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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21725, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504567

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 enters the intestine by the spike protein binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in enterocyte apical membranes, leading to diarrhea in some patients. Early treatment of COVID-19-associated diarrhea could relieve symptoms and limit viral spread within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Diosmectite, an aluminomagnesium silicate adsorbent clay with antidiarrheal effects, is recommended in some COVID-19 management protocols. In rotavirus models, diosmectite prevents pathogenic effects by binding the virus and its enterotoxin. We tested the trapping and anti-inflammatory properties of diosmectite in a SARS-CoV-2 model. Trapping effects were tested in Caco-2 cells using spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 preparations. Trapping was assessed by immunofluorescence, alone or in the presence of cells. The effect of diosmectite on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation and CXCL10 secretion induced by the spike protein RBD and heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed by Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Diosmectite bound the spike protein RBD and SARS-CoV-2 preparation, and inhibited interaction of the spike protein RBD with ACE2 receptors on the Caco-2 cell surface. Diosmectite exposure also inhibited NF-kappaB activation and CXCL10 secretion. These data provide direct evidence that diosmectite can bind SARS-CoV-2 components and inhibit downstream inflammation, supporting a mechanistic rationale for consideration of diosmectite as a management option for COVID-19-associated diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Silicates/chemistry , Adsorption , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Binding Sites , Caco-2 Cells , Chromatography, Liquid , Clay , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/therapy , Enterocytes/metabolism , Gastroenterology , Humans , Magnesium Compounds/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Domains , Rotavirus , Silicates/metabolism
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(12): 17001-17016, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469752

ABSTRACT

The balanced amelioration of mechanical characteristics of fat clay with an additive refers to the attainment of high strength without compromising ductility, which is unattainable by solitary usage of a cementing additive. For this purpose, an amalgamated binary admixture (ABA) is proposed by assimilating shredded face mask (FM) waste, which is posing serious environmental concerns these days, with a cementitious waste material, i.e., silica fume (SF). However, for such ABA, the optimization of mix design is desirable because an excessive amount of one component could disturb the required balance. To address this issue, response surface methodology (RSM) is used in the current study, which is a strong technique used during the process of production to develop, improve, and optimize product inputs. Several experiments are designed and conducted to evaluate mechanical responses, i.e., unconfined compressive strength (qu), brittleness index (IB), deformability index (ID), and California bearing ratio (CBR) value, of treated fat clay by varying mix designs of ABA. Based on the test results, mathematical models are developed which are found to be statistically valid to predict the subjected responses using SF and FM as inputs. Afterward, an optimized mix design is determined by integrating developed models with a desirability function model and setting maximization of strength and ductility as the optimization goals. An ABA having 7.9% SF and 1.2% FM is observed to provide the highest strength and ductility for multiple applications, i.e., road and buildings, with desirability factor close to unity; responses of which are also validated by performing tests. Furthermore, analysis of cleaning aspect shows that the use of optimized ABA in place of cement for subgrade improvement of 1 km two-lane road could avoid CO2 emission of around 79,032 kg of C, save 42,720 kWh and 1174.8 GJ of electrical and thermal energy, respectively, and clean 43 Mg of FM waste; however, astute protocols of COVID-19 FM waste handling and disinfection are needed to be established and followed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Clay , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Silicon Dioxide
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148746, 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284517

ABSTRACT

Not only has the COVID-19 pandemic caused a global health crisis, but it has also changed the dynamics of waste generation around the world. This situation demands a productive solution for face mask (FM) waste management to solve several associated environmental issues. In the current study, a novel soil treatment method is proposed for the improvement of mechanical characteristics of fat clay by using FM as fiber reinforcement and silica fume (SF) as the cementitious agent in the form of a composite binary admixture (CBA). The performance of the proposed CBA is compared with SF and FM as the lone stabilizers by conducting extensive geotechnical testing. The SF treatment exponentially improves the strength characteristics of soil but it marginalizes the ductility of soil, inviting sudden failure and instability under dynamic loadings. It is observed that the proposed CBA not only improves the strength characteristics more than SF but also regulates the ductility and deformability of treated soil due to the presence of FM fibers. In addition, the policies and protocols on the logistics of collecting FM waste and making it ready for the proposed geotechnical application are reviewed; associated health risks, socioeconomic conditions and available technologies are the major governing factors to formulate and implement these policies. Moreover, the prolonged storage of COVID-19 FM waste for disinfection is found to be suitable for the proposed soil stabilization method as per the literature. The current study helps in achieving cost-effective filler/foundation material, solving COVID-19 FM waste problems and promoting resource conservation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Clay , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(20): 3188-3190, 2020 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-811629

