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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 140, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reaching optimal vaccination rates is an essential public health strategy to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to simulate the optimal vaccination strategy to control the disease by developing an age-specific model based on the current transmission patterns of COVID-19 in Wuhan City, China. METHODS: We collected two indicators of COVID-19, including illness onset data and age of confirmed case in Wuhan City, from December 2, 2019, to March 16, 2020. The reported cases were divided into four age groups: group 1, ≤ 14 years old; group 2, 15 to 44 years old; group 3, 44 to 64 years old; and group 4, ≥ 65 years old. An age-specific susceptible-exposed-symptomatic-asymptomatic-recovered/removed model was developed to estimate the transmissibility and simulate the optimal vaccination strategy. The effective reproduction number (Reff) was used to estimate the transmission interaction in different age groups. RESULTS: A total of 47 722 new cases were reported in Wuhan City from December 2, 2019, to March 16, 2020. Before the travel ban of Wuhan City, the highest transmissibility was observed among age group 2 (Reff = 4.28), followed by group 2 to 3 (Reff = 2.61), and group 2 to 4 (Reff = 1.69). China should vaccinate at least 85% of the total population to interrupt transmission. The priority for controlling transmission should be to vaccinate 5% to 8% of individuals in age group 2 per day (ultimately vaccinated 90% of age group 2), followed by 10% of age group 3 per day (ultimately vaccinated 90% age group 3). However, the optimal vaccination strategy for reducing the disease severity identified individuals ≥ 65 years old as a priority group, followed by those 45-64 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 85% of the total population (nearly 1.2 billion people) should be vaccinated to build an immune barrier in China to safely consider removing border restrictions. Based on these results, we concluded that 90% of adults aged 15-64 years should first be vaccinated to prevent transmission in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , China , Cities , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Young Adult
2.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 17, 2022 01 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is one of the main concerns for the health of European citizens, and cities are currently striving to accomplish EU air pollution regulation. The 2020 COVID-19 lockdown measures can be seen as an unintended but effective experiment to assess the impact of traffic restriction policies on air pollution. Our objective was to estimate the impact of the lockdown measures on NO2 concentrations and health in the two largest Italian cities. METHODS: NO2 concentration datasets were built using data deriving from a 1-month citizen science monitoring campaign that took place in Milan and Rome just before the Italian lockdown period. Annual mean NO2 concentrations were estimated for a lockdown scenario (Scenario 1) and a scenario without lockdown (Scenario 2), by applying city-specific annual adjustment factors to the 1-month data. The latter were estimated deriving data from Air Quality Network stations and by applying a machine learning approach. NO2 spatial distribution was estimated at a neighbourhood scale by applying Land Use Random Forest models for the two scenarios. Finally, the impact of lockdown on health was estimated by subtracting attributable deaths for Scenario 1 and those for Scenario 2, both estimated by applying literature-based dose-response function on the counterfactual concentrations of 10 µg/m3. RESULTS: The Land Use Random Forest models were able to capture 41-42% of the total NO2 variability. Passing from Scenario 2 (annual NO2 without lockdown) to Scenario 1 (annual NO2 with lockdown), the population-weighted exposure to NO2 for Milan and Rome decreased by 15.1% and 15.3% on an annual basis. Considering the 10 µg/m3 counterfactual, prevented deaths were respectively 213 and 604. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the lockdown had a beneficial impact on air quality and human health. However, compliance with the current EU legal limit is not enough to avoid a high number of NO2 attributable deaths. This contribution reaffirms the potentiality of the citizen science approach and calls for more ambitious traffic calming policies and a re-evaluation of the legal annual limit value for NO2 for the protection of human health.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Machine Learning , Nitrogen Dioxide , Particulate Matter/analysis , Rome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 645798, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608747

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Close contacts have become a potential threat to the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The purpose of this study was to understand the epidemiological characteristics of close contacts of confirmed or suspected cases of COVID-19 in the surrounding cities of Chengdu, China, so as to provide a basis for the management strategy of close contacts. Methods: Close contacts were determined through epidemiological investigation of indicated cases, and relevant information was entered in the "Close Contact Information Management System." Retrospective data of close contacts from January 22 to May 1, 2020 were collected and organized. Meanwhile, the contact mode, isolation mode, and medical outcome of close contacts were descriptively analyzed. Results: A total of 986 close contacts were effectively traced, with an average age of (36.69 ± 16.86) years old, who were mainly distributed in cities of eastern Chengdu. The frequency of contact was mainly occasional contact, 80.42% of them were relatives and public transportation personnel. Besides, the time of tracking close contacts and feedback was (10.64 ± 5.52) and (7.19 ± 6.11) days, respectively. A total of seven close contacts were converted to confirmed cases. Conclusions: Close contacts of COVID-19 have a risk of invisible infection. Early control of close contacts may be helpful to control the epidemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cities , Contact Tracing , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 49, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595788

ABSTRACT

Originating from China, COVID-19 became the first-ever coronavirus pandemic, wreaking havoc in 218 nations. The lack of a potential treatment exacerbated by the inability of the healthcare infrastructure to contain the viral trajectory led to a worldwide lockdown. The anthropogenic halt presented an unprecedented background to quantify the effect of the anthroposphere on environmental pollution. Consequently, we analyzed the variations in the air (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2) and water pollutants (BOD, COD, DO, coliform) using real-time monitoring data in the majorly hit Indian metropolitan states during the lockdown in contrast to 2019 levels. The overall AQI (air quality index) de-escalated by -31.35%, -34.35%, -32.63%, -29.25% in Delhi, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Karnataka, respectively, from the 2019 levels. The daily concentrations of NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 plunged tremendously. The exact pre-disposing factors responsible for higher COVID-19 transmission in some geographical centers remain elusive. Investigations have corroborated putative links between air pollutants and COVID-19 mortalities. Therefore, we further mapped PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and SO2 to co-relate with COVID-19 infectivity and mortality across the study states. Significant (P < 0.001) positive correlation between COVID-19 transmission was established for all pollutants with maximum co-relation with AQI followed by NO2. River Ganga water in Uttarakhand was deemed "fit for drinking" for the first time in two decades. An aggregate of -71.94, -61.32, and -77.94 decrease in BOD, COD, total coliform levels, and an 11.75 rise in the average DO levels from 2019 data. This study will better assist the future framework of health and environment restoration policies.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Environmental Pollution , Humans , India , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(24)2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592974

ABSTRACT

The encroachment of wild boars into urban areas is a growing problem. The occurrence of wild boars in cities leads to conflict situations. Socio-spatial conflicts can escalate to a varied degree. Assessments of these conflicts can be performed by analyzing spatial data concerning the affected locations and wild boar behaviors. The collection of spatial data is a laborious and costly process that requires access to urban surveillance systems, in addition to regular analyses of intervention reports. A supporting method for assessing the risk of wild boar encroachment and socio-spatial conflict in cities was proposed in the present study. The developed approach relies on big data, namely, multimedia and descriptive data that are on social media. The proposed method was tested in the city of Olsztyn in Poland. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of data crowdsourced from a popular social networking site for determining the location and severity of conflicts. A photointerpretation method and the kernel density estimation (KDE) tool implemented in ArcGIS Desktop 10.7.1 software were applied in the study. The proposed approach fills a gap in the application of crowdsourcing data to identify types of socio-spatial conflicts involving wild boars in urban areas. Validation of the results with reports of calls to intervention services showed the high coverage of this approach and thus the usefulness of crowdsourcing data.


Subject(s)
Social Media , Sus scrofa , Animals , Cities , Humans , Poland , Spatial Analysis , Swine
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24491, 2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591547

ABSTRACT

There is an ongoing need for scientific analysis to help governments and public health authorities make decisions regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. This article presents a methodology based on data mining that can offer support for coping with epidemic diseases. The methodological approach was applied in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Manaus, the cities in Brazil with the most COVID-19 deaths until the first half of 2021. We aimed to predict the evolution of COVID-19 in metropolises and identify air quality and meteorological variables correlated with confirmed cases and deaths. The statistical analyses indicated the most important explanatory environmental variables, while the cluster analyses showed the potential best input variables for the forecasting models. The forecast models were built by two different algorithms and their results have been compared. The relationship between epidemiological and environmental variables was particular to each of the three cities studied. Low solar radiation periods predicted in Manaus can guide managers to likely increase deaths due to COVID-19. In São Paulo, an increase in the mortality rate can be indicated by drought periods. The developed models can predict new cases and deaths by COVID-19 in studied cities. Furthermore, the methodological approach can be applied in other cities and for other epidemic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Data Mining/methods , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cities/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Morbidity , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580801

