typical 12- to 18-month period to a 4-month period. During this process, transient Chinese hamster ovary cell lines are used to support preclinical, investigational new drug-enabling toxicology research, and early Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls development; mini-pool materials to supply Phase 1 clinical trials; and a single-clone working cell bank for late-stage and pivotal clinical trials were successively adopted. Moreover, key process performance and product quality investigations using a series of orthogonal and state-of-the-art techniques were conducted to demonstrate the comparability of products manufactured using these three processes, and the results indicated that, despite observed variations in process performance, the primary and high-order structures, purity and impurity profiles, biological and immunological functions, and degradation behaviors under stress conditions were largely comparable. The study suggests that, in particular situations, this strategy can be adopted to accelerate the development of therapeutic biopharmaceuticals and their access to patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibody Affinity/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Circular Dichroism , Clone Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Isoelectric Point , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
4.
J Mol Biol ; 434(2): 167357, 2022 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574441

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus pandemic is exerting a tremendously detrimental impact on global health. The Spike proteins of coronaviruses, responsible for cell receptor binding and viral internalization, possess multiple and frequently conserved disulfide bonds raising the question about their role in these proteins. Here, we present a detailed structural and functional investigation of the disulfide bonds of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD). Molecular dynamics simulations of the RBD predict increased flexibility of the surface loops when the four disulfide bonds of the domain are reduced. This flexibility is particularly prominent for the disulfide bond-containing surface loop (residues 456-490) that participates in the formation of the interaction surface with the Spike cell receptor ACE2. In vitro, disulfide bond reducing agents affect the RBD secondary structure, lower its melting temperature from 52 °C to 36-39 °C and decrease its binding affinity to ACE2 by two orders of magnitude at 37 °C. Consistent with these in vitro findings, the reducing agents tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) and dithiothreitol (DTT) were able to inhibit viral replication at low millimolar levels in cell-based assays. Our research demonstrates the mechanism by which the disulfide bonds contribute to the molecular structure of the RBD of the Spike protein, allowing the RBD to execute its viral function.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Disulfides/chemistry , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Circular Dichroism/methods , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Thermodynamics , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication/physiology
5.
Virology ; 566: 42-55, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537114

ABSTRACT

All available SARS-CoV-2 spike protein crystal and cryo-EM structures have shown missing electron densities for cytosolic C-terminal regions (CTR). Generally, the missing electron densities point towards the intrinsically disordered nature of the protein region (IDPR). This curiosity has led us to investigate the cytosolic CTR of the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 in isolation. The spike CTR is supposed to be from 1235 to 1273 residues or 1242-1273 residues based on our used prediction. Therefore, we have demonstrated the structural conformation of cytosolic region and its dynamics through computer simulations up to microsecond timescale using OPLS and CHARMM forcefields. The simulations have revealed the unstructured conformation of cytosolic region. Further, we have validated our computational observations with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy-based experiments and found its signature spectra at 198 nm. We believe that our findings will surely help in understanding the structure-function relationship of the spike protein's cytosolic region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Circular Dichroism/methods , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Spectrum Analysis , Structure-Activity Relationship
6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(39): 9557-9563, 2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439482

