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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25645, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190994

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), namely 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has rapidly spread from Wuhan city to other cities across China. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of 74 hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Clinical data of 74 COVID-19 patients were collected to analyze the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data. Thirty-two patients were followed up and tested for the presence of the viral nucleic acid and by pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan at 7 and 14 days after they were discharged.Among all COVID-19 patients, the median incubation period for patients and the median period from symptom onset to admission was all 6 days; the median length of hospitalization was 13 days. Fever symptoms were presented in 83.78% of the patients, and the second most common symptom was cough (74.32%), followed by fatigue and expectoration (27.03%). Inflammatory indicators, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients were significantly higher than that of the non-ICU patients (P < .05). However, 50.00% of the ICU patients had their the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells (CD4/CD8) ratio lower than 1.1, whose proportion is much higher than that in non-ICU patients (P < .01).Compared with patients in Wuhan, COVID-19 patients in Anhui Province seemed to have milder symptoms of infection, suggesting that there may be some regional differences in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between different cities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cough/blood , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Geography , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e30406, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on how SARS-CoV-2 enters and spreads in a population are essential for guiding public policies. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to understand the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in small Brazilian towns during the early phase of the epidemic and to identify core groups that can serve as the initial source of infection as well as factors associated with a higher risk of COVID-19. METHODS: Two population-based seroprevalence studies, one household survey, and a case-control study were conducted in two small towns in southeastern Brazil between May and June 2020. In the population-based studies, 400 people were evaluated in each town; there were 40 homes in the household survey, and 95 cases and 393 controls in the case-control study. SARS-CoV-2 serology testing was performed on participants, and a questionnaire was applied. Prevalence, household secondary infection rate, and factors associated with infection were assessed. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. Logistics worker was defined as an individual with an occupation focused on the transportation of people or goods and whose job involves traveling outside the town of residence at least once a week. RESULTS: Higher seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was observed in the town with a greater proportion of logistics workers. The secondary household infection rate was 49.1% (55/112), and it was observed that in most households (28/40, 70%) the index case was a logistics worker. The case-control study revealed that being a logistics worker (OR 18.0, 95% CI 8.4-38.7) or living with one (OR 6.9, 95% CI 3.3-14.5) increases the risk of infection. In addition, having close contact with a confirmed case (OR 13.4, 95% CI 6.6-27.3) and living with more than four people (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-7.1) were also risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows a strong association between logistics workers and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and highlights the key role of these workers in the viral spread in small towns. These findings indicate the need to focus on this population to determine COVID-19 prevention and control strategies, including vaccination and sentinel genomic surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Cities/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
3.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e20699, 2021 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Daily new COVID-19 cases from January to April 2020 demonstrate varying patterns of SARS-CoV-2 transmission across different geographical regions. Constant infection rates were observed in some countries, whereas China and South Korea had a very low number of daily new cases. In fact, China and South Korea successfully and quickly flattened their COVID-19 curve. To understand why this was the case, this paper investigated possible aerosol-forming patterns in the atmosphere and their relationship to the policy measures adopted by select countries. OBJECTIVE: The main research objective was to compare the outcomes of policies adopted by countries between January and April 2020. Policies included physical distancing measures that in some cases were associated with mask use and city disinfection. We investigated whether the type of social distancing framework adopted by some countries (ie, without mask use and city disinfection) led to the continual dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 (daily new cases) in the community during the study period. METHODS: We examined the policies used as a preventive framework for virus community transmission in some countries and compared them to the policies adopted by China and South Korea. Countries that used a policy of social distancing by 1-2 m were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of countries that implemented social distancing (1-2 m) only, and the second comprised China and South Korea, which implemented distancing with additional transmission/isolation measures using masks and city disinfection. Global daily case maps from Johns Hopkins University were used to provide time-series data for the analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that virus transmission was reduced due to policies affecting SARS-CoV-2 propagation over time. Remarkably, China and South Korea obtained substantially better results than other countries at the beginning of the epidemic due to their adoption of social distancing (1-2 m) with the additional use of masks and sanitization (city disinfection). These measures proved to be effective due to the atmosphere carrier potential of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that social distancing by 1-2 m with mask use and city disinfection yields positive outcomes. These strategies should be incorporated into prevention and control policies and be adopted both globally and by individuals as a method to fight the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Policy , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Disinfection , Global Health , Humans , Masks , Physical Distancing , Policy Making , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1605177, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142395

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Waves of epidemics associated with Omicron variant of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in major cities in China this year have been controlled. It is of great importance to study the transmission characteristics of these cases to support further interventions. Methods: We simulate the transmission trajectory and analyze the intervention influences of waves associated with Omicron variant in major cities in China using the Suspected-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) model. In addition, we propose a model using a function between the maximum daily infections and the duration of the epidemic, calibrated with data from Chinese cities. Results: An infection period of 5 days and basic reproduction number R0 between 2 and 8.72 are most appropriate for most cases in China. Control measures show a significant impact on reducing R0, and the earlier control measures are implemented, the shorter the epidemic will last. Our proposed model performs well in predicting the duration of the epidemic with an average error of 2.49 days. Conclusion: Our results show great potential in epidemic model simulation and predicting the end date of the Omicron epidemic effectively and efficiently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology
5.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 114, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139424

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant is highly transmissible with potential immune escape. Hence, control measures are continuously being optimized to guard against large-scale coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks. This study aimed to explore the relationship between the intensity of control measures in response to different SARS-CoV-2 variants and the degree of outbreak control at city level. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 49 cities with COVID-19 outbreaks between January 2020 and June 2022. Epidemiological data on COVID-19 were extracted from the National Health Commission, People's Republic of China, and the population flow data were sourced from the Baidu migration data provided by the Baidu platform. Outbreak control was quantified by calculating the degree of infection growth and the time-varying reproduction number ([Formula: see text]). The intensity of the outbreak response was quantified by calculating the reduction in population mobility during the outbreak period. Correlation and regression analyses of the intensity of the control measures and the degree of outbreak control for the Omicron variant and non-Omicron mutants were conducted, respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 65 outbreaks occurred in 49 cities in China from January 2020 to June 2022. Of them, 66.2% were Omicron outbreaks and 33.8% were non-Omicron outbreaks. The intensity of the control measures was positively correlated with the degree of outbreak control (r = 0.351, P = 0.03). The degree of reduction in population mobility was negatively correlated with the Rt value (r = - 0.612, P < 0.01). Therefore, under the same control measure intensity, the number of new daily Omicron infections was 6.04 times higher than those attributed to non-Omicron variants, and the Rt value of Omicron outbreaks was 2.6 times higher than that of non-Omicron variants. In addition, the duration of non-Omicron variant outbreaks was shorter than that of the outbreaks caused by the Omicron variant (23.0 ± 10.7, 32.9 ± 16.3, t = 2.243, P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Greater intensity of control measures was associated with more effective outbreak control. Thus, in response to the Omicron variant, the management to restrict population movement should be used to control its spread quickly, especially in the case of community transmission occurs widely. Faster than is needed for non-Omicron variants, and decisive control measures should be imposed and dynamically adjusted in accordance with the evolving epidemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Cities/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114802

ABSTRACT

During the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, several environmental factors have influenced activities and protection policy measures in cities. This has had a major effect on climate change and global environmental catastrophe. In many countries, the strategy of closing various activities such as tourism and industrial production stopped normal life, transportation, etc. This closure has a positive impact on the environment. However, the massive use of masks and personal protection could significantly increase pollution worldwide. The impact on the environment needs to be calculated to have information for public health actions. In this study, we present a first overview of the potential impacts of COVID-19 on some environmental matrices in Bogotá, Colombia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Environmental Pollution , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099539

ABSTRACT

After the prevailing of the COVID-19 pandemic, urban communities around the world took initiatives to bring their cities back to life. In this research, 45 indicators and 55 elements were selected to make comparisons between urban communities in Lanzhou, China and Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina from five dimensions of social resilience, economic resilience, institutional resilience, infrastructural resilience, and community capital resilience. At the same time, the ArcGIS platform tool was used for spatial interpolation analysis. In this paper, the inverse distance weighting (IDW) method was used to carry out the spatial analysis of the perceived resilience of the two cities. Due to the heterogeneity of the neighborhood physical environment, operation and management mode, individual attribute characteristics, and internal relations, the resilience of the two urban communities showed disparity in different dimensions. Overall, the communities with good urban property management services, high-income owners, and the convenient transportation have stronger resilience in the face of pandemic. On the contrary, scattered communities, which are scattered in the inner cities, lack effective management, and based on unstable employment, people become the most affected by the epidemic with the lowest resilience power. The importance of social capital, represented by community understanding, identity, and mutual help and cooperation between neighbors, is highlighted in the resilience assessment of the two cities, respectively, in the East and West, indicating that to build more resilient cities, in addition to improving government management and increasing investment in urban infrastructure, building the residents' sense of belonging, identity, and enduring community culture is even more important in the construction of resilient cities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Bosnia and Herzegovina/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , China/epidemiology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099530

ABSTRACT

Uncontrolled, large-scale human mobility can amplify a localized disease into a pandemic. Tracking changes in human travel behavior, exploring the relationship between epidemic events and intercity travel generation and attraction under policies will contribute to epidemic prevention efforts, as well as deepen understanding of the essential changes of intercity interactions in the post-epidemic era. To explore the dynamic impact of small-scale localized epidemic events and related policies on intercity travel, a spatial lag model and improved gravity models are developed by using intercity travel data. Taking the localized COVID-19 epidemic in Xi'an, China as an example, the study constructs the travel interaction characterization before or after the pandemic as well as under constraints of regular epidemic prevention policies, whereby significant impacts of epidemic events are explored. Moreover, indexes of the quantified policies are refined to the city level in China to analyze their effects on travel volumes. We highlight the non-negligible impacts of city events and related policies on intercity interaction, which can serve as a reference for travel management in case of such severe events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Travel , Cities/epidemiology , China/epidemiology
9.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275714, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079749

ABSTRACT

To curb the spread of the ongoing 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), authorities have adopted several non-pharmaceutical (NPIs) and pharmaceutical interventions, which significantly affected our daily activities and mobility patterns. However, it is still unclear how severity of NPIs, COVID-19-related variables, and vaccination rates have affected demand for ridesourcing services, and whether these effects vary across small towns and large cities. We analyzed over 220 million ride requests in the City of Chicago (population: 2.7 million), Illinois, and 52 thousand in the Town of Innisfil (population: 37 thousand), Ontario, to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the ridesourcing demand in the two locations. Overall, the pandemic resulted in fewer trips in areas with higher proportions of seniors and more trips to parks and green spaces. Ridesourcing demand was adversely affected by the stringency index and COVID-19-related variables, and positively affected by vaccination rates. However, compared to Innisfil, ridesourcing services in Chicago experienced higher reductions in demand, were more affected by the number of hospitalizations and deaths, were less impacted by vaccination rates, and had lower recovery rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chicago/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Health Policy ; 126(12): 1269-1276, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069027

ABSTRACT

There is widespread debate on the drivers of heterogeneity of adverse COVID-19 pandemic outcomes and, more specifically, on the role played by context-specific factors. We contribute to this literature by testing the role of environmental factors as measured by environmentally protected areas. We test our research hypothesis by showing that the difference between the number of daily deaths per 1,000 inhabitants in 2020 and the 2018-19 average during the pandemic period is significantly lower in Italian municipalities located in environmentally protected areas such as national parks, regional parks, or Environmentally Protected Zones. After controlling for fixed effects and various concurring factors, municipalities with higher share of environmentally protected areas show significantly lower mortality during the pandemic than municipalities that do not benefit from such environmental amenities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Cities/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Mortality
11.
Cir Cir ; 90(4): 497-502, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The onset of the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic brought with it important changes in the hospital care for all diseases. According to the international literature, since the beginning of the pandemic there has been an impact in the incidence, etiology, and severity of head trauma, all these changes as a direct consequence of lockdown. OBJECTIVE: In this article we analyzed the characteristics of craniofacial trauma in patients admitted to a private hospital in Mexico City during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. METHOD: Medical records from patients admitted in Medica Sur between March 2020 and June 2021. In this study, incidence, etiology, severity of the injuries and the SARS-CoV-2 PCR result performed upon admission were analyzed. RESULTS: Although there is no study in Mexico like ours, the results were similar to those reported by other hospital centers worldwide, presenting a greater number of cases classified as mild craniofacial trauma, in addition to finding that the main age group affected were older adults. CONCLUSIONS: The reported information in our study provides a general view of craniofacial trauma characteristics during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


INTRODUCCIÓN: El inicio de la pandemia provocada por SARS-CoV-2 trajo consigo importantes cambios en los cuidados hospitalarios para todas las enfermedades. De acuerdo con la literatura internacional, desde el comienzo, y a consecuencia del aislamiento, ha existido un impacto en la incidencia, la etiología y la gravedad del trauma craneomaxilofacial. OBJETIVO: Estudiar las características del trauma craneofacial en los pacientes ingresados a un hospital privado en la Ciudad de México durante la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2. MÉTODO: Se revisaron los expedientes clínicos de los pacientes ingresados a Médica Sur, entre marzo de 2020 y junio de 2021. Se analizaron la incidencia, la etiología, la gravedad de las lesiones y el resultado de la prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para SARS-CoV-2 que se realizó durante la atención hospitalaria. RESULTADOS: En México no existe un estudio semejante al nuestro, pero los resultados fueron similares a los reportados por otros centros hospitalarios en el mundo, presentando un mayor número de casos clasificados como traumatismo craneofacial leve, además de encontrar que el principal grupo de edad afectado fueron los adultos mayores. CONCLUSIONES: La información reportada en nuestro estudio brinda un panorama general sobre las características del trauma craneofacial durante la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Craniocerebral Trauma , Facial Injuries , Hospitals, Private , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cities/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Craniocerebral Trauma/epidemiology , Craniocerebral Trauma/etiology , Craniocerebral Trauma/therapy , Facial Injuries/epidemiology , Facial Injuries/etiology , Facial Injuries/therapy , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Mexico/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066060

ABSTRACT

Italian Long-Term Care is considered largely inadequate, and the recent COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically exposed its limitations. Public Home Care Services in particular were revealed as under-financed and unable to cover the potential demand for care from the older population. But does the type of municipality and its geographic location play a role in creating or mitigating unmet demand? This is the first study addressing this research question in Italy. Our hypothesis is that older people's care preferences and care possibilities may vary between small, medium and metropolitan areas, as will the organisation, funding and availability of services, and the combination will influence (unmet) demand for public home care services. In this paper, using nationally representative survey data collected by the Italian National Statistical Institute in 2003 and 2016, we investigate changes and differences in the use of public and private home care services among people aged 75 or older in Italy by size of the municipality. Our results reveal inequalities in service use between Northern and Southern areas of the country and in particular between metropolitan areas, medium and small municipalities. Such differences reinforce post-pandemic calls for new investment and changes in the design of the Italian Long-Term Care system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Long-Term Care , Pandemics
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(10): e38450, 2022 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 was first identified in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China. The virus quickly spread and was declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020. After infection, symptoms such as fever, a (dry) cough, nasal congestion, and fatigue can develop. In some cases, the virus causes severe complications such as pneumonia and dyspnea and could result in death. The virus also spread rapidly in the Netherlands, a small and densely populated country with an aging population. Health care in the Netherlands is of a high standard, but there were nevertheless problems with hospital capacity, such as the number of available beds and staff. There were also regions and municipalities that were hit harder than others. In the Netherlands, there are important data sources available for daily COVID-19 numbers and information about municipalities. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to predict the cumulative number of confirmed COVID-19 infections per 10,000 inhabitants per municipality in the Netherlands, using a data set with the properties of 355 municipalities in the Netherlands and advanced modeling techniques. METHODS: We collected relevant static data per municipality from data sources that were available in the Dutch public domain and merged these data with the dynamic daily number of infections from January 1, 2020, to May 9, 2021, resulting in a data set with 355 municipalities in the Netherlands and variables grouped into 20 topics. The modeling techniques random forest and multiple fractional polynomials were used to construct a prediction model for predicting the cumulative number of confirmed COVID-19 infections per 10,000 inhabitants per municipality in the Netherlands. RESULTS: The final prediction model had an R2 of 0.63. Important properties for predicting the cumulative number of confirmed COVID-19 infections per 10,000 inhabitants in a municipality in the Netherlands were exposure to particulate matter with diameters <10 µm (PM10) in the air, the percentage of Labour party voters, and the number of children in a household. CONCLUSIONS: Data about municipality properties in relation to the cumulative number of confirmed infections in a municipality in the Netherlands can give insight into the most important properties of a municipality for predicting the cumulative number of confirmed COVID-19 infections per 10,000 inhabitants in a municipality. This insight can provide policy makers with tools to cope with COVID-19 and may also be of value in the event of a future pandemic, so that municipalities are better prepared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Netherlands/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Particulate Matter , Cough , Algorithms
14.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274621, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043207

ABSTRACT

This work quantifies the impact of pre-, during- and post-lockdown periods of 2020 and 2019 imposed due to COVID-19, with regards to a set of satellite-based environmental parameters (greenness using Normalized Difference Vegetation and water indices, land surface temperature, night-time light, and energy consumption) in five alpha cities (Kuala Lumpur, Mexico, greater Mumbai, Sao Paulo, Toronto). We have inferenced our results with an extensive questionnaire-based survey of expert opinions about the environment-related UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Results showed considerable variation due to the lockdown on environment-related SDGs. The growth in the urban environmental variables during lockdown phase 2020 relative to a similar period in 2019 varied from 13.92% for Toronto to 13.76% for greater Mumbai to 21.55% for Kuala Lumpur; it dropped to -10.56% for Mexico and -1.23% for Sao Paulo city. The total lockdown was more effective in revitalizing the urban environment than partial lockdown. Our results also indicated that Greater Mumbai and Toronto, which were under a total lockdown, had observed positive influence on cumulative urban environment. While in other cities (Mexico City, Sao Paulo) where partial lockdown was implemented, cumulative lockdown effects were found to be in deficit for a similar period in 2019, mainly due to partial restrictions on transportation and shopping activities. The only exception was Kuala Lumpur which observed surplus growth while having partial lockdown because the restrictions were only partial during the festival of Ramadan. Cumulatively, COVID-19 lockdown has contributed significantly towards actions to reduce degradation of natural habitat (fulfilling SDG-15, target 15.5), increment in available water content in Sao Paulo urban area(SDG-6, target 6.6), reduction in NTL resulting in reducied per capita energy consumption (SDG-13, target 13.3).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sustainable Development , Brazil , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cities/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , United Nations , Water
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 902455, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022935

ABSTRACT

Objective: From January 23rd, 2020, lock-down measures were adopted in Wuhan, China to stop the spread of COVID-19. However, due to the approach of the Spring Festival and the nature of COVID-19, more than 6 million permanent and temporary residents of Wuhan (who were potential carriers or spreaders of the virus), left the city before the lock-down measures were implemented. This study aims to explore whether and how the population inflow from Wuhan city impacted residents' confidence in controlling COVID-19 outbreaks at the destination cities. Study design and setting: Based on questionnaire data and migration big data, a multiple regression model was developed to quantify the impact of the population inflow from Wuhan city on the sense of confidence of residents in controlling the COVID-19 outbreak at the destination cities. Scenarios were considered that varied residents' expected month for controlling COVID-19 outbreak at the destination cities, residents' confidence in controlling COVID-19 outbreak at the destination cities, and the overall indicators for the sense of confidence of residents in controlling COVID-19. A marginal effect analysis was also conducted to calculate the probability of change in residents' confidence in controlling the COVID-19 outbreak with per unit change in the population inflow from Wuhan city. Results: The impact of population inflow from Wuhan city on residents' expected month for controlling COVID-19 outbreak at the destination cities was positive and significant at the 1% level, while that on residents' confidence in controlling COVID-19 at the destination cities was negative and significant at the 1% level. Robustness checks, which included modifying the sample range and replacing measurement indicators of the population inflow from Wuhan city, demonstrated these findings were robust and credible. When the population inflow from Wuhan city increased by one additional unit, the probabilities of the variables "February" and "March" decreased significantly by 0.1023 and 0.1602, respectively, while the probabilities of "April," "May," "June," "July," "before the end of 2020," and "unknown" significantly increased by 0.0470, 0.0856, 0.0333, 0.0080, 0.0046, and 0.0840, respectively. Similarly, when the population inflow from Wuhan city increased by one additional unit, the probability of the variable "extremely confident" decreased by 0.1973. Furthermore, the probabilities of the variables "confident," "neutral," and "unconfident" significantly increased by 0.1392, 0.0224, and 0.0320, respectively. Conclusion: The population inflow from Wuhan city played a negative role in the sense of confidence of residents in controlling COVID-19 in the destination cities. The higher the population inflow from Wuhan city, the longer the residents' expected month for controlling COVID-19 outbreak at the destination cities became, and the weaker the residents' confidence in controlling the COVID-19 outbreak at the destination cities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cities/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010092

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on public mental health has become increasingly prominent. Therefore, it is of great value to study the spatial-temporal characteristics of public sentiment responses to COVID-19 exposure to improve urban anti-pandemic decision-making and public health resilience. However, the majority of recent studies have focused on the macro scale or large cities, and there is a relative lack of adequate research on the small-city scale in China. To address this lack of research, we conducted a case study of Shaoxing city, proposed a spatial-based pandemic-cognition-sentiment (PCS) conceptual model, and collected microblog check-in data and information on the spatial-temporal trajectory of cases before and after a wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The natural language algorithm of dictionary-based sentiment analysis (DSA) was used to calculate public sentiment strength. Additionally, local Moran's I, kernel-density analysis, Getis-Ord Gi* and standard deviation ellipse methods were applied to analyze the nonlinear evolution and clustering characteristics of public sentiment spatial-temporal patterns at the small-city scale concerning the pandemic. The results reveal that (1) the characteristics of pandemic spread show contagion diffusion at the micro level and hierarchical diffusion at the macro level, (2) the pandemic has a depressive effect on public sentiment in the center of the outbreak, and (3) the pandemic has a nonlinear gradient negative impact on mood in the surrounding areas. These findings could help propose targeted pandemic prevention policies applying spatial intervention to improve residents' mental health resilience in response to future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Data Analysis , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
17.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0267335, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009682

ABSTRACT

Control of human mobility is one of the most effective measures to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the imposition of emergency restrictions had significant negative impacts on citizens' daily lives. As vaccination progresses, we need to consider more effective measures to control the spread of the infection. The research question of this study is as follows: Does the control of home range correlate with a reduction in the number of infected people during the COVID-19 pandemic? This study aims to clarify the correlation between home range and the number of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ibaraki City. Home ranges are analyzed by the Minimum Convex Polygon method using mobile phone GPS location history data. We analyzed the time series cross-correlation between home range lengths and the number of infected people. Results reveal a slight positive correlation between home range and the number of infected people after one week during the COVID-19 pandemic. Regarding home range length, the cross-correlation coefficient is 0.4030 even at a lag level of six weeks, which has the most significant coefficient. Thus, a decrease in the home range is a weak factor correlated with a reduction in the number of infected people. This study makes a significant contribution to the literature by evaluating key public health challenges from the perspective of controliing the spread of the COVID-19 infectuion. Its findings has implications for policy makers, practitioners, and urban scientists seeking to promote urban sustainability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Homing Behavior , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sustainable Growth , Time Factors
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 310: 115307, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004526

ABSTRACT

Testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection has been a key strategy to mitigate and control the COVID-19 pandemic. Wide spatial and racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes have emerged in US cities. Previous research has highlighted the role of unequal access to testing as a potential driver of these disparities. We described inequities in spatial accessibility to COVID-19 testing locations in 30 large US cities. We used location data from Castlight Health Inc corresponding to October 2021. We created an accessibility metric at the level of the census block group (CBG) based on the number of sites per population in a 15-minute walkshed around the centroid of each CBG. We also calculated spatial accessibility using only testing sites without restrictions, i.e., no requirement for an appointment or a physician order prior to testing. We measured the association between the social vulnerability index (SVI) and spatial accessibility using a multilevel negative binomial model with random city intercepts and random SVI slopes. Among the 27,195 CBG analyzed, 53% had at least one testing site within a 15-minute walkshed, and 36% had at least one site without restrictions. On average, a 1-decile increase in the SVI was associated with a 3% (95% Confidence Interval: 2% - 4%) lower accessibility. Spatial inequities were similar across various components of the SVI and for sites with no restrictions. Despite this general pattern, several cities had inverted inequity, i.e., better accessibility in more vulnerable areas, which indicates that some cities may be on the right track when it comes to promoting equity in COVID-19 testing. Testing is a key component of the strategy to mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and efforts should be made to improve accessibility to testing, particularly as new and more contagious variants become dominant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Calcium Gluconate , Cities/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Comput Biol Med ; 149: 106046, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2003992

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we propose a coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemiological model called SEIR-FMi (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovery with Flow and Medical investments) to study the effects of intra-city population movement, inter-city population movement, and medical resource investment on the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic. We theoretically derived the reproduction number of the SEIR-FMi model by using the next-generation matrix method and empirically simulate the individual impacts of population movement and medical resource investment on epidemic control. We found that intra- and inter-city population movements will increase the risk of epidemic spread, and the effect of inter-city population movement on low-risk areas is higher than that on high-risk areas. Increasing medical resource investment can not only speed up the recover rate of patients but also reduce the growth rate of infected cases and shorten the spread duration of the epidemic. We collected data on intra-city population movement, inter-city population movement, medical resource investment, and confirmed cases in the cities of Wuhan, Jingzhou, and Xiangyang, Hubei Province, China, from January 15 to March 15, 2020. Using the collected data, we validated that the proposed SEIR-FMi model performs well in simulating the spread of COVID-19 in the three cities. Meanwhile, this study confirms that three non-pharmaceutical interventions, namely community isolation, population mobility control, and medical resource aid, applied during the epidemic period are indispensable in controlling the spread of COVID-19 in the three cities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Epidemiological Models , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nature ; 610(7930): 154-160, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991629

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Delta (Pango lineage B.1.617.2) variant of concern spread globally, causing resurgences of COVID-19 worldwide1,2. The emergence of the Delta variant in the UK occurred on the background of a heterogeneous landscape of immunity and relaxation of non-pharmaceutical interventions. Here we analyse 52,992 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from England together with 93,649 genomes from the rest of the world to reconstruct the emergence of Delta and quantify its introduction to and regional dissemination across England in the context of changing travel and social restrictions. Using analysis of human movement, contact tracing and virus genomic data, we find that the geographic focus of the expansion of Delta shifted from India to a more global pattern in early May 2021. In England, Delta lineages were introduced more than 1,000 times and spread nationally as non-pharmaceutical interventions were relaxed. We find that hotel quarantine for travellers reduced onward transmission from importations; however, the transmission chains that later dominated the Delta wave in England were seeded before travel restrictions were introduced. Increasing inter-regional travel within England drove the nationwide dissemination of Delta, with some cities receiving more than 2,000 observable lineage introductions from elsewhere. Subsequently, increased levels of local population mixing-and not the number of importations-were associated with the faster relative spread of Delta. The invasion dynamics of Delta depended on spatial heterogeneity in contact patterns, and our findings will inform optimal spatial interventions to reduce the transmission of current and future variants of concern, such as Omicron (Pango lineage B.1.1.529).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cities/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , England/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Travel/legislation & jurisprudence
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