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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1325-1326, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526997
3.
Transfusion ; 61(8): 2250-2254, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The year 2020 presented the transfusion community with unprecedented events and challenges, including the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, and more recently by civil unrest, following the death of George Floyd in late May of 2020. As a level 1 trauma center located in Minneapolis, Minnesota, Hennepin Healthcare (HCMC) offers a unique perspective into the changes in massive transfusion protocol (MTP) activations and usage during this tumultuous period. This may provide insight for addressing similar future events. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: MTP logs from March 2020 to August 2020 were compared to logs from March to August 2019. The data were de-identified, and MTP activations and component usage were categorized by activation reason. These categories were compared across the 2-year period to examine the impact of COVID-19, including stay-at-home orders, and civil unrest. RESULTS: For the examined 6 months of the year 2020, there were a total of 140 MTP activations, compared to 143 in 2019. There were more activations for violent trauma (VT) in 2020 than 2019 (44 vs. 32). This increase in activations for VT was offset by a decrease in non-trauma activations (54 vs. 66). There was a significant increase in the number of components used in VT activations. DISCUSSION: During 2020, the initial mild decrease in MTP activations was followed by a dramatic increase in the number of activations and component usage for VT in June and July of that year.


Subject(s)
Blood Transfusion/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Civil Disorders , Humans , Minnesota/epidemiology , Pandemics , Trauma Centers
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 269-275, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203071

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic in Malawi emerged amidst widespread anti-government demonstrations and subsequent mass gatherings. This paper describes the incidence and factors associated with the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in Malawi. METHODOLOGY: This was a retrospective study of public data analysing geopolitical and immigration activities that occurred between 02 April and 08 September 2020. The Chi-square test of independence was used to tabulate sex and age-related fatality ratios among deaths due to COVID-19-related complications. RESULTS: The drivers for COVID-19 spread were mass gatherings secondary to the country's political landscape and repatriation of citizens from high-risk areas coupled with minimum use of public health interventions. The prevalence was higher in people aged 50-59 years, males and in urban areas. Men had an increased risk of COVID-19-related deaths (Case Fatality Ratio: 1.58 (95% CI 1.11-2.22) compared with women. Furthermore, men and women aged ≥40 years were 16.1 times and 7.1 times more likely to die of COVID-related complications, respectively. Men aged ≥40 years had a 62% increased risk of deaths compared with women of the same age group. CONCLUSION: Mass political gatherings and cross-border immigration from high-risk areas were drivers for infection. Males, older age and urban residence were associated with increased COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. To control the spread of COVID-19 there is a need to regulate mass gatherings and repatriation of citizens, and strengthen the use of preventive health interventions. Men, the older age groups and urban areas should be prioritised for COVID-19 prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Civil Disorders , Crowding , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Incidence , Malawi/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250433, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197393

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has unleashed multiple public health, socio-economic, and institutional crises. Measures taken to slow the spread of the virus have fostered significant strain between authorities and citizens, leading to waves of social unrest and anti-government demonstrations. We study the temporal nature of pandemic-related disorder events as tallied by the "COVID-19 Disorder Tracker" initiative by focusing on the three countries with the largest number of incidents, India, Israel, and Mexico. By fitting Poisson and Hawkes processes to the stream of data, we find that disorder events are inter-dependent and self-excite in all three countries. Geographic clustering confirms these features at the subnational level, indicating that nationwide disorders emerge as the convergence of meso-scale patterns of self-excitation. Considerable diversity is observed among countries when computing correlations of events between subnational clusters; these are discussed in the context of specific political, societal and geographic characteristics. Israel, the most territorially compact and where large scale protests were coordinated in response to government lockdowns, displays the largest reactivity and the shortest period of influence following an event, as well as the strongest nationwide synchrony. In Mexico, where complete lockdown orders were never mandated, reactivity and nationwide synchrony are lowest. Our work highlights the need for authorities to promote local information campaigns to ensure that livelihoods and virus containment policies are not perceived as mutually exclusive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Civil Disorders , Cluster Analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India/epidemiology , Israel/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 49, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069982

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly infectious disease that has started to creep into African countries including South Sudan. Following confirmation of the first few cases, the government enacted preventive measures to curb community transmission. However, daunting challenges deter these precautionary measures. Just after two years the country took its independence from Sudan, civil conflicts sparked and continue to overburden and undermine the fragile healthcare system. The conflicts have caused disruption of health services, destruction of health facilities, death and migration of health workers, displacements of a huge number of people. This scenario continues while the country is grappling with the pandemic. Other concerning issues include: insufficient COVID-19 testing capacity, limited medical and personal protective equipment and an inadequate number of health workers which leave the country ill-equipped in the battle against the pandemic. Non-compliance of COVID-19 prevention protocols by the general public due to high rate of poverty and social stigma contribute to the spread of the virus. The current situation in South Sudan make evident that there is a need for an immediate ceasefire by the warring sides so the available health services including COVID-19 efforts, are not disrupted to ensure the safety of all. The government needs to further build the capacity of its health sector with the cooperation of its international health allies to be able to provide its citizens with the health services they need.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Capacity Building , Civil Disorders , Humans , Poverty , Social Stigma , South Sudan/epidemiology
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 47, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069980