ABSTRACT

Lipid-enveloped viruses, such as Ebola, influenza, or coronaviruses, are a major threat to human health. Ethanol is an efficient disinfectant that is widely used to inactivate these viruses and prevent their transmission. However, the interactions between ethanol and enveloped viruses leading to their inactivation are not yet fully understood. This study demonstrates the link between ethanol-induced viral inactivation and the nanostructural and chemical transformations of the model virus Phi6, an 85 nm diameter lipid-enveloped bacterial virus that is commonly used as surrogate for human pathogenic viruses. The virus morphology was investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering and dynamic light scattering and was related to its infectivity. The Phi6's surface chemistry was characterized by cryogenic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the modifications in protein structure were assessed by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. Ethanol-triggered structural modifications were found in the lipid envelope, detaching from the protein capsid and forming coexisting nanostructures.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophage phi 6/chemistry , Ethanol/pharmacology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Bacteriophage phi 6/drug effects , Bacteriophage phi 6/ultrastructure , Capsid Proteins/chemistry , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Circular Dichroism , Dynamic Light Scattering , Ethanol/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Photoelectron Spectroscopy , Scattering, Small Angle , X-Ray Diffraction
7.
Curr Med Chem ; 28(24): 5004-5015, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nucleopeptides are chimeric compounds of biomedical importance carrying DNA nucleobases anchored to peptide backbones with the ascertained capacity to bind nucleic acids. However, their ability to interact with proteins involved in pathologies of social relevance is a feature that still requires investigation. The worrying situation currently observed worldwide for the COVID-19 pandemic urgently requires the research on novel anti-SARSCoV- 2 molecular weapons, whose discovery can be aided by in silico predictive studies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to explore by spectroscopic methods novel features of a thymine-bearing nucleopeptide based on L-diaminopropanoic acid, including conformational aspects as well as its ability to bind proteins, starting from bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. Moreover, in consideration of the importance of targeting viral proteins in the current fight against COVID-19, we evaluated in silico the interaction of the nucleopeptide with some of the most relevant coronavirus protein targets. METHODS: First, we investigated via circular dichroism (CD) the conformational behaviour of this thymine-bearing nucleopeptide with temperature: we observed CD spectral changes, particularly passing from 15 to 35 °C. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis of the nucleopeptide was also conducted on nucleopeptide solid samples. Additionally, CD binding and preliminary in silico investigations were performed with BSA as a model protein. Moreover, molecular dockings were run using as targets some of the main SARS-CoV-2 proteins. RESULTS: The temperature-dependent CD behaviour reflected the three-dimensional rearrangement of the nucleopeptide at different temperatures, with higher exposure to the solvent of its chromophores at higher temperatures compared to a more stacked structure at a low temperature. SEM analysis of nucleopeptide samples in the solid-state showed a granular morphology, with a low roughness and some thread structures. Moreover, we found through spectroscopic studies that the modified peptide bound the albumin target by inducing significant changes to the protein secondary structure. CONCLUSION: CD and preliminary in silico studies suggested that the nucleopeptide bound the BSA protein with high affinity according to different binding modes, as testified by binding energy scores lower than -11 kcal/mol. Interestingly, a predictive study performed on 3CLpro and other SARS-CoV-2 protein targets suggested the potential ability of the nucleopeptide to bind with good affinity the main protease of the virus and other relevant targets, including the RNAdependent RNA polymerase, especially when complexed with RNA, the papain-like protease, and the coronavirus helicase at the nucleic acid binding site.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Circular Dichroism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Med Chem ; 64(19): 14887-14894, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428719

ABSTRACT

Antiviral treatments of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been extensively pursued to conquer the pandemic. To inhibit the viral entry to the host cell, we designed and obtained three peptide sequences via quartz crystal microbalance measurement screening, which showed high affinity at nanomole to the S1 subunit of the spike protein and wild-type SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Circular dichroism spectroscopy measurements revealed significant conformation changes of the S1 protein upon encounter with the three peptides. The peptides were able to effectively block the infection of a pseudovirus to 50% by inhibiting the host cell lines binding with the S1 protein, evidenced by the results from Western blotting and pseudovirus luciferase assay. Moreover, the combination of the three peptides could increase the inhibitory rate to 75%. In conclusion, the three chemically synthetic neutralizing peptides and their combinations hold promising potential as effective therapeutics in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Peptides/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Circular Dichroism , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Protein Subunits/chemistry , Protein Subunits/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects
9.
Mol Pharmacol ; 100(2): 155-169, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242189

ABSTRACT

The 14-3-3 proteins constitute a family of adaptor proteins with many binding partners and biological functions, and they are considered promising drug targets in cancer and neuropsychiatry. By screening 1280 small-molecule drugs using differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF), we found 15 compounds that decreased the thermal stability of 14-3-3ζ Among these compounds, ebselen was identified as a covalent, destabilizing ligand of 14-3-3 isoforms ζ, ε, γ, and η Ebselen bonding decreased 14-3-3ζ binding to its partner Ser19-phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase. Characterization of site-directed mutants at cysteine residues in 14-3-3ζ (C25, C94, and C189) by DSF and mass spectroscopy revealed covalent modification by ebselen of all cysteines through a selenylsulfide bond. C25 appeared to be the preferential site of ebselen interaction in vitro, whereas modification of C94 was the main determinant for protein destabilization. At therapeutically relevant concentrations, ebselen and ebselen oxide caused decreased 14-3-3 levels in SH-SY5Y cells, accompanied with an increased degradation, most probably by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome pathway. Moreover, ebselen-treated zebrafish displayed decreased brain 14-3-3 content, a freezing phenotype, and reduced mobility, resembling the effects of lithium, consistent with its proposed action as a safer lithium-mimetic drug. Ebselen has recently emerged as a promising drug candidate in several medical areas, such as cancer, neuropsychiatric disorders, and infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019. Its pleiotropic actions are attributed to antioxidant effects and formation of selenosulfides with critical cysteine residues in proteins. Our work indicates that a destabilization of 14-3-3 may affect the protein interaction networks of this protein family, contributing to the therapeutic potential of ebselen. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: There is currently great interest in the repurposing of established drugs for new indications and therapeutic targets. This study shows that ebselen, which is a promising drug candidate against cancer, bipolar disorder, and the viral infection coronavirus disease 2019, covalently bonds to cysteine residues in 14-3-3 adaptor proteins, triggering destabilization and increased degradation in cells and intact brain tissue when used in therapeutic concentrations, potentially explaining the behavioral, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic effects of this drug.


