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1.
Int J STD AIDS ; 33(6): 604-607, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: BASHH/MEDFASH (Medical Foundation for HIV and Sexual Health) Standards for the Management of Sexual Health Services 20141 set out a number of recommendations regarding time between contacting a service to being seen, time to receiving results, and time to treatment. This audit investigated if UK practice is compliant with BASHH standards of care in terms of: Time to patient being seen after contacting sexual health services, time to chlamydia (CT) NAAT (nucleic acid amplification test) results and time from positive CT result to treatment. METHODS: All UK level 2 (non-specialist) and level 3 (specialist) sexual health clinics were invited to take part. Data were collected via a survey of sexual health clinics and a retrospective case-note review of the last 40 people aged 16 or over per service seen with chlamydia but not syphilis or gonorrhoea. Cases were identified using the SHHAPT (Sexual Health and HIV Activity Types) National STI Surveillance code for chlamydia (C4). RESULTS: There were responses from 221 sites. 67% of sites reported offering both appointment and walk-in access, 26.2% appointment-only, 6.8% walk-in only. The mean turn-away rate of individuals seeking walk-in access on the last open day was 6.1%. There were variations in local service specification turnaround times for chlamydia nucleic acid amplification test results; 32% of sites reported no specified turnaround time. Case note audit of individuals seen with chlamydia showed 74.1% of individuals were tested for chlamydia at a level 3 clinic, 11.8% at a level 2 sexual health clinic, 7.3% used a self-sampling kit requested online and 3.9% tested at a different setting. 92.1% of individuals who initially tested at a sexual health service had an attempted notification within 10 working days of a positive chlamydia test. 95% of individuals were treated within a sexual health service. Overall, 94.0% of individuals were treated within 15 working days of the test result. CONCLUSION: When missing data were excluded, patient initiated GUM/level 3 attenders seen within 2 working days met the audit standard as did patient access to results within 10-working days for those whose initial CT NAAT sample was taken at a GUM/level 3 clinic and treatment within 3 weeks for GUM/level 3 attenders. Patients offered to be seen/assessed within 2 working days and lab report within 5 working days did not meet the audit standard. Recommendations include ensuring that laboratory turn-around times are included in contracts or service level agreements for clinical services, and local monitoring of these. Dates when individuals first seek to access sexual health services should also be recorded and used to monitor performance in comparison with access standards.


Subject(s)
Chlamydia Infections , HIV Infections , Sexual Health , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/drug therapy , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis , Clinical Audit , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Patient Compliance , Retrospective Studies
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e057269, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794495

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report the reduction in new neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) referrals during the COVID-19 pandemic and estimate the impact of delayed treatment on visual outcomes at 1 year. DESIGN: Retrospective clinical audit and simulation model. SETTING: Multiple UK National Health Service (NHS) ophthalmology centres. PARTICIPANTS: Data on the reduction in new nAMD referrals were obtained from four NHS Trusts comparing April 2020 with April 2019. To estimate the potential impact on 1-year visual outcomes, a stratified bootstrap simulation model was developed drawing on an electronic medical records dataset of 20 825 nAMD eyes from 27 NHS Trusts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Simulated mean visual acuity and proportions of eyes with vision ≤6/60, ≤6/24 and ≥6/12 at 1 year under four hypothetical scenarios: 0-month, 3-month, 6-month and 9-month treatment delays. Estimated additional number of eyes with vision ≤6/60 at 1 year nationally. RESULTS: The number of nAMD referrals dropped on average by 72% (range 65%-87%). Simulated 1-year visual outcomes for 1000 nAMD eyes with a 3-month treatment delay suggested an increase in the proportion of eyes with vision ≤6/60 from 15.5% (13.2%-17.9%) to 23.3% (20.7%-25.9%), and a decrease in the proportion of eyes with vision ≥6/12 (driving vision) from 35.1% (32.1%-38.1%) to 26.4% (23.8%-29.2%). Outcomes worsened incrementally with longer modelled delays. Assuming nAMD referrals are reduced to this level for 1 month nationally, these simulated results suggest an additional 186-365 eyes with vision ≤6/60 at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: We report a large decrease in nAMD referrals during the COVID-19 lockdown and provide an important public health message regarding the risk of delayed treatment. As a conservative estimate, a treatment delay of 3 months could lead to a >50% relative increase in the number of eyes with vision ≤6/60 and 25% relative decrease in the number of eyes with driving vision at 1 year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Degeneration , Wet Macular Degeneration , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Audit , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Macular Degeneration/epidemiology , Pandemics , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , State Medicine , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vision Disorders , Wet Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Wet Macular Degeneration/epidemiology
3.
Health Soc Care Community ; 30(1): 353-359, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574075

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is a vital health care initiative to prevent individual and population infection. To increase vaccination rates the federal government implemented the 'No Jab, No Pay' policy, where eligibility for several government benefits required children to be fully vaccinated by removing 'conscientious objections' and expanding the age range of children whose families receive benefits. This study assesses the impact of this policy at a local area within a single medical practice community in NSW, Australia. A retrospective clinical audit was performed between 2012 and 2017 on a single general practice's vaccination records for children ≤19 years. Catch-up vaccinations were assessed based on age at vaccination. Incidence of catch-up vaccinations was assessed for each of four years before and two years after the implementation of the 'No Jab, No Pay' policy in January 2016, along with the age of children and vaccination(s) given. Catch-up vaccinations were assessed temporally either side of implementation of 'No Jab, No Pay'. Comparing the average annual vaccination catch-up incidence rate of 6.2% pre-implementation (2012-2015), there was an increase to 9.2% in 2016 (p < .001) and 7.8% in 2017 (p = .027). Secondary outcome measurement of catch-up vaccination incidence rates before (2012-2015) and after (2016-2017) 'No Jab, No Pay' implementation showed statistically significant increases for children aged 8-11 years (3.2%-5.6%, p = .038), 12-15 years (7.5%-14.7%, p < .001) and 16-19 years (3.3%-10.2%, p < .001) along with a statistically significant reduction in children aged 1-3 years (11.4%-6.2%, p = .015). Also, catch-up rates for DTPa significantly increased after program implementation. This study demonstrates that the Australian federal government vaccination policy 'No Jab, No Pay' was coincident with an increase in catch-up vaccinations within a rural NSW community served by one medical practice, especially for older children.


Subject(s)
Policy , Vaccination , Adolescent , Australia , Child , Clinical Audit , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies
6.
BJS Open ; 5(4)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has brought an unprecedented challenge to healthcare services. The authors' COVID-adapted pathway for suspected bowel cancer combines two quantitative faecal immunochemical tests (qFITs) with a standard CT scan with oral preparation (CT mini-prep). The aim of this study was to estimate the degree of risk mitigation and residual risk of undiagnosed colorectal cancer. METHOD: Decision-tree models were developed using a combination of data from the COVID-adapted pathway (April-May 2020), a local audit of qFIT for symptomatic patients performed since 2018, relevant data (prevalence of colorectal cancer and sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tools) obtained from literature and a local cancer data set, and expert opinion for any missing data. The considered diagnostic scenarios included: single qFIT; two qFITs; single qFIT and CT mini-prep; two qFITs and CT mini-prep (enriched pathway). These were compared to the standard diagnostic pathway (colonoscopy or CT virtual colonoscopy (CTVC)). RESULTS: The COVID-adapted pathway included 422 patients, whereas the audit of qFIT included more than 5000 patients. The risk of missing a colorectal cancer, if present, was estimated as high as 20.2 per cent with use of a single qFIT as a triage test. Using both a second qFIT and a CT mini-prep as add-on tests reduced the risk of missed cancer to 6.49 per cent. The trade-off was an increased rate of colonoscopy or CTVC, from 287 for a single qFIT to 418 for the double qFIT and CT mini-prep combination, per 1000 patients. CONCLUSION: Triage using qFIT alone could lead to a high rate of missed cancers. This may be reduced using CT mini-prep as an add-on test for triage to colonoscopy or CTVC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors/statistics & numerical data , Occult Blood , Triage/organization & administration , Clinical Audit , Colonoscopy , Decision Trees , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Humans , Scotland , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Diabet Med ; 38(9): e14616, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249409

ABSTRACT

The National Diabetes Audit (NDA) collates and analyses data on the quality and variation in clinical care and outcomes for people with diabetes. It also provides opportunities to assess trends, determinants, and outcomes of diabetes to help guide clinical and public health priorities. COHORT: Between 1 January 2003 and 31 March 2020, a total of 5,280,885 people diagnosed with diabetes were included in at least one NDA data collection. To this date, median follow-up was 12 and 8 years for people with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes respectively. Comparisons with the 2019/20 Quality and Outcomes Framework show it included 98% of adults in England and Wales with diagnosed type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Data include demographic characteristics (age, sex, ethnicity, age at diagnosis, deprivation), risk factors (HbA1c , blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, smoking status) diabetic and cardiovascular complications and deaths. SECONDARY ANALYSIS: Secondary analyses have included comparisons of HbA1c and blood pressure measurements in cohorts with similar characteristics to the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study and the UK Prospective Diabetes Study; COVID-19 related mortality in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and incidence of type 2 diabetes following admission to intensive care units. FUTURE PLANS: Commissioned NDA reports will continue to inform service development in England and Wales. The same data, with or without linkages to other external datasets, are also a rich resource for clinically orientated research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Audit , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Pressure , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , England/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Health Care , Treatment Outcome , Wales/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 7(4): 378-387, 2021 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246705

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We hypothesized that a decline in admissions with heart failure during COVID-19 pandemic would lead to a reciprocal rise in mortality for patients with heart failure in the community. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used National Heart Failure Audit data to identify 36 974 adults who had a hospital admission with a primary diagnosis of heart failure between February and May in either 2018, 2019, or 2020. Hospital admissions for heart failure in 2018/19 averaged 160/day but were much lower in 2020, reaching a nadir of 64/day on 27 March 2020 [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.42]. The proportion discharged on guideline-recommended pharmacotherapies was similar in 2018/19 compared to the same period in 2020. Between 1 February-2020 and 31 May 2020, there was a 29% decrease in hospital deaths related to heart failure (IRR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.67-0.75; estimated decline of 448 deaths), a 31% increase in heart failure deaths at home (IRR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.24-1.39; estimated excess 539), and a 28% increase in heart failure deaths in care homes and hospices (IRR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18-1.40; estimated excess 189). All-cause, inpatient death was similar in the COVID-19 and pre-COVID-19 periods [odds ratio (OR): 1.02, 95% CI: 0.94-1.10]. After hospital discharge, 30-day mortality was higher in 2020 compared to 2018/19 (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.38-1.78). CONCLUSION: Compared with the rolling daily average in 2018/19, there was a substantial decline in admissions for heart failure but an increase in deaths from heart failure in the community. Despite similar rates of prescription of guideline-recommended therapy, mortality 30 days from discharge was higher during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Heart Failure , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cause of Death , Clinical Audit/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Male , Mortality , Quality of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , State Medicine/standards , State Medicine/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(4): 782-787, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215141

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, incidence of hip fracture has not changed. Evidence has shown increased mortality rates associated with COVID-19 infection. However, little is known about the outcomes of COVID-19 negative patients in a pandemic environment. In addition, the impact of vitamin D levels on mortality in COVID-19 hip fracture patients has yet to be determined. METHODS: This multicentre observational study included 1,633 patients who sustained a hip fracture across nine hospital trusts in North West England. Data were collected for three months from March 2020 and for the same period in 2019. Patients were matched by Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS), hospital, and fracture type. We looked at the mortality outcomes of COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative patients sustaining a hip fracture. We also looked to see if vitamin D levels had an impact on mortality. RESULTS: The demographics of the 2019 and 2020 groups were similar, with a slight increase in proportion of male patients in the 2020 group. The 30-day mortality was 35.6% in COVID-19 positive patients and 7.8% in the COVID-19 negative patients. There was a potential association of decreasing vitamin D levels and increasing mortality rates for COVID-19 positive patients although our findings did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: In 2020 there was a significant increase in 30-day mortality rates of patients who were COVID-19 positive but not of patients who were COVID-19 negative. Low levels of vitamin D may be associated with high mortality rates in COVID-19 positive patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(4):782-787.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hip Fractures/etiology , Hip Fractures/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Audit , Female , Hip Fractures/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Matched-Pair Analysis , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
10.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(4): 681-688, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166984

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The primary aim was to assess the rate of postoperative COVID-19 following hip and knee arthroplasty performed in March 2020 in the UK. The secondary aims were to assess whether there were clinical factors associated with COVID-19 status, the mortality rate of patients with COVID-19, and the rate of potential COVID-19 in patients not presenting to healthcare services. METHODS: A multicentre retrospective study was conducted of patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (1 March 2020 to 31 March 2020) with a minimum of 60 days follow-up. Patient demographics, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, procedure type, primary or revision, length of stay (LOS), COVID-19 test status, and postoperative mortality were recorded. A subgroup of patients (n = 211) who had not presented to healthcare services after discharge were contacted and questioned as to whether they had symptoms of COVID-19. RESULTS: Five (0.5%) of 1,073 patients who underwent hip or knee arthroplasty tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 postoperatively. When adjusting for confounding factors, increasing LOS (p = 0.022) was the only significant factor associated with developing COVID-19 following surgery and a stay greater than three days was a reliable predictor with an area under the curve of 81% (p = 0.018). There were three (0.3%) deaths in the study cohort and the overall mortality rate attributable to COVID-19 was 0.09% (n = 1/1,073), with one (20%) of the five patients with COVID-19 dying postoperatively. Of the 211 patients contacted, two had symptoms within two to 14 days postoperatively with a positive predictive value of 31% and it was therefore estimated that one patient may have had undiagnosed COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The rate of postoperative COVID-19 was 0.5% and may have been as high as 1% when accounting for those patients not presenting to healthcare services, which was similar to the estimated population prevalence during the study period. The overall mortality rate secondary to COVID-19 was low (0.09%), however the mortality rate for those patients developing COVID-19 was 20%. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(4):681-688.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Audit , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Survival Analysis , United Kingdom/epidemiology
11.
J Intern Med ; 290(2): 349-358, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Radiological and pathological studies in severe COVID-19 pneumonia (SARS-CoV-2) have demonstrated extensive pulmonary immunovascular thrombosis and infarction. This study investigated whether these focal changes may present with chest pain mimicking pulmonary emoblism (PE) in ambulant patients. METHODS: CTPAs from outpatients presenting with chest pain to Leeds Teaching Hospital NHS Trust 1st March to 31 May 2020 (n = 146) and 2019 (n = 85) were compared. Regions of focal ground glass opacity (GGO), consolidation and/or atelectasis (parenchymal changes) were determined, and all scans were scored using British Society for Thoracic Imaging (BSTI) criteria for COVID-19, and the 2020 cohort was offered SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing. RESULTS: Baseline demographic and clinical data were similar between groups with absence of fever, normal lymphocytes and marginally elevated CRP and D-Dimer values. Evidence of COVID-19 or parenchymal changes was observed in 32.9% (48/146) of cases in 2020 compared to 16.5% (14/85) in 2019 (P = 0.007). 11/146 (7.5%) patients met BSTI criteria for COVID-19 in 2020 compared with 0/14 in 2019 (P = 0.008). 3/39 patients tested had detectable COVID-19 antibodies (2 with parenchymal changes and 1 with normal parenchyma) however 0/6 patients whose CTPA met BSTI criteria "likely/suspicious for COVID-19" and attended antibody testing were SARS-CoV-2 antibody positive. CONCLUSIONS: 32.8% ambulatory patients with suspected PE in 2020 had parenchymal changes with 7.5% diagnosed as COVID-19 infection by imaging criteria, despite the absence of other COVID-19 symptoms. These findings suggest that localized COVID-19 pneumonitis with immunothrombosis occurs distal to the bronchiolar arteriolar circulation, causing pleural irritation and chest pain without viraemia, accounting for the lack of fever and systemic symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Chest Pain/etiology , Clinical Audit , Computed Tomography Angiography , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
12.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(4): 454-460, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, hospitals have strengthened their guidelines on infection prevention and control (IPC), and a rigorous adherence to these guidelines is crucial. An infection control surveillance-working group (ICS-WG) and infection control coordinators (ICCs) team were created to monitor the IPC practices of the healthcare workers (HCWs) in a regional hospital in Korea. This study analyzed the surveillance results and aimed to identify what IPC practices needed improvement. METHODS: During phase 1 (March to April 2020), the ICS-WG performed random audits, recorded incidences of improper IPC practices, and provided advice to the violators. During phase 2 (April to July), the ICCs inspected the hospital units and proposed practical ideas about IPC. The surveillance and proposals targeted the following practices: patient screening, usage of personal protective equipment (PPE), hand and respiratory hygiene, equipment reprocessing, environmental cleaning, management of medical waste, and social distancing. RESULTS: In phase 1, of the 127 violations observed, most (32.3%) corresponded to hand and respiratory hygiene. In phase 2, the highest proportion of violation per category was observed in the management of medical waste (37.8%); among these, a higher proportion of violation (71.4%) was observed in the collection of medical waste. Of the 106 proposals made by the ICCs, the most addressed practice was patient screening (28.3%). No case of nosocomial infection was reported during the study period. CONCLUSION: Adherence to proper hand and respiratory hygiene was inadequate at the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results indicate that more attention and further training are needed for the management of medical waste, particularly medical waste collection, and that continuous upgrading of the strategies for patient screening is essential. These results will be useful in helping other healthcare facilities to establish their IPC strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel , Infection Control , Clinical Audit , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Pandemics , Republic of Korea
13.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(4): 782-787, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052425

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, incidence of hip fracture has not changed. Evidence has shown increased mortality rates associated with COVID-19 infection. However, little is known about the outcomes of COVID-19 negative patients in a pandemic environment. In addition, the impact of vitamin D levels on mortality in COVID-19 hip fracture patients has yet to be determined. METHODS: This multicentre observational study included 1,633 patients who sustained a hip fracture across nine hospital trusts in North West England. Data were collected for three months from March 2020 and for the same period in 2019. Patients were matched by Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS), hospital, and fracture type. We looked at the mortality outcomes of COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative patients sustaining a hip fracture. We also looked to see if vitamin D levels had an impact on mortality. RESULTS: The demographics of the 2019 and 2020 groups were similar, with a slight increase in proportion of male patients in the 2020 group. The 30-day mortality was 35.6% in COVID-19 positive patients and 7.8% in the COVID-19 negative patients. There was a potential association of decreasing vitamin D levels and increasing mortality rates for COVID-19 positive patients although our findings did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: In 2020 there was a significant increase in 30-day mortality rates of patients who were COVID-19 positive but not of patients who were COVID-19 negative. Low levels of vitamin D may be associated with high mortality rates in COVID-19 positive patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(4):782-787.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hip Fractures/etiology , Hip Fractures/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Audit , Female , Hip Fractures/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Matched-Pair Analysis , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
15.
Int Ophthalmol ; 41(4): 1437-1443, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to provide real-life data about the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the practice of anti-VEGF injections and to evaluate the safety of the modifications in the injection protocol imposed during the ongoing pandemic on the anatomical and functional outcome of patients. METHODS: All patients attending Tanta University hospital for receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF injections were screened. Patients who were previously deferred according to a modified protocol implemented in the hospital in response to the pandemic or who demonstrated deviation from it were included for further analysis. RESULTS: During the audit period, 83 patients attending for anti-VEGF injections were screened, of whom 40 met the abovementioned criteria and were included for analysis. In the deferred subgroup (11 eyes), predeferral mean values of logMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal subfield thickness (CST) were 1 ± 0.23 and 444.57 ± 200.1 µm, respectively. There was no significant change when the patients returned for their deferred injections, with the mean BCVA and CST values being 0.8 ± 0.22 and 413.71 ± 237.7 µm, respectively (p = 0.27 and p = 0.12). Moreover, 29 patients encountered a disturbed injection schedule, particularly skipping their injection appointments due to infection fear as found in 18 patients. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed pressing challenges in maintaining essential health care while ensuring the prevention of spread of infection. Although the modified injection protocol confirmed to be safe for patients, the pandemic caused deflection from the optimum practice in the form of successive skipping of appointments and delays in the processing of patient injection schedules.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Bevacizumab/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Edema , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Clinical Audit , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome , Visual Acuity
16.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 46(2): 363-372, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955613

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report changes in practice brought about by COVID-19 and the implementation of new guidelines for the management of tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscess (PTA), and to explore factors relating to unscheduled re-presentations for patients discharged from the emergency department (ED). DESIGN: Prospective multicentre national audit over 12 weeks from 6 April 2020. SETTING: UK secondary care ENT departments. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients with acute tonsillitis or PTA. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Re-presentation within 10 days for patients discharged from the ED. RESULTS: 83 centres submitted 765 tonsillitis and 416 PTA cases. 54.4% (n = 410) of tonsillitis and 45.3% (187/413) of PTAs were discharged from ED. 9.6% (39/408) of tonsillitis and 10.3% (19/184) of PTA discharges re-presented within 10 days, compared to 9.7% (33/341) and 10.6% (24/224) for those admitted from ED. The subsequent admission rate of those initially discharged from ED was 4.7% for tonsillitis and 3.3% for PTAs. IV steroids and antibiotics increased the percentage of patients able to swallow from 35.8% to 72.5% for tonsillitis (n = 270/754 and 441/608) and from 22.3% to 71.0% for PTA (n = 92/413 and 265/373). 77.2% of PTAs underwent drainage (n = 319/413), with no significant difference in re-presentations in those drained vs not-drained (10.6% vs 9.5%, n = 15/142 vs 4/42, P = .846). Univariable logistic regression showed no significant predictors of re-presentation within 10 days. CONCLUSIONS: Management of tonsillitis and PTA changed during the initial peak of the pandemic, shifting towards outpatient care. Some patients who may previously have been admitted to hospital may be safely discharged from the ED.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Audit/methods , Disease Management , Pandemics , Patient Admission/trends , Tonsillitis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Tonsillitis/therapy , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(2): 231-237, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871475

ABSTRACT

AIMS: People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) face the daily task of implementing self-management strategies to achieve their glycaemic goals. The UK COVID-19 lockdown has had an impact on day-to-day behaviour, which may affect diabetes self-management and outcomes. We assessed whether sensor-based outcomes pre- and during lockdown periods were different in a cohort of glucose sensor users with T1D. METHODS: Data were collected from Freestyle Libre (FSL) or Dexcom G6 sensor users who remotely shared their data with the diabetes clinic web platform. Sensor metrics according to international consensus were analysed and compared between pre-lockdown period and 2 and 3 weeks into lockdown (periods 1 and 2). RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-nine T1D patients (baseline HbA1c 57 ± 14 mmol/mol) were identified as FSL (n = 190) or Dexcom G6 (n = 79) users. In patients with sensor use > 70% (N = 223), compared to pre-lockdown period percentage TIR 3.9-10 mM (TIR) significantly increased during period 1 (59.6 ± 18.2 vs. 57.5 ± 17.2%, p = 0.002) and period 2 (59.3 ± 18.3 vs. 57.5 ± 17.2%, p = 0.035). The proportion of patients achieving TIR ≥ 70% increased from 23.3% pre-lockdown to 27.8% in period 1 and 30.5% in period 2. A higher proportion also achieved the recommended time below and above range, and coefficient of variation in periods 1 and 2. Dexcom G6 users had significantly lower % time below range (< 3.9 mM) compared to FSL users during both lockdown periods (period 1: Dexcom G6 vs. FSL: 1.8% vs. 4%; period 2: 1.4% vs. 4%, p < 0.005 for both periods). CONCLUSION: Sensor-based glycaemic outcomes in people with T1D in the current cohort improved during COVID-19 lockdown, which may be associated with positive changes in self-management strategies. Further work is required to evaluate long-term sustainability and support.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Quarantine , Remote Sensing Technology/instrumentation , Telemedicine , Adult , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , Clinical Audit , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Computer Systems , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Female , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Remote Sensing Technology/standards , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Telemedicine/instrumentation , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards
18.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 47(3): 631-636, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807824

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted healthcare systems globally, little is known about the trauma patterns during a national lockdown. The aim of this study is to delineate the trauma patterns and outcomes at Aintree University Teaching Hospital level 1 Major Trauma Centre (MTC) during the COVID-19 lockdown imposed by the U.K. government. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study data from the Merseyside and Cheshire Trauma Audit and Research Network database were analysed. The 7-week 'lockdown period' was compared to a 7-week period prior to the lockdown and also to an equivalent 7-week period corresponding to the previous year. RESULTS: A total of 488 patients were included in the study. Overall, there was 37.6% and 30.0% reduction in the number of traumatic injuries during lockdown. Road traffic collisions (RTC) reduced by 42.6% and 46.6%. RTC involving a car significantly reduced during lockdown, conversely, bike-related RTC significantly increased. No significant changes were noted in deliberate self-harm, trauma severity and crude mortality during lockdown. There was 1 mortality from COVID-19 infection in the lockdown cohort. CONCLUSION: Trauma continues during lockdown, our MTC has continued to provide a full service during lockdown. However, trauma patterns have changed and departments should adapt to balance these alongside the COVID-19 pandemic. As the U.K. starts its cautious transition out of lockdown, trauma services are required to be flexible during changes in national social restrictions and changing trauma patterns. COVID-19 and lockdown state were found to have no significant impact on survival outcomes for trauma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Audit/methods , Clinical Audit/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Severity Indices , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/classification , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
20.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(2): 277-284, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 14% of UK hospital in-patients receive supplemental oxygen therapy, only 57% have valid prescriptions. Oxygen must be optimally prescribed to ensure maximal therapeutic response whilst minimizing adverse outcomes (including fatality). This study investigates prescription compliance. METHODS: All adults admitted to medical wards (18 February to 3 March 2020) were included. Analyses present proportions, descriptive statistics, and hypothesis testing. Ethical approval was unnecessary for this audit. RESULTS: Of the 636 patients admitted, 66 (10%) were receiving oxygen therapy. Ages ranged from 34 to 100 years with 36 (54.5%) males and 30 (45.5%) females. The prescription was not documented in the oxygen section of the drug chart (n = 37, 56.1%, p = 0.389), nor did it have the physicians signature (n = 40, 60.6%, p = 0.110) nor date (n = 46, 69.7%, p = 0.002). Thirteen chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients (19.7%) were at risk of hypercapnic failure (p = 1.582x10-6). Target oxygen saturation (SpO2) range had been documented for 30 (45.5%) patients. A target SpO2 range of 88-92% was documented for 9 patients (13.6%), a 94-98% range documented for 11 patients (16.7%). All patients had an invalid prescription. CONCLUSION: We present real-world practice in naturalistic settings, immediately before pandemic-lockdown. Enhanced compliance is advocated to reduce risks of harm and mortality.


Subject(s)
Clinical Audit , Documentation/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Hypercapnia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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