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a positive stranded-RNA human viral pathogen that attacks the central nervous system (CNS), causing interminable diseases. Although alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) control the widespread transmission of such pathogens through dermal contact, excessive exposure to alcohol mists and vapors causes CNS disorders, apart from skin infections and negative impacts on the useful microbiome. Herein, we propose bentonite paste, which interacts strongly with different +RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2/poliovirus, for dermal sanitization. Repeated hand cleansing with bentonite paste not only provides complete protection against any viruses but also improves the skin condition. The proposed method is useful for contact isolation and as a strict infection control tool in hospital settings and in public.


Subject(s)
Bentonite/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Clay , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(18): 2786-2788, 2020 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-765996

ABSTRACT

Herein, we propose the use of novel adsorbents, namely micelle clay complexes comprising the clay montmorillonite, coupled with activated carbon for effective eradication of neuropathogenic microbes such as SARS-CoV-2 and Naegleria fowleri from water supplies for ablution/nasal irrigation. These can be incorporated easily to water collection devices, i.e., taps and water bottles, in the domestic setting. These filters are low cost, easy to install, and ideal disinfection systems. Such strategies are particularly useful for communities who have lack of access to safe water supplies, rely heavily on water storage tanks, or lack adequate water sanitation facilities, especially in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Filtration/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Water Purification/methods , Bentonite , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections/prevention & control , Charcoal , Clay , Filtration/instrumentation , Humans , Naegleria fowleri , Nasal Lavage , SARS-CoV-2 , Water Purification/instrumentation
6.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(33): 7335-7351, 2020 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-682492

ABSTRACT

Safe, therapeutically effective, and patient-compliant drug delivery systems are needed to design novel tools and strategies to combat the deadliest of diseases such as cancer, SARS, H7N9 avian influenza, and dengue infection. The major challenges in drug delivery are cytotoxicity, poor biodistribution, insufficient functionality, ineffective drug incorporation in delivery devices, and subsequent drug release. Clay minerals are a class of nanolayered silicates that have good biocompatibility, high specific surface area, chemical inertness, colloid, and thixotropy, and are attractive practical and potential nanomaterials in medicine. These properties enable the usage of nanoclays as drug carriers for the delivery of antibiotics, antihypertensive drugs, anti-psychotic, and anticancer drugs. The review examines the latest advances in nanoclay-based drug delivery systems and related applications in gene therapy and tissue engineering. Clay minerals, particularly montmorillonite, kaolinite, and halloysite are used to delay and/or target drug release or even improve drug dissolution due to their surface charge. Chemical modification of clay minerals such as intercalation of ions into the interlayer space of clay minerals or surface modification of clay minerals is a strategy to tune the properties of nanoclays for the loading and release of a drug. The modified nanoclay can take up drugs by encapsulation, immobilization, ion exchange reaction, or electrostatic interactions. Controlled drug release from the drug-clay originates from the incorporation and interactions between the drug and inorganic layers, including electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding. Montmorillonite has proven non-toxic through hematological, biochemical, and histopathological analyses in rat. Montmorillonite can also act as a potent detoxifier. Halloysite nanotubes can bind synthetic and biological components such as chitosan, gelatin, and alginate innate nanocarriers for the improved loading and controlled release of drugs, proteins, and DNA. The peculiar properties of clay nanoparticles lead to promising applications in drug delivery, gene delivery, tissue engineering, cancer and stem cell isolation, and bioimaging.


Subject(s)
Clay/chemistry , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Nanomedicine/methods , Nanostructures/chemistry , Animals , Drug Liberation , Humans
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