Subject(s)
14-3-3 Proteins/chemistry , 14-3-3 Proteins/metabolism , Cysteine/genetics , Isoindoles/pharmacology , Organoselenium Compounds/pharmacology , 14-3-3 Proteins/genetics , Animals , Binding Sites/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Cell Line , Circular Dichroism , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Molecular , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Conformation , Protein Stability/drug effects , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/metabolism , Zebrafish , Zebrafish Proteins/chemistry , Zebrafish Proteins/metabolism
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9136, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207152

ABSTRACT

Coiled-coil (CC) dimer-forming peptides are attractive designable modules for mediating protein association. Highly stable CCs are desired for biological activity regulation and assay. Here, we report the design and versatile applications of orthogonal CC dimer-forming peptides with a dissociation constant in the low nanomolar range. In vitro stability and specificity was confirmed in mammalian cells by enzyme reconstitution, transcriptional activation using a combination of DNA-binding and a transcriptional activation domain, and cellular-enzyme-activity regulation based on externally-added peptides. In addition to cellular regulation, coiled-coil-mediated reporter reconstitution was used for the detection of cell fusion mediated by the interaction between the spike protein of pandemic SARS-CoV2 and the ACE2 receptor. This assay can be used to investigate the mechanism of viral spike protein-mediated fusion or screening for viral inhibitors under biosafety level 1 conditions.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cell Fusion , Circular Dichroism , Giant Cells/virology , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Luciferases/genetics , Luciferases/metabolism , Membrane Fusion , Peptides/genetics , Protein Engineering/methods , Protein Multimerization , Protein Stability , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129734

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global health emergency with no effective medical treatment and with incipient vaccines. It is caused by a new positive-sense RNA virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). G-quadruplexes (G4s) are nucleic acid secondary structures involved in the control of a variety of biological processes including viral replication. Using several G4 prediction tools, we identified highly putative G4 sequences (PQSs) within the positive-sense (+gRNA) and negative-sense (-gRNA) RNA strands of SARS-CoV-2 conserved in related betacoronaviruses. By using multiple biophysical techniques, we confirmed the formation of two G4s in the +gRNA and provide the first evidence of G4 formation by two PQSs in the -gRNA of SARS-CoV-2. Finally, biophysical and molecular approaches were used to demonstrate for the first time that CNBP, the main human cellular protein bound to SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome, binds and promotes the unfolding of G4s formed by both strands of SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome. Our results suggest that G4s found in SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome and its negative-sense replicative intermediates, as well as the cellular proteins that interact with them, are relevant factors for viral genes expression and replication cycle, and may constitute interesting targets for antiviral drugs development.


Subject(s)
G-Quadruplexes , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Circular Dichroism , Computational Biology/methods , Databases, Genetic , Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay , Genome, Viral/physiology , Humans , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Virus Replication/physiology
12.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 197, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082259

ABSTRACT

In light of the recent accumulated knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 and its mode of human cells invasion, the binding of viral spike glycoprotein to human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor plays a central role in cell entry. We designed a series of peptides mimicking the N-terminal helix of hACE2 protein which contains most of the contacting residues at the binding site, exhibiting a high helical folding propensity in aqueous solution. Our best peptide-mimics are able to block SARS-CoV-2 human pulmonary cell infection with an inhibitory concentration (IC50) in the nanomolar range upon binding to the virus spike protein with high affinity. These first-in-class blocking peptide mimics represent powerful tools that might be used in prophylactic and therapeutic approaches to fight the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Peptides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Amino Acid Sequence , Cell Line , Circular Dichroism , Humans , Peptides/chemical synthesis , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Structure, Secondary , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
13.
Science ; 368(6498): 1426-1427, 2020 06 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617388
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL