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1.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 37, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793937

ABSTRACT

Climate change, urbanisation, chemical pollution and disruption of ecosystems, including biodiversity loss, affect our health and wellbeing. Research is crucial to be able to respond to the current and future challenges that are often complex and interconnected by nature. The HERA Agenda, summarised in this commentary, identifies six thematic research goals in the environment, climate and health fields. These include research to 1) reduce the effects of climate change and biodiversity loss on health and environment, 2) promote healthy lives in cities and communities, 3) eliminate harmful chemical exposures, 4) improve health impact assessment and implementation research, 5) develop infrastructures, technologies and human resources and 6) promote research on transformational change towards sustainability. Numerous specific recommendations for research topics, i.e., specific research goals, are presented under each major research goal. Several methods were used to define the priorities, including web-based surveys targeting researchers and stakeholder groups as well as a series of online and face-to-face workshops, involving hundreds of researchers and other stakeholders. The results call for an unprecedented effort to support a better understanding of the causes, interlinkages and impacts of environmental stressors on health and the environment. This will require breakdown of silos within policies, research, actors as well as in our institutional arrangements in order to enable more holistic approaches and solutions to emerge. The HERA project has developed a unique and exciting opportunity in Europe to consensuate priorities in research and strengthen research that has direct societal impact.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Ecosystem , Cities , Europe , Humans , Urbanization
2.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 14(1): e1-e12, 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  Climate change presents an unprecedented and urgent threat to human health and survival. South Africa's health response will require a strong and effective intersectoral organisational effort. AIM:  Exploratory interview outcomes are used to advance practice and policy recommendations, as well as for broad input in the development of a draft national framework for a health risk and vulnerability assessment (RVA) for national departments. SETTING:  Nationally in South Africa. METHOD:  Twenty key expert interviews were conducted with South African experts in the field of climate change and health. Interview data was analysed by means of thematic content analysis. RESULTS:  Findings suggest that previously poor communities are most at risk to the impacts of climate change on health, as well as those with underlying medical conditions. Climate change may also serve as a catalyst for improving the healthcare system overall and should serve as the conduit to do so. A draft climate change and health RVA should take into account existing frameworks and should be implemented by local government. It is also critical that the health and health system impacts from climate change are well understood, especially in light of the plans to implement the (South African) National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme. CONCLUSION:  Practice and policy initiatives should be holistic in nature. Consideration should be given to forming a South African National Department of Climate Change, or a similar coordinating body between the various national departments in South Africa, as health intercepts with all other domains within the climate change field.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , National Health Programs , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , South Africa
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785643

ABSTRACT

Environmental audit is inevitably linked to climate change, one immediate target of the auditors is likely to be climate control, and the warming of the Earth and the consequent climatic changes affect us all. What is the link between environmental audit and climate change? What ties together some of these themes between environmental audit and climate change? The interaction between climate change and environmental audit has been one of the most challenging. In this paper, a scientometric analysis of 84 academic publications between 2013 and 2021 related to climate change and environmental audit is presented to characterize the knowledge domain by using the CiteSpace visualization software. First, we present the number of publications, the number of citations, research categories, and journals published through Web of Science database. Secondly, we analyze countries, authors, and journals with outstanding contributions through network analysis. Finally, we use keyword analysis and apply three types of knowledge mapping to our research, cluster view, timeline view, and time zone view, revealing the focus and future directions. We identify the most important topic in the field of climate change and environment audit as represented on the basis of existing literature data which include the Carbon Emissions, Social Capital, Energy Audit, Corporate Governance, Diffusion of Innovation Environmental Management System, and Audit Committee. The results show that climate change and environmental audit publications grew slowly, but the research are widely cited by scholars. Published journals are relatively scattered, but the cited journals are the world's top journals, and most research countries are developed countries. The most productive authors and institutions in this subject area are in UK, Australia, USA, Spain, and Netherlands. There are no leading figures, but the content of their research can be divided into six clusters. Future research content involving city, policy, dynamics, information, biodiversity, conservation and clustering social capital, diffusion of innovation environmental management, and audit committee are the directions for future research. It is worth noting that cities, policies, and adaptability are closely linked to public health.


