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J Crit Care ; 67: 126-131, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509976


BACKGROUND: We compared filter survival and citrate-induced complications during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) with regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) in COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this retrospective study we included all consecutive adult patients (n = 97) treated with RCA-CRRT. Efficacy and complications of RCA-CRRT were compared between COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Mean filter run-time was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients compared to Non-COVID-19 patients (68.4 (95%CI 67.0-69.9) vs. 65.2 (95%CI 63.2-67.2) hours, respectively; log-rank 0.014). COVID-19 patients showed significantly higher activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) throughout the CRRT due to intensified systemic anticoagulation compared to Non-COVID-19 patients (54 (IQR 45-61) vs. 47 (IQR 41-58) seconds, respectively; p < 0.001). A significantly higher incidence of metabolic alkalosis, hypercalcemia and hypernatremia, consistent with reduced filter patency and citrate overload, was observed in COVID-19 patients compared to Non-COVID-19 patients (19.1% vs. 12.7%, respectively; p = 0.04). These metabolic disarrangements were resistant to per-protocol adjustments and disappeared after replacement of the CRRT-filter. CONCLUSIONS: RCA-CRRT in COVID-19 patients with intensified systemic anticoagulation provides an adequate filter lifespan. However, close monitoring of the acid-base balance appears warranted, as these patients tend to develop reduced filter patency leading to a higher incidence of citrate overload and metabolic disturbances. TRIAL REGISTRATION (LOCAL AUTHORITY): EA1/285/20 (Ethikkommission der Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin); date of registration 08.10.2020.

COVID-19 , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Citrates , Citric Acid/adverse effects , Critical Illness , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Crit Care ; 25(1): 299, 2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367680


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may predispose patients to thrombotic events. The best anticoagulation strategy for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in such patients is still under debate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact that different anticoagulation protocols have on filter clotting risk. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study comparing two different anticoagulation strategies (citrate only and citrate plus intravenous infusion of unfractionated heparin) in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), associated or not with COVID-19 (COV + AKI and COV - AKI, respectively), who were submitted to CRRT. Filter clotting risks were compared among groups. RESULTS: Between January 2019 and July 2020, 238 patients were evaluated: 188 in the COV + AKI group and 50 in the COV - AKI group. Filter clotting during the first filter use occurred in 111 patients (46.6%). Heparin use conferred protection against filter clotting (HR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.25-0.55), resulting in longer filter survival. Bleeding events and the need for blood transfusion were similar between the citrate only and citrate plus unfractionated heparin strategies. In-hospital mortality was higher among the COV + AKI patients than among the COV - AKI patients, although it was similar between the COV + AKI patients who received heparin and those who did not. Filter clotting was more common in patients with D-dimer levels above the median (5990 ng/ml). In the multivariate analysis, heparin was associated with a lower risk of filter clotting (HR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.18-0.43), whereas an elevated D-dimer level and high hemoglobin were found to be risk factors for circuit clotting. A diagnosis of COVID-19 was marginally associated with an increased risk of circuit clotting (HR = 2.15, 95% CI 0.99-4.68). CONCLUSIONS: In COV + AKI patients, adding systemic heparin to standard regional citrate anticoagulation may prolong CRRT filter patency by reducing clotting risk with a low risk of complications.

Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Citric Acid/pharmacology , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy/instrumentation , Heparin/pharmacology , Micropore Filters/standards , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Citric Acid/adverse effects , Citric Acid/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Female , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Micropore Filters/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(40): 6260-6269, 2020 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302599


BACKGROUND: Bowel preparation in children can be challenging. AIM: To describe the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of sodium picosulfate, magnesium oxide, and citric acid (SPMC) bowel preparation in children. METHODS: Phase 3, randomized, assessor-blinded, multicenter study of low-volume, divided dose SPMC enrolled children 9-16 years undergoing elective colonoscopy. Participants 9-12 years were randomized 1:1:1 to SPMC ½ dose × 2, SPMC 1 dose × 2, or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Participants 13-16 years were randomized 1:1 to SPMC 1 dose × 2 or PEG. PEG-based bowel preparations were administered per local protocol. Primary efficacy endpoint for quality of bowel preparation was responders (rating of 'excellent' or 'good') by modified Aronchick Scale. Secondary efficacy endpoint was participant's tolerability and satisfaction from a 7-item questionnaire. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) and laboratory evaluations. RESULTS: 78 participants were randomized, 48 were 9-12 years, 30 were 13-16 years. For the primary efficacy endpoint in 9-12 years, 50.0%, 87.5%, and 81.3% were responders for SPMC ½ dose × 2, SPMC 1 dose × 2, and PEG groups, respectively. Responder rates for 13-16 years were 81.3% for SPMC 1 dose × 2 and 85.7% for PEG. Overall, 43.8% of participants receiving SPMC 1 dose × 2 reported it was 'very easy' or 'easy' to drink, compared with 20.0% receiving PEG. Treatment-emergent AEs were reported by 45.5% of participants receiving SPMC 1 dose × 2 and 63.0% receiving PEG. CONCLUSION: SPMC was an efficacious and safe for bowel preparation in children 9-16 years, with comparable efficacy to PEG. Tolerability for SPMC was higher compared to PEG.

Magnesium Oxide , Organometallic Compounds , Cathartics/adverse effects , Child , Citrates/adverse effects , Citric Acid/adverse effects , Colonoscopy , Humans , Magnesium Oxide/adverse effects , Organometallic Compounds/adverse effects , Picolines , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects