Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.086
Filter
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25645, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190994

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), namely 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has rapidly spread from Wuhan city to other cities across China. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of 74 hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Clinical data of 74 COVID-19 patients were collected to analyze the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data. Thirty-two patients were followed up and tested for the presence of the viral nucleic acid and by pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan at 7 and 14 days after they were discharged.Among all COVID-19 patients, the median incubation period for patients and the median period from symptom onset to admission was all 6 days; the median length of hospitalization was 13 days. Fever symptoms were presented in 83.78% of the patients, and the second most common symptom was cough (74.32%), followed by fatigue and expectoration (27.03%). Inflammatory indicators, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients were significantly higher than that of the non-ICU patients (P < .05). However, 50.00% of the ICU patients had their the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells (CD4/CD8) ratio lower than 1.1, whose proportion is much higher than that in non-ICU patients (P < .01).Compared with patients in Wuhan, COVID-19 patients in Anhui Province seemed to have milder symptoms of infection, suggesting that there may be some regional differences in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between different cities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cough/blood , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Geography , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20470, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151087

ABSTRACT

The urban environment influences human health, safety and wellbeing. Cities in Africa are growing faster than other regions but have limited data to guide urban planning and policies. Our aim was to use smart sensing and analytics to characterise the spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of features of the urban environment relevant for health, liveability, safety and sustainability. We collected a novel dataset of 2.1 million time-lapsed day and night images at 145 representative locations throughout the Metropolis of Accra, Ghana. We manually labelled a subset of 1,250 images for 20 contextually relevant objects and used transfer learning with data augmentation to retrain a convolutional neural network to detect them in the remaining images. We identified 23.5 million instances of these objects including 9.66 million instances of persons (41% of all objects), followed by cars (4.19 million, 18%), umbrellas (3.00 million, 13%), and informally operated minibuses known as tro tros (2.94 million, 13%). People, large vehicles and market-related objects were most common in the commercial core and densely populated informal neighbourhoods, while refuse and animals were most observed in the peripheries. The daily variability of objects was smallest in densely populated settlements and largest in the commercial centre. Our novel data and methodology shows that smart sensing and analytics can inform planning and policy decisions for making cities more liveable, equitable, sustainable and healthy.


Subject(s)
Deep Learning , Animals , Humans , Automobiles , Cities , City Planning , Ghana
3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 114, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant is highly transmissible with potential immune escape. Hence, control measures are continuously being optimized to guard against large-scale coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks. This study aimed to explore the relationship between the intensity of control measures in response to different SARS-CoV-2 variants and the degree of outbreak control at city level. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 49 cities with COVID-19 outbreaks between January 2020 and June 2022. Epidemiological data on COVID-19 were extracted from the National Health Commission, People's Republic of China, and the population flow data were sourced from the Baidu migration data provided by the Baidu platform. Outbreak control was quantified by calculating the degree of infection growth and the time-varying reproduction number ([Formula: see text]). The intensity of the outbreak response was quantified by calculating the reduction in population mobility during the outbreak period. Correlation and regression analyses of the intensity of the control measures and the degree of outbreak control for the Omicron variant and non-Omicron mutants were conducted, respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 65 outbreaks occurred in 49 cities in China from January 2020 to June 2022. Of them, 66.2% were Omicron outbreaks and 33.8% were non-Omicron outbreaks. The intensity of the control measures was positively correlated with the degree of outbreak control (r = 0.351, P = 0.03). The degree of reduction in population mobility was negatively correlated with the Rt value (r = - 0.612, P < 0.01). Therefore, under the same control measure intensity, the number of new daily Omicron infections was 6.04 times higher than those attributed to non-Omicron variants, and the Rt value of Omicron outbreaks was 2.6 times higher than that of non-Omicron variants. In addition, the duration of non-Omicron variant outbreaks was shorter than that of the outbreaks caused by the Omicron variant (23.0 ± 10.7, 32.9 ± 16.3, t = 2.243, P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Greater intensity of control measures was associated with more effective outbreak control. Thus, in response to the Omicron variant, the management to restrict population movement should be used to control its spread quickly, especially in the case of community transmission occurs widely. Faster than is needed for non-Omicron variants, and decisive control measures should be imposed and dynamically adjusted in accordance with the evolving epidemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Cities/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
4.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 4307708, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138230

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 virus continues to generate waves of infections around the world. With major areas in developing countries still lagging behind in vaccination campaigns, the risk of new variants that can cause re-infections worldwide makes the monitoring and forecasting of the evolution of the virus a high priority. Having accurate models able to forecast the incidence of the spread of the virus provides help to policymakers and health professionals in managing the scarce resources in an optimal way. In this paper, a new machine learning model is proposed to forecast the spread of the virus one-week ahead in a geographic area which combines mobility and COVID-19 incidence data. The area is divided into zones or districts according to the location of the COVID-19 measuring points. A traffic-driven mobility estimate among adjacent districts is proposed to capture the spatial spread of the virus. Traffic-driven mobility in adjacent districts will be used together with COVID-19 incidence data to feed a new deep learning LSTM-based model which will extract patterns from mobility-modulated COVID-19 incidence spatiotemporal data in order to optimize one-week ahead estimations. The model is trained and validated with open data available for the city of Madrid (Spain) for 3 different validation scenarios. A baseline model based on previous literature able to extract temporal patterns in COVID-19 incidence time series is also trained with the same dataset. The results show that the proposed model, based on the combination of traffic and COVID-19 incidence data, is able to outperform the baseline model in all the validation scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Machine Learning , Forecasting , Cities
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142971

ABSTRACT

Many studies have investigated the state of the health of healthcare workers during the acute period of the pandemic. Yet, few studies have assessed the health of such professionals after the pandemic and in a less dramatic period. This study involved a particular sample represented by residents in anaesthesia-resuscitation and psychiatry at a university in northern Italy particularly affected by the pandemic. The objectives were to investigate some indicators of health and well-being and compare the two groups of trainees. Using Google Forms, the following tests were proposed: the General Health Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Subjective Happiness Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Brief Resilience Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, as well as an ad hoc questionnaire. A qualifying element of the work was the discussion of the results with the trainees. Various strengths have emerged, such as high values of resilience and job satisfaction; a positive assessment of the support received from the work team; an articulate use of coping strategies; and good levels of happiness and satisfaction with life, in both specialities. However, a widespread anxiety also emerged, which appears to be more attributable to concerns about professional evaluation, rather than the pandemic itself. In summary, the trainees seem to have found a fair amount of personal balance, whereas the relationship with the patient seems to be more compromised. In the comparison between specialities, the only significant differences are the levels of depersonalisation and resilience, both of which are higher in anaesthetists.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Personnel , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1605177, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142395

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Waves of epidemics associated with Omicron variant of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in major cities in China this year have been controlled. It is of great importance to study the transmission characteristics of these cases to support further interventions. Methods: We simulate the transmission trajectory and analyze the intervention influences of waves associated with Omicron variant in major cities in China using the Suspected-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) model. In addition, we propose a model using a function between the maximum daily infections and the duration of the epidemic, calibrated with data from Chinese cities. Results: An infection period of 5 days and basic reproduction number R0 between 2 and 8.72 are most appropriate for most cases in China. Control measures show a significant impact on reducing R0, and the earlier control measures are implemented, the shorter the epidemic will last. Our proposed model performs well in predicting the duration of the epidemic with an average error of 2.49 days. Conclusion: Our results show great potential in epidemic model simulation and predicting the end date of the Omicron epidemic effectively and efficiently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1016801, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142350

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has brought about great impact on the global economy. Various countries have adopted different levels of spatial isolation measures to curb the spread of the epidemic. These measures not only limit the spatial flow of people and property, but also cause global anxiety and public mental health problems. Corresponding to this process, cultural demands are growing stronger and the humanistic shift in today's urban economic development also puts forward higher requirements for local culture. Historic districts are an important symbolic historical and cultural landscape of a city, and many cities regard them as important starting points for the shaping of urban characteristics and competitiveness. Taking Qingming Bridge Historical and Cultural Block in Wuxi City as an example, combined with the public's mental health needs in the context of COVID-19 and the current background of the return of humanism in urban development, and construct a more sustainable framework for the renewal and development of urban historical blocks, focusing on the integration and development of the cultural landscape and tourism in the historical block. A comprehensive analysis shows that the development of Qingming Bridge Historical and Cultural Block must be based on the comprehensive investment of "four types of resources," such as culture, land, capital, and labor, and must rely on the cooperation of the "two sectors" of culture and tourism. By earnestly respecting the above, as well as the "triple bottom line" of regional ecology, economy, and society, sustainable development can be achieved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tourism , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , Economic Development
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 979808, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142331

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has affected China's financial markets; accordingly, we investigate the effect of COVID-19 on the risk spillover between fintech and traditional financial industries. Using data from April 25, 2012 to April 22, 2022, which we divide into two parts (before and during the COVID-19 periods), we model the dynamic risk spillover relationship following the DCC-GARCH-BEKK and MMV-MFDFA methods. The results show that: (1) The dynamic relationship between fintech and traditional finance is almost positive most of the time, and the dynamic correlations between fintech and realty (real estate development and operation) are the largest. The dynamic linkage between fintech and traditional finance declines after the COVID-19 outbreak. (2) There exists a risk spillover from fintech to every type of bank before and during the COVID-19 periods. Notably, the risk spillover effect of fintech to large state-owned banks and city commercial banks is the largest separately before and during the COVID-19 periods. Meanwhile, there exist a two-way risk spillover between fintech and almost all other traditional financial industries before and during the COVID-19 periods. (3) Owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, the risk spillover relationship, which is in pairs and in the system become more complex. (4) Regarding the whole system, the correlation in the system is anti-persistent most of the time. Moreover, there are large fluctuations and more complex characteristics during the COVID-19 outbreak. However, the whole system was smooth most of the time before the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , Humans , Pandemics
9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e30406, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on how SARS-CoV-2 enters and spreads in a population are essential for guiding public policies. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to understand the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in small Brazilian towns during the early phase of the epidemic and to identify core groups that can serve as the initial source of infection as well as factors associated with a higher risk of COVID-19. METHODS: Two population-based seroprevalence studies, one household survey, and a case-control study were conducted in two small towns in southeastern Brazil between May and June 2020. In the population-based studies, 400 people were evaluated in each town; there were 40 homes in the household survey, and 95 cases and 393 controls in the case-control study. SARS-CoV-2 serology testing was performed on participants, and a questionnaire was applied. Prevalence, household secondary infection rate, and factors associated with infection were assessed. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. Logistics worker was defined as an individual with an occupation focused on the transportation of people or goods and whose job involves traveling outside the town of residence at least once a week. RESULTS: Higher seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was observed in the town with a greater proportion of logistics workers. The secondary household infection rate was 49.1% (55/112), and it was observed that in most households (28/40, 70%) the index case was a logistics worker. The case-control study revealed that being a logistics worker (OR 18.0, 95% CI 8.4-38.7) or living with one (OR 6.9, 95% CI 3.3-14.5) increases the risk of infection. In addition, having close contact with a confirmed case (OR 13.4, 95% CI 6.6-27.3) and living with more than four people (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-7.1) were also risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows a strong association between logistics workers and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and highlights the key role of these workers in the viral spread in small towns. These findings indicate the need to focus on this population to determine COVID-19 prevention and control strategies, including vaccination and sentinel genomic surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Cities/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e20699, 2021 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Daily new COVID-19 cases from January to April 2020 demonstrate varying patterns of SARS-CoV-2 transmission across different geographical regions. Constant infection rates were observed in some countries, whereas China and South Korea had a very low number of daily new cases. In fact, China and South Korea successfully and quickly flattened their COVID-19 curve. To understand why this was the case, this paper investigated possible aerosol-forming patterns in the atmosphere and their relationship to the policy measures adopted by select countries. OBJECTIVE: The main research objective was to compare the outcomes of policies adopted by countries between January and April 2020. Policies included physical distancing measures that in some cases were associated with mask use and city disinfection. We investigated whether the type of social distancing framework adopted by some countries (ie, without mask use and city disinfection) led to the continual dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 (daily new cases) in the community during the study period. METHODS: We examined the policies used as a preventive framework for virus community transmission in some countries and compared them to the policies adopted by China and South Korea. Countries that used a policy of social distancing by 1-2 m were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of countries that implemented social distancing (1-2 m) only, and the second comprised China and South Korea, which implemented distancing with additional transmission/isolation measures using masks and city disinfection. Global daily case maps from Johns Hopkins University were used to provide time-series data for the analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that virus transmission was reduced due to policies affecting SARS-CoV-2 propagation over time. Remarkably, China and South Korea obtained substantially better results than other countries at the beginning of the epidemic due to their adoption of social distancing (1-2 m) with the additional use of masks and sanitization (city disinfection). These measures proved to be effective due to the atmosphere carrier potential of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that social distancing by 1-2 m with mask use and city disinfection yields positive outcomes. These strategies should be incorporated into prevention and control policies and be adopted both globally and by individuals as a method to fight the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Policy , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Disinfection , Global Health , Humans , Masks , Physical Distancing , Policy Making , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123616

ABSTRACT

The pandemic disrupted all activities, so it became necessary to understand, but also rethink, the complexity of economic resilience to better deal with future shocks. A component that can signal the resilience potential of a socio-economic system is smart city response, using technology to make services more efficient. This paper aims to analyze the relationship between smart cities and urban resilience to determine whether urban resilience is significantly influenced by urban smartness. Given the EU SDGs Strategy and the Implementation of RRF Programs, we have also identified the main driving forces that can amplify the impact of smart city development policies on local resilience. The results highlighted that at the European level, smart cities are significantly correlated with urban resilience; urban resilience is explained by the variation in urban smartness; resilience is correlated with all smart city dimensions, highly in (post-)pandemic, redefining a "new normal" in resilience approaches for smart cities. We also stressed the emerging, more complex content of the economic resilience concept and the new structural approach of smart cities resilience for the post-COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Cities , COVID-19/epidemiology
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 973843, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121817

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has seriously affected China's macroeconomy, industrial transformation, and high-quality development. Research on economic patterns and urban network systems can provide a reference for healthy development of the regional economic system. The evolution of the economic pattern and urban network system of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) from 2010 to 2020 is investigated using methods (e.g., the gravity center model, the gravitational force model, social network analysis, and geographic information system). (1) The gravity center of gross domestic product (GDP) of the GBA is located in Nansha district, Guangzhou, with a skewing direction northwest-east-northwest and a movement rate of "large-small-large." The center of import and export and the center of consumption show a "zigzagging migration" in which the center of investment shows an "irregular (random) migration". (2) The economic connection degree of cities in the GBA exhibits a high ascending velocity, and the whole area tends to be mature, with a significant effect of spatial proximity. With the steady increase in network density, there is significant polarization of network centrality in the region. The four major cohesive subgroups have been relatively stable and consistent with the degree of geographic proximity of the cities. The center-periphery structure is more significant, in which the core area is extended to the cities on the east coast of the Pearl River Estuary, thus forming the core cluster of "Hong Kong-Shenzhen-Guangzhou-Dongguan." In this study, the evolution of economic patterns and urban network systems in the GBA over the past decade is analyzed using multiple methods (i.e., gravity model, urban network system analysis, and geographic information system) based on urban socioeconomic data by starting from various spatial elements (e.g., "points, lines, and networks") to gain insights into and optimize research on regional economic development after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Macau , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cities
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1030283, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119717

ABSTRACT

In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the creation of healthy cities has become an important measure to deal with global public diseases and public health emergencies, and has had a profound impact on the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study exploits the Healthy Cities pilot (HCP) program established in 2016 as a natural experiment, and evaluates its impact on MSW management using the difference-in-difference (DID) method. The estimates show that the collection amount and harmless treatment capacity of MSW were increased by 15.66 and 10.75%, respectively, after the cities were established as pilot healthy cities. However, the harmless treatment rate was decreased by 3.544. This conclusion remains valid in a series of robustness tests, including parallel trend test, placebo test, propensity score matching (PSM)-DID, eliminating the interference of other policies, and eliminating the non-randomness of the policy. Mechanism analysis shows that the HCP program increased the collection amount and harmless treatment capacity of MSW by increasing the expenditure on MSW treatment. However, after a city was established as a pilot healthy city, the unsustainable high expenditure of local government on municipal sanitation led to the decrease in the harmless treatment rate of MSW. Moreover, heterogeneity analysis shows that the HCP program had a stronger impact on MSW management in cities with higher administrative levels, more obvious location advantages, and a larger size. Therefore, it is advisable to use the creation of healthy cities as an important tool to gradually improve MSW management, so as to realize the coordinated development of city construction and human health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refuse Disposal , Waste Management , Humans , Solid Waste , Cities , Refuse Disposal/methods , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Empirical Research
15.
Sex Transm Dis ; 49(10): 687-694, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic adversely affected sexual health services. Given the burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on sexual and gender minorities (SGMs), we estimated incidence of self-reported STI diagnoses and factors associated with STI diagnoses among SGMs during the pandemic's first year. METHODS: A cohort of 426 SGM persons, 25 years or older, recruited in Chicago, Milwaukee, Detroit, Minneapolis, and Houston completed 5 online surveys from April 2020 to February 2021. Persons self-reported on each survey all health care provider STI diagnoses. Kaplan-Meier was used to estimate the cumulative risk of STI diagnoses, stratified by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status. Factors associated with STI diagnoses were assessed with a longitudinal negative binomial regression. RESULTS: Median age was 37 years, and 27.0% were persons living with HIV (PLH). Participants reported 63 STIs for a cumulative incidence for PLH and HIV-negative persons of 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.29) and 0.12 (95% CI, 0.09-0.17), respectively. Regardless of HIV, a younger age and changes in health care use were associated with STI diagnoses. Among HIV-negative persons, the rate of STI diagnoses was higher in Houston than the Midwest cities (adjusted relative risk, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.08-5.20). Among PLH, a decrease in health care use was also associated with STI diagnoses (adjusted relative risk, 3.53; 95% CI, 1.01-12.32 vs no change in health care services), as was Hispanic ethnicity and using a dating app to meet a sex partner. CONCLUSIONS: Factors associated with STI diagnoses during the COVID-19 pandemic generally reflected factors associated with STI incidence before the pandemic like geography, HIV, age, and ethnicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Sexual Behavior , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , United States
16.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 161, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been identified as related to the diseases of susceptible population, but the spatial heterogeneity of its economic burden and its determinants are rarely investigated. The issue is of great policy significance, especially after the epidemic of COVID-19, when human are facing the joint crisis of health and environment, and some areas is prone to falling into poverty. METHODS: The geographical detector was adopted to study the spatial distribution characteristics of the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure (ICHE) for older adults in 100 rural areas in China at the prefecture-city level. The health factors, sociological factors, policy factors and environmental factors and their interactions are identified. RESULTS: First, most health service factors had strong explanatory power for ICHE whether it interacts with air pollution. Second, 50 single-factor high-risk areas of ICHE were found in the study, but at the same time, there were 21 areas dominated by multiple factors. CONCLUSION: The different contributions and synergy among the factors constitute the complex mechanism of factors and catastrophic health expenditure. Moreover, during this process, air pollution aggravates the contribution of health service factors toward ICHE. In addition, the leading factors of ICHE are different among regions. At the end, this paper also puts forward some policy suggestions from the perspective of health and environment crisis in the post-COVID-19 world: environmental protection policies should be combined with the prevention of infectious diseases; advanced health investment is the most cost-effective policy for the inverse health sequences of air pollution and infectious diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); integrating environmental protection policy into healthy development policy, different regions take targeted measures to cope with the intertwined crisis.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Financial Stress , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Cities , Cost of Illness , China/epidemiology
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114802

ABSTRACT

During the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, several environmental factors have influenced activities and protection policy measures in cities. This has had a major effect on climate change and global environmental catastrophe. In many countries, the strategy of closing various activities such as tourism and industrial production stopped normal life, transportation, etc. This closure has a positive impact on the environment. However, the massive use of masks and personal protection could significantly increase pollution worldwide. The impact on the environment needs to be calculated to have information for public health actions. In this study, we present a first overview of the potential impacts of COVID-19 on some environmental matrices in Bogotá, Colombia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Environmental Pollution , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110103