Subject(s)
Bibliometrics , Climate Change , Cities , Knowledge , Publications
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e053922, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Malaria is a vector-borne disease that remains a serious public health problem due to its climatic sensitivity. Accurate prediction of malaria re-emergence is very important in taking corresponding effective measures. This study aims to investigate the impact of climatic factors on the re-emergence of malaria in mainland China. DESIGN: A modelling study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Monthly malaria cases for four Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax and other Plasmodium) and monthly climate data were collected for 31 provinces; malaria cases from 2004 to 2016 were obtained from the Chinese centre for disease control and prevention and climate parameters from China meteorological data service centre. We conducted analyses at the aggregate level, and there was no involvement of confidential information. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The long short-term memory sequence-to-sequence (LSTMSeq2Seq) deep neural network model was used to predict the re-emergence of malaria cases from 2004 to 2016, based on the influence of climatic factors. We trained and tested the extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), gated recurrent unit, LSTM, LSTMSeq2Seq models using monthly malaria cases and corresponding meteorological data in 31 provinces of China. Then we compared the predictive performance of models using root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute error evaluation measures. RESULTS: The proposed LSTMSeq2Seq model reduced the mean RMSE of the predictions by 19.05% to 33.93%, 18.4% to 33.59%, 17.6% to 26.67% and 13.28% to 21.34%, for P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and other plasmodia, respectively, as compared with other candidate models. The LSTMSeq2Seq model achieved an average prediction accuracy of 87.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The LSTMSeq2Seq model significantly improved the prediction of malaria re-emergence based on the influence of climatic factors. Therefore, the LSTMSeq2Seq model can be effectively applied in the malaria re-emergence prediction.


Subject(s)
Deep Learning , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , China/epidemiology , Climate Change , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology
6.
Global Health ; 18(1): 35, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After nearly a quarter-century of declining poverty, the numbers are rising again significantly. This is due not only to effects of climate change but also to the COVID-19 pandemics and armed conflict. Combined with the enormous health impacts, that will cause misery and health care costs worldwide. Therefore, this study provides background information on the global research landscape on poverty and health to help researchers, stakeholders, and policymakers determine the best way to address this threat. RESULTS: The USA is the key player, dealing mainly with domestic issues. European countries are also involved but tend to be more internationally oriented. Developing countries are underrepresented, with Nigeria standing out. A positive correlation was found between publication numbers and economic strength, while the relationship between article numbers and multidimensional poverty was negatively correlated. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the need for advanced networking and the benefits of cross-disciplinary research to mitigate the coming impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Climate Change , Europe , Humans , Nigeria , Poverty
7.
J Community Health ; 47(1): 163-167, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748459

ABSTRACT

Current day youth have an important role in climate activism, as the decisions and policies made now will have long lasting impacts on the climate and sustainability. Climate change is becoming an increasing concern for younger generations. As such, the purpose of this study was to describe content related to climate change on TikTok. This study included 100 English-language videos related to climate change featured on TikTok. The hashtag #climatechange was chosen because it had the most views of any related hashtag at the time of the study. The number of views, comments, and likes were recorded for each video. Each video was also observed for the presence of predetermined content characteristics. The 100 videos sampled collectively received 205,551,200 views, 40, 203,400 likes, and 666,089 comments. Only eight of the 100 videos included information from a reputable source. Only three of the characteristics were featured in a majority (> 50) of the videos. These were, presents climate change as real (93), affected populations (76), and climate anxiety/frustration (57). Videos mentioning natural disasters garnered 63,453,100 (30.87%) views, 14,245,200 (35.43%) likes, and 236,493 (35.50%) comments. In all, 73 of the 100 videos mentioned at least one environmental impact. Videos including this theme earned 156,677,200 (76.22%) views, 32,000,700 (79.60%) likes, and 563,195 (84.55%) comments. Social media platforms such as TikTok are important tools for understanding popular opinion regarding public health issues such as global climate change. However, the presence of credible professionals is essential on platforms such as TikTok to increase the chances that messaging is as comprehensive as time allows, while also being scientifically sound.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Adolescent , Climate Change , Emotions , Humans , Public Health , Video Recording
8.
Science ; 375(6585): 1069, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736010

ABSTRACT

As the world reflects on 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic, we need to change how to tackle the enormous challenges of the future. The good news is that the past 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic have shown that change is possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Climate Change , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Public Health
10.
Br J Gen Pract ; 72(714): 26-27, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732292
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3473, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721582

ABSTRACT

China's carbon peak greatly impacts global climate targets. Limited studies have comprehensively analyzed the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic, changing emission network, and recent carbon intensity (CI) reduction on the carbon peak and the corresponding mitigation implications. Using a unique dataset at different levels, we project China's CO2 emission by 2035 and analyze the time, volume, driver patterns, complex emission network, and policy implications of China's carbon peak in the post- pandemic era. We develop an ensemble time-series model with machine learning approaches as the projection benchmark, and show that China's carbon peak will be achieved by 2021-2026 with > 80% probability. Most Chinese cities and counties have not achieved carbon peaks response to the priority-peak policy and the current implementation of CI reduction should thus be strengthened. While there is a "trade off" between the application of carbon emission reduction technology and economic recovery in the post-pandemic era, a close cooperation of interprovincial CO2 emission is also warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Climate Change , Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods , Pandemics , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Int J Health Serv ; 52(2): 189-200, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714524

ABSTRACT

Extreme weather events (EWEs) affected health in every world region during 2021, placing the planet in "uncharted territory." Portraying the human impacts of EWEs is part of a health frame that suggests public knowledge of these risks will spur support for needed policy change. The health frame has gained traction since the Paris COP21 (United Nations Climate Change Conference) and arguably helped to achieve modest progress at the Glasgow COP26. However, reporting rarely covers the full picture of health impacts from EWEs, instead focusing on cost of damages, mortality, and displacement. This review summarizes data for 30 major EWEs of 2021 and, based on the epidemiological literature, discusses morbidity-related exposures for four hazards that marked the year: wildfire smoke; extreme cold and power outages; extreme, precipitation-related flooding; and drought. A very large likely burden of morbidity was found, with particularly widespread exposure to risk of respiratory outcomes (including interactions with COVID-19) and mental illnesses. There is need for a well-disseminated global annual report on EWE morbidity, including affected population estimates and evolving science. In this way, the public health frame may be harnessed to bolster evidence for the broader and promising frame of "urgency and agency" for climate change action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extreme Weather , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Climate Change , Female , Humans , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Sheep , Weather
14.
J Nurs Scholarsh ; 54(1): 5-6, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685364

Subject(s)
Climate Change , Humans
15.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686894

ABSTRACT

The Valparaiso region in Chile was decreed a zone affected by catastrophe in 2019 as a consequence of one of the driest seasons of the last 50 years. In this study, three varieties ('Alfa-INIA', 'California-INIA', and one landrace, 'Local Navidad') of kabuli-type chickpea seeds produced in 2018 (control) and 2019 (climate-related catastrophe, hereafter named water stress) were evaluated for their grain yield. Furthermore, the flavonoid profile of both free and esterified phenolic extracts was determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the concentration of the main flavonoid, biochanin A, was determined using liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The grain yield was decreased by up to 25 times in 2019. The concentration of biochanin A was up to 3.2 times higher in samples from the second season (water stress). This study demonstrates that water stress induces biosynthesis of biochanin A. However, positive changes in the biochanin A concentration are overshadowed by negative changes in the grain yield. Therefore, water stress, which may be worsened by climate change in the upcoming years, may jeopardize both the production of chickpeas and the supply of biochanin A, a bioactive compound that can be used to produce dietary supplements and/or nutraceuticals.


Subject(s)
Cicer/chemistry , Cicer/metabolism , Dehydration/metabolism , Chile , Chromatography, Liquid , Cicer/growth & development , Climate Change/economics , Edible Grain/growth & development , Edible Grain/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Mass Spectrometry , Phenols/analysis , Seeds/chemistry
16.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 132(3)2022 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687651

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a chronic disease associated with increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk, excessive morbidity and mortality worldwide. The authors of the present consensus, clinicians representing medical specialties related to the treatment of obesity and its complications, reviewed a number of European and American guidelines, published mostly in 2019-2021, and summarized the principles of obesity management to provide a practical guidance considering the impact that increased adiposity poses to health. From a clinical perspective, the primary goal of obesity treatment is to prevent or slow down the progression of diseases associated with obesity, reduce metabolic and cardiovascular risk, and improve the quality of life by achieving adequate and stable weight reduction. However, obesity should be not only considered a disease requiring treatment in an individual patient, but also a civilization disease requiring preventive measures at the populational level. Despite the evident benefits, obesity management within the health care system-whether through pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery-is only a symptomatic treatment, with all its limitations, and will not ultimately solve the problem of obesity. The important message is that available treatment options fail to correct the true drivers of the obesity pandemic. To this end, new solutions and efforts to prevent obesity in the populations are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Climate Change , Consensus , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/therapy , United States
17.
Nature ; 602(7895): 33, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683958
20.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0256082, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637983

ABSTRACT

There are concerns that climate change attention is waning as competing global threats intensify. To investigate this possibility, we analyzed all link shares and reshares on Meta's Facebook platform (e.g., shares and reshares of news articles) in the United States from August 2019 to December 2020 (containing billions of aggregated and de-identified shares and reshares). We then identified all link shares and reshares on "climate change" and "global warming" from this repository to develop a social media salience index-the Climate SMSI score-and found an 80% decrease in climate change content sharing and resharing as COVID-19 spread during the spring of 2020. Climate change salience then briefly rebounded in the autumn of 2020 during a period of record-setting wildfires and droughts in the United States before returning to low content sharing and resharing levels. This fluctuating pattern suggests new climate communication strategies-focused on "systemic sustainability"-are necessary in an age of competing global crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Warming , Social Media , COVID-19/virology , Climate Change , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons , United States/epidemiology , Wildfires
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