ABSTRACT

Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMP) are increasingly popular planning tools in cities with environmental issues where numerous actions are usually proposed to reduce pollution from urban transport. However, the diagnosis and implementation of these processes requires broad consensus from all stakeholders and the ability to fit them into urban planning in such a way that it allows the proposals to become realistic actions. In this study, a review of the sustainable urban mobility plans of 47 cities in Spain during the last 15 years has been carried out, analyzing both the diagnosis and proposal of solutions and their subsequent implementation. From the results obtained, a new framework based on a structured hybrid methodology is proposed to aid decision-making for the evaluation of alternatives in the implementation of proposals in SUMP. This hybrid methodology considers experts' and stakeholders' opinion and applies two different multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods in different phases to present two rankings of best alternatives. From that experience, an analysis based on the MCDM methods called 'Sequential Interactive Modelling for Urban Systems (SIMUS)' and weighted sum method (WSM) was applied to a case study of the city of Cartagena, a southeastern middle-size city in Spain. This analytic proposal has been transferred to the practical field in the SUMP of Cartagena, the first instrument of this nature developed after COVID-19 in Spain for a relevant city. The results show how this framework, based on a hybrid methodology, allows the development of complex decision mapping processes using these instruments without obviating the need to generate planning tools that can be transferred from the theoretical framework of urban reality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cities , City Planning , Environmental Pollution , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 811: 152332, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586550

ABSTRACT

This paper provides new evidence on the role of city planning, urban form, and built environment characteristics in health and well-being during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Based on survey and geographic information systems (GIS) data from Oslo and Viken in Norway, the paper investigates changes in health and well-being due to COVID-19 and how the compact city and its characteristics relate to these changes. Findings indicate that self-reported measures of health and well-being worsened due to COVID-19. The most substantial changes were reported for life satisfaction, anxiety, and satisfaction with leisure, personal relationships, and vacations. General health, happiness, and satisfaction with income also declined during COVID-19 in comparison with pre-COVID-19 times. Overall, residents of compact neighborhoods reported lower well-being during COVID-19 compared to residents of lower-density neighborhoods. Important compact city characteristics - higher neighborhood density, reliance on public transport, smaller dwellings, and less green space - were negatively associated with well-being and health outcomes during COVID-19. In contrast, another compact city attribute, the presence of numerous local facilities, was positively linked to well-being and health during COVID-19. Based on these findings, the paper presents possible implications for sustainable urban planning and compact cities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , City Planning , Cities , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247794, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identified in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China, the outbreak of COVID-19 spread throughout the world and its impacts affect different populations differently, where countries with high levels of social and economic inequality such as Brazil gain prominence, for understanding of the vulnerability factors associated with the disease. Given this scenario, in the absence of a vaccine or safe and effective antiviral treatment for COVID-19, nonpharmacological measures are essential for prevention and control of the disease. However, many of these measures are not feasible for millions of individuals who live in territories with increased social vulnerability. The study aims to analyze the spatial distribution of COVID-19 incidence in Brazil's municipalities (counties) and investigate its association with sociodemographic determinants to better understand the social context and the epidemic's spread in the country. METHODS: This is an analytical ecological study using data from various sources. The study period was February 25 to September 26, 2020. Data analysis used global regression models: ordinary least squares (OLS), spatial autoregressive model (SAR), and conditional autoregressive model (CAR) and the local regression model called multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR). FINDINGS: The higher the GINI index, the higher the incidence of the disease at the municipal level. Likewise, the higher the nurse ratio per 1,000 inhabitants in the municipalities, the higher the COVID-19 incidence. Meanwhile, the proportional mortality ratio was inversely associated with incidence of the disease. DISCUSSION: Social inequality increased the risk of COVID-19 in the municipalities. Better social development of the municipalities was associated with lower risk of the disease. Greater access to health services improved the diagnosis and notification of the disease and was associated with more cases in the municipalities. Despite universal susceptibility to COVID-19, populations with increased social vulnerability were more exposed to risk of the illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Cities/epidemiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Spatial Analysis , Spatial Regression
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572473

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, over half of the global population is living in urban areas. The metropolitan areas are highly populated and environmentally non-green regions on the planet. In green space regions, plants, grass, and green vegetation prevent soil erosion, absorb air pollutants, provide fresh and clean air, and minimize the burden of diseases. Presently, the entire world is facing a turmoil situation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigates the effect of the green space environment on air pollutants particulate matter PM2.5, PM10, carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), incidence and mortality of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in environmentally highly green and less-green countries. We randomly selected 17 countries based on the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) data. The 60% of the EPI score is based on seven categories: "biodiversity and habitat, ecosystem, fisheries, climate change, pollution emissions, agriculture, and water resources". However, 40% of the score is based on four categories: "air quality, sanitation and drinking water, heavy metals, and waste management". The air pollutants and SARS-CoV-2 cases and deaths were recorded from 25 January 2020, to 11 July 2021. The air pollutants "PM2.5, PM10, CO, and O3" were recorded from the metrological websites, Air Quality Index-AQI, 2021. The COVID-19 daily cases and deaths were obtained from the World Health Organization. The result reveals that air pollutants mean values for PM2.5 110.73 ± 1.09 vs. 31.35 ± 0.29; PM10 80.43 ± 1.11 vs. 17.78 ± 0.15; CO 7.92 ± 0.14 vs. 2.35 ± 0.03 were significantly decreased (p < 0.0001) in environmentally highly green space countries compared to less-green countries. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 cases 15,713.61 ± 702.42 vs. 3445.59 ± 108.09; and deaths 297.56 ± 11.27 vs. 72.54 ± 2.61 were also significantly decreased in highly green countries compared to less-green countries. The green environment positively impacts human wellbeing. The policymakers must implement policies to keep the living areas, surroundings, towns, and cities clean and green to minimize air pollution and combat the present pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Parks, Recreational , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(7): 923-946, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559452

ABSTRACT

Globally, humanity is facing its most significant challenge in 100 years due to the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which is responsible for COVID-19. Under the enormous pressure created by the pandemic, scientists are studying virus transmission mechanisms in order to develop effective mitigation strategies. However, no established methods have been developed to control the spread of this deadly virus. In addition, the ease in lockdown has escalated air pollution which may affect SARS-CoV-2 transmission through attachment to particulates. The present review summarizes the role of graphene nanomaterials, which show antimicrobial behavior and have antiviral efficacy, in reducing the spread of COVID-19. Graphene and its derivatives have excellent antimicrobial efficacy, providing both physical and chemical mechanisms of damage. Coupled with their lightness, optimal properties, and ease of functionalization, they are optimal nanomaterials for coating onto fabrics such as personal protection equipment, face masks and gloves to control the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 effectively. Biosensors using graphene can effectively detect the virus with high accuracy and sensitivity, providing rapid quantification. It is envisioned that the present work will boost the development of graphene-based highly sensitive, accurate and cost-effective diagnostic tools for efficiently monitoring and controlling the spread of COVID-19 and other air-borne viruses.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Graphite , Air Pollutants/analysis , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Waste Manag ; 138: 189-198, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559737

ABSTRACT

The recent restrictions on mobility and economic activities imposed by governments due to the COVID-19 pandemic have significantly affected waste production and recycling patterns in cities worldwide. This effect differed both between cities and within cities as the measures of confinement adopted by governments had diverse impacts in different areas of cities, depending on their characteristics (e.g., touristic, or residential). In the present work, mixed waste collection areas were created, based on waste collection points, that define spatial units in which contextual data such as tourism and residential characteristics were aggregated. The difference in mixed waste collected compared with previous years was analyzed along with the impacts on recycling due to the modification in operations regarding waste collection during the lockdown. The results showed that despite the suspension of the door-to-door recycling system during the lockdown, this did not translate into an increase in the production of mixed waste, and the recycling levels of previous years have not been reached after the lockdown, indicating a possible change in recycling habits in Lisbon. The touristic and non-residential mixed waste circuits presented significantly reduced mixed waste production compared to the non-pandemic context. Also, tourist, mobility, and economic activity were measured to understand which factors contributed to waste production changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. While little evidence of a relationship with these exogenous variables was found at the citywide level, evidence was found at the waste collection circuit level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Recycling , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(11): e716-e722, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of changes in mobility at the subcity level on subsequent COVID-19 incidence, which is particularly relevant in Latin America, where substantial barriers prevent COVID-19 vaccine access and non-pharmaceutical interventions are essential to mitigation efforts. We aimed to examine the longitudinal associations between population mobility and COVID-19 incidence at the subcity level across a large number of Latin American cities. METHODS: In this longitudinal ecological study, we compiled aggregated mobile phone location data, daily confirmed COVID-19 cases, and features of urban and social environments to analyse population mobility and COVID-19 incidence at the subcity level among cities with more than 100 000 inhabitants in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, and Mexico, from March 2 to Aug 29, 2020. Spatially aggregated mobile phone data were provided by the UN Development Programme in Latin America and the Caribbean and Grandata; confirmed COVID-19 cases were from national government reports and population and socioeconomic factors were from the latest national census in each country. We used mixed-effects negative binomial regression for a time-series analysis, to examine longitudinal associations between weekly mobility changes from baseline (prepandemic week of March 2-9, 2020) and subsequent COVID-19 incidence (lagged by 1-6 weeks) at the subcity level, adjusting for urban environmental and socioeconomic factors (time-invariant educational attainment, residential overcrowding, population density [all at the subcity level], and country). FINDINGS: We included 1031 subcity areas, representing 314 Latin American cities, in Argentina (107 subcity areas), Brazil (416), Colombia (82), Guatemala (20), and Mexico (406). In the main adjusted model, we observed an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 2·35 (95% CI 2·12-2·60) for COVID-19 incidence per log unit increase in the mobility ratio (vs baseline) during the previous week. Thus, 10% lower weekly mobility was associated with 8·6% (95% CI 7·6-9·6) lower incidence of COVID-19 in the following week. This association gradually weakened as the lag between mobility and COVID-19 incidence increased and was not different from null at a 6-week lag. INTERPRETATION: Reduced population movement within a subcity area is associated with a subsequent decrease in COVID-19 incidence among residents of that subcity area. Policies that reduce population mobility at the subcity level might be an effective COVID-19 mitigation strategy, although they should be combined with strategies that mitigate any adverse social and economic consequences of reduced mobility for the most vulnerable groups. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust. TRANSLATION: For the Spanish translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Population Dynamics , Poverty , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell Phone , Cities , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Incidence , Latin America/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(5): e00268520, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1542217

ABSTRACT

O objetivo foi analisar tendências e desigualdades na prevalência de insegurança alimentar na pandemia de COVID-19, de acordo com fatores sociodemográficos e com medidas de distanciamento social. Dados de quatro inquéritos epidemiológicos seriados sobre a COVID-19 desenvolvidos entre maio e junho de 2020, com adultos e idosos residentes na cidade de Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Insegurança alimentar foi avaliada por meio da versão curta da Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar (EBIA), com o período recordatório adaptado ao início das medidas de distanciamento social no município. As características sociodemográficas e a adoção de medidas de distanciamento social foram analisadas, e suas associações com a insegurança alimentar foram avaliadas utilizando-se o teste de qui-quadrado. A tendência temporal da insegurança alimentar de acordo com tais características foi avaliada usando-se regressão linear. As desigualdades na insegurança alimentar foram avaliadas utilizando-se o índice angular de desigualdade e o índice de concentração. Dos 1.550 indivíduos estudados, 29,4% (IC95%: 25,0; 34,4) apresentaram insegurança alimentar. A análise de desigualdade mostrou maior concentração da insegurança alimentar entre os mais jovens, os menos escolarizados e os que residiam em domicílios com cinco moradores ou mais. Ao longo dos quatro inquéritos, a prevalência de insegurança alimentar reduziu mais acentuadamente entre os mais jovens, naqueles que residiam em domicílios com até dois moradores e com dois ou mais trabalhadores. Evidenciou-se forte associação da insegurança alimentar com os aspectos sociodemográficos dos entrevistados, o que pode indicar o potencial impacto econômico da pandemia na situação alimentar dos domicílios.


The objective was to analyze trends and inequalities in the prevalence of food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic according to sociodemographic factors and social distancing measures. We analyzed data from four serial epidemiological surveys on COVID-19 in May and June 2020, with adults and elderly living in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Food insecurity was assessed with the short version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (EBIA), with the recall period adapted to the beginning of the social distancing period in the city. Sociodemographic characteristics and the adoption of social distancing measures were analyzed, and their associations with food insecurity were assessed with chi-square test. The temporal trend in food insecurity according to these characteristics was assessed via linear regression. Inequalities in food insecurity were assessed with the angular inequality index and concentration index. Of the 1,550 individuals studied, 29.4% (95%CI: 25.0; 34.4) presented food insecurity. Analysis of inequality showed higher concentration of food insecurity among the younger and less educated and those living with five or more residents in the same household. Over the course of the four surveys, prevalence of food insecurity decreased most sharply among the younger, those living in households with up to two residents, and those with two or more workers. There was a strong association between food insecurity and sociodemographic factors, which may indicate the pandemic´s potential economic impact on households' food situation.


El objetivo fue analizar tendencias y desigualdades en la prevalencia de inseguridad alimentaria durante la pandemia de COVID-19, de acuerdo con factores sociodemográficos, así como con las medidas de distanciamiento social. Se analizaron datos de cuatro encuestas epidemiológicas seriadas sobre la COVID-19, desarrolladas entre mayo y junio de 2020, con adultos y ancianos residentes en la ciudad de Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. La inseguridad alimentaria se evaluó a través de la versión corta de la Escala Brasileña de Inseguridad Alimentaria (EBIA), con un período recordatorio, adaptado al inicio de las medidas de distanciamiento social en el municipio. Fueron analizadas características sociodemográficas y la adopción de medidas de distanciamiento social, así como sus asociaciones con la inseguridad alimentaria, utilizándose un test de chi-cuadrado. Se evaluó la tendencia temporal de la inseguridad alimentaria de acuerdo con tales características, utilizándose la regresión lineal. Se evaluaron desigualdades en la inseguridad alimentaria, mediante el índice angular de desigualdad y el índice de concentración. De los 1.550 individuos estudiados, un 29,4% (IC95%: 25,0; 34,4) presentaron inseguridad alimentaria. El análisis de desigualdad mostró una mayor concentración de inseguridad alimentaria entre los más jóvenes, los menos escolarizados, y quienes residían en domicilios con cinco residentes o más. A lo largo de las cuatro encuestas, la prevalencia de inseguridad alimentaria se redujo más acentuadamente entre los más jóvenes, en quienes residían en domicilios con hasta dos residentes y con dos o más trabajadores. Se evidenció una fuerte asociación de la inseguridad alimentaria con aspectos sociodemográficos de los entrevistados, lo que puede indicar el potencial impacto económico de la pandemia en la situación alimentaria de los domicilios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cities , Food Supply , SARS-CoV-2 , Food Insecurity
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20121, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532138

ABSTRACT

The Brazilian strategy to overcome the spread of COVID-19 has been particularly criticized due to the lack of a national coordinating effort and an appropriate testing program. Here, a successful approach to control the spread of COVID-19 transmission is described by the engagement of public (university and governance) and private sectors (hospitals and oil companies) in Macaé, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a city known as the National Oil Capital. In 2020 between the 17th and 38th epidemiological week, over two percent of the 206,728 citizens were subjected to symptom analysis and RT-qPCR testing by the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, with positive individuals being notified up to 48 h after swab collection. Geocodification and spatial cluster analysis were used to limit COVID-19 spreading in Macaé. Within the first semester after the outbreak of COVID-19 in Brazil, Macaé recorded 1.8% of fatalities associated with COVID-19 up to the 38th epidemiological week, which was at least five times lower than the state capital (10.6%). Overall, considering the successful experience of this joint effort of private and public engagement in Macaé, our data suggest that the development of a similar strategy countrywise could have contributed to a better control of the COVID-19 spread in Brazil. Quarantine decree by the local administration, comprehensive molecular testing coupled to scientific analysis of COVID-19 spreading, prevented the catastrophic consequences of the pandemic as seen in other populous cities within the state of Rio de Janeiro and elsewhere in Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cities/epidemiology , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Young Adult
16.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 120, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a serious public health concern worldwide. Certain regions of the globe were severely affected in terms of prevalence and mortality than other. Although the cause for this pattern is not clearly understood, lessons learned from previous epidemics and emerging evidences suggest the major role of ecological factors like ambient air pollutants (AAP) and meteorological parameters in increased COVID-19 incidence. The present study aimed to understand the impact of these factors on SARS-CoV-2 transmission and their associated mortality in major cities of India. METHODS: This study used secondary AAP, meteorological and COVID-19 data from official websites for the period January-November 2020, which were divided into Pre-lockdown (January-March 2020), Phase I (April to June 2020) and Phase II (July to November 2020) in India. After comprehensive screening, five major cities that includes 48 CPCB monitoring stations collecting daily data of ambient temperature, particulate matter PM2.5 and 10 were analysed. Spearman and Kendall's rank correlation test was performed to understand the association between SARS-CoV-2 transmission and AAP and, meteorological variables. Similarly, case fatality rate (CFR) was determined to compute the correlation between AAP and COVID-19 related morality. RESULTS: The level of air pollutants in major cities were significantly reduced during Phase I compared to Pre-lock down and increased upon Phase II in all the cities. During the Phase II in Delhi, the strong significant positive correlation was observed between the AAP and SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, in Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Mumbai AAP levels were moderate and no correlation was noticed. The relation between AT and SARS-CoV-2 transmission was inconclusive as both positive and negative correlation observed. In addition, Delhi and Kolkata showed a positive association between long-term exposure to the AAP and COVID-19 CFR. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the hypothesis that the particulate matter upon exceeding the satisfactory level serves as an important cofactor in increasing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and related mortality. These findings would help public health experts to understand the SARS-CoV-2 transmission against ecological variables in India and provides supporting evidence to healthcare policymakers and government agencies for formulating strategies to combat the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Meteorological Concepts , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Cities , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , India/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis
17.
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 759444, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518579

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has alienated people from urban green spaces (UGSs) that have various health outcomes for humans. However, little is known about the influential factors of perceived health benefits and use behaviors in UGSs during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to explore the key factors that influence perceived health benefits and use behaviors in UGSs and to assess the mediating role of place attachment in relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chinese megacities. Methods: We conducted an online questionnaire survey from December 2020 to March 2021 in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, China. Six multiple regression models were constructed to investigate the main factors by which UGSs influence citizens' perceived health benefits and use behaviors. Four mediation models were established using the structural equation modeling (SEM) method to explore the mediating effect of place attachment. Results: A total of 628 questionnaires were included in the analysis. The results revealed that some UGS components (green space access, maintenance, and soundscape) significantly affected perceived health benefits for citizens (physical, mental, and social health) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conversely, use behaviors (frequency of visits, duration of visits, and activity intensity) were mainly affected by the sociodemographic context but less affected by UGS components. In addition, UGS components were found to significantly predict place attachment, which in turn influenced the perceived health benefits, frequency, and duration of visits. Conclusions: This study distinguished the key factors that affect perceived health benefits and use behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic: green space access, maintenance, soundscape, and sociodemographic characteristics. Place attachment still needs to be considered when discussing how to encourage citizens to visit UGSs during the pandemic. These findings provide implications for policymakers and landscape planners regarding design and management measures for UGSs that are conducive to coping with pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Cities , Health Status , Humans , Parks, Recreational , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22120, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510614

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the drastic measures taken to mitigate its spread through imposed social distancing, have brought forward the need to better understand the underlying factors controlling spatial distribution of human activities promoting disease transmission. Focusing on results from 17,250 epidemiological investigations performed during early stages of the pandemic outbreak in Israel, we show that the distribution of carriers of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19, is spatially correlated with two satellite-derived surface metrics: night light intensity and landscape patchiness, the latter being a measure to the urban landscape's scale-dependent spatial heterogeneity. We find that exposure to SARS-CoV-2 carriers was significantly more likely to occur in "patchy" parts of the city, where the urban landscape is characterized by high levels of spatial heterogeneity at relatively small, tens of meters scales. We suggest that this spatial association reflects a scale-dependent constraint imposed by the city's morphology on the cumulative behavior of the people inhabiting it. The presented results shed light on the complex interrelationships between humans and the urban landscape in which they live and interact, and open new avenues for implementation of multi-satellite data in large scale modeling of phenomena centered in urban environments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Human Activities , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Satellite Imagery , Urban Population
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