ABSTRACT

The recent Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the novel strain of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 virus) has become a worldwide public health crisis with associated high mortality rates globally. Human to human transmission of the infection emphasizes the importance of adhering to public and social measure to halt its spread. However, the recent #ENDSARS protests led by angry youths in Nigeria resulted to complete flouting of all WHO guidelines meted to curb the spread of the virus. Given that the nation is the most populous African country with over 50 percent of her population been youths, this situation has huge implications for the country and Africa as a whole. The risk of community transmission occasioned by the protest, coupled with travels and active mobility across countries within the continent increases the risk of community transmission with possible increases in new cases over the next few weeks to months. From the foregoing, it is expedient to increase awareness and enforcement of the use of personal protective equipment especially use of nose masks, face shields and frequent hand washing or sanitizing in public places. These individual-targeted measures will go a long way to curtail the imminent community transmission of COVID-19 across Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that Government and non-governmental agencies across the region actively engage to increase collaborative efforts; screening facilities and access to these services across the country, as well as accentuate regular adherence to preventive measures to the general public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Civil Disorders , Public Health , Adolescent , Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cooperative Behavior , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Masks/standards , Nigeria/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment
11.
Psychiatry Res ; 298: 113773, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065537

ABSTRACT

Large-scale protracted population stressors, such as social unrest and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), are associated with increased symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Cost-effective mental health screening is prerequisite for timely intervention. We developed an online tool to identify prospective predictors of PTSD and depressive symptoms in the context of co-occurring social unrest and COVID-19 in Hong Kong. 150 participants completed baseline and follow-up assessments, with a median duration of 29 days. Three logistic regression models were constructed to assess its discriminative power in predicting PTSD and depressive symptoms at one month. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was performed for each model to determine their optimal decision thresholds. Sensitivity and specificity of the models were 87.1% and 53.8% for probable PTSD, 77.5% and 63.3% for high-risk depressive symptoms, and 44.7% and 96.4% for no significant depressive symptoms. The models performed well in discriminating outcomes (AUCs range: 0.769-0.811). Probable PTSD was predicted by social unrest-related traumatic events, high rumination, and low resilience. Rumination and resilience also predicted high-risk and no significant depressive symptoms, with COVID-19-related events also predicting no significant depression risk. Accessible screening of probable mental health outcomes with good predictive capability may be important for early intervention opportunities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Civil Disorders , Depression/diagnosis , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales/standards , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Adult , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
12.
Dev World Bioeth ; 21(1): 51-54, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780819

ABSTRACT

Democratic Republic of the Congo's fight with Ebola was just settling when WHO declared COVID-19 to be a global pandemic on March 12, 2020. This has caused concomitant setbacks in the treatment and control of major health issues like HIV, tuberculosis, measles, and malaria in the country. This, coupled with civil unrest and risk to the safety of the health workers, is a 'perfect storm' waiting to unfold. Military contingents as peacekeepers are having the most difficult time, handling the situation, in the wake of risks involved.


Subject(s)
Armed Conflicts/ethnology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Civil Disorders/ethnology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Health Workforce , Humans , Poverty/ethnology , Public Health
13.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 59(3): 694-702, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626605

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we analyse the conditions under which the COVID-19 pandemic will lead either to social order (adherence to measures put in place by authorities to control the pandemic) or to social disorder (resistance to such measures and the emergence of open conflict). Using examples from different countries (principally the United Kingdom, the United States, and France), we first isolate three factors which determine whether people accept or reject control measures. These are the historical context of state-public relations, the nature of leadership during the pandemic and procedural justice in the development and operation of these measures. Second, we analyse the way the crisis is policed and how forms of policing determine whether dissent will escalate into open conflict. We conclude by considering the prospects for order/disorder as the pandemic unfolds.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Civil Disorders , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Civil Disorders/legislation & jurisprudence , Civil Disorders/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Conflict, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , France/epidemiology , Government , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Public Opinion , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(6): 1172-1174, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601671

ABSTRACT

The first case of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the Dominican Republic coincided with a period of political crisis. Distrust in governmental institutions shaped the critical phase of early response. Having a weak public health infrastructure and a lack of public trust, the Ministry of Health (MoH) began the fight against COVID-19 with a losing streak. Within 45 days of the first reported case, the political crisis and turmoil caused by "fake news" are limiting the capacity and success of the MoH response to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Media/ethics , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/supply & distribution , Azithromycin/supply & distribution , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Civil Disorders , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Dissent and Disputes , Dominican Republic/epidemiology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/supply & distribution , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/supply & distribution , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Politics , Public Health/economics , Public Health/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust/psychology
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(6): 1175-1177, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-105809

ABSTRACT

Two decades of growing resource availability from agencies and foundations in wealthy countries has transformed approaches to health in poorly resourced nations. This progress looks increasingly unstable as climate change, social unrest, and, now, disruptive pandemics present threats not only to health but also to the mechanisms that manage it, and to funding itself. The growth in "global health" schools, technology development laboratories, nongovernmental organizations and multilateral institutions in donor countries has delivered not only successes but also disappointment, and reflect a paradigm that is in many ways contrary to the principles of population-based ownership that they espouse. Although the COVID-19 crisis has underlined the importance of health access and health service capacity, we may have a limited window of opportunity in which to rethink the current model and improve both efficiency and effectiveness. With a dose of humility, we may all benefit from studying our own rhetoric on human-centered design and applying these principles across global health to ensure that our approach is effective, efficient, and defensible.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Global Health/economics , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Civil Disorders/economics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/trends , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Developed Countries/economics , Developing Countries/economics , Global Health/trends , Humans , International Cooperation , Ownership/economics , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Poverty/economics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
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