ABSTRACT

Nature-based solutions (NbS), including green social prescribing (GSP), are sustainable ways to address health and wellbeing, especially since the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated the strain on healthcare. NbS require national and local cross-sector coordination across complex, interrelated systems, but little is known about the specific challenges this poses for community-led NbS. We carried out a traditional literature review to establish the context and knowledge base for this study and interviewed 26 stakeholders. These came from environment, health and social care sectors at national and local levels, with local-level stakeholders from Bradford and Walsall: English cities significantly affected by the pandemic, with high levels of deprivation and health inequality. The interviews explored experiences of implementing NbS, both pre- and post-pandemic and the resulting renewed interest in the salutogenic effects of engaging with natural environments. We coded the interview transcriptions using NVivo to identify the challenges existing in the systems within which these stakeholders operate to create and manage NbS. By synthesizing what is known about the challenges from existing literature with findings from the interviews, we developed eight categories of challenges (perception and knowledge, political, financial, access to natural spaces, engagement, institutional and organisational, coordination, GSP referral and services) faced by multiple sectors in implementing community-led NbS in England. Furthermore, this study highlights the new challenges related to the pandemic. Identifying these challenges helps stakeholders in existing complex systems recognise what is needed to support and mainstream NbS in England.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Negotiating , Pandemics/prevention & control , Health Status Disparities , Cities
19.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(11): 1565-1574, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109347

ABSTRACT

Paid sick leave provides workers with paid time off to receive COVID-19 vaccines and to recover from potential vaccine adverse effects. We hypothesized that US cities with paid sick leave would have higher COVID-19 vaccination coverage and narrower coverage disparities than those without such policies. Using county-level vaccination data and paid sick leave data from thirty-seven large US cities in 2021, we estimated the association between city-level paid sick leave policies and vaccination coverage in the working-age population and repeated the analysis using coverage in the population ages sixty-five and older as a negative control. We also examined associations by neighborhood social vulnerability. Cities with a paid sick leave policy had 17 percent higher vaccination coverage than cities without such a policy. We found stronger associations between paid sick leave and vaccination in the most socially vulnerable neighborhoods compared with the least socially vulnerable ones, and no association in the population ages sixty-five and older. Paid sick leave policies are associated with higher COVID-19 vaccination coverage and narrower coverage disparities. Increasing access to these policies may help increase vaccination and reduce inequities in coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sick Leave , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cities , Vaccination Coverage
20.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 35(2): 144-154, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101108

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze oral health actions in four municipalities in Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic according to a theoretical framework model on oral healthcare management. It was a qualitative study carried out in two stages. A theoretical-empirical model on the significance of oral healthcare management was developed, following the Grounded Theory method. Fourteen dentists and five healthcare managers participated, through open interview. Subsequently, collaborative research was performed, and the model was applied to analyze the documents produced to address the pandemic by each of four municipalities in Santa Catarina State. The model provided a framework for analyzing actions for coping with the pandemic regarding oral health services. Actions were identified in all dimensions of the model: reduction in supply of dental care due to restricted access to elective services; search for biosafety care standards; dissemination of standardized science-based guidelines; attempt to maintain comprehensive dental assistance through re-adaptation of specialized services and collective actions; and relocation of oral health professionals to assist in other sectors. The oral health care management framework can serve as a reference for redesigning oral health actions and services in other municipalities during the COVID-19 pandemic, in a broader perspective.


Analisar as ações de saúde bucal em quatro municípios brasileiros durante a pandemia de COVID-19, segundo um modelo de referencial teórico sobre gestão da atenção à saúde bucal. Estudo qualitativo realizado em dois momentos. Foi desenvolvido um modelo teórico-empírico sobre o significado da gestão do cuidado em saúde bucal, seguindo o método da Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados. Participaram 14 dentistas e cinco gestores de saúde, por meio de entrevista aberta. Posteriormente, no segundo momento, foi realizada uma pesquisa colaborativa, e o modelo foi aplicado para analisar os documentos produzidos em cada município para o enfrentamento local da pandemia, em quatro municípios do Estado de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. O modelo forneceu uma estrutura para analisar as ações de enfrentamento da pandemia nos serviços de saúde bucal. Foram identificadas ações em todas as dimensões do modelo: redução da oferta de atendimento odontológico devido à restrição de acesso aos serviços eletivos; a busca por padrões de assistência à biossegurança; disseminação de diretrizes padronizadas e com base científica; a tentativa de manter a assistência odontológica integral por meio da readaptação de serviços especializados e ações coletivas; e realocação de profissionais de saúde bucal para atendimento em outros setores. O referencial de gestão da atenção à saúde bucal pode servir de referência para redesenhar as ações e serviços de saúde bucal em outros municípios em período de pandemia de COVID-19, em uma perspectiva mais ampla.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , United States , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cities , Grounded Theory , COVID-19/prevention & control
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL