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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 192, 2021 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic that has raised worldwide concern. This study aims to investigate the correlation between the extent of lung infection and relevant clinical laboratory testing indicators in COVID-19 and to analyse its underlying mechanism. METHODS: Chest high-resolution computer tomography (CT) images and laboratory examination data of 31 patients with COVID-19 were extracted, and the lesion areas in CT images were quantitatively segmented and calculated using a deep learning (DL) system. A cross-sectional study method was carried out to explore the differences among the proportions of lung lobe infection and to correlate the percentage of infection (POI) of the whole lung in all patients with clinical laboratory examination values. RESULTS: No significant difference in the proportion of infection was noted among various lung lobes (P > 0.05). The POI of total lung was negatively correlated with the peripheral blood lymphocyte percentage (L%) (r = - 0.633, P < 0.001) and lymphocyte (LY) count (r = - 0.555, P = 0.001) but positively correlated with the neutrophil percentage (N%) (r = 0.565, P = 0.001). Otherwise, the POI was not significantly correlated with the peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC) count, monocyte percentage (M%) or haemoglobin (HGB) content. In some patients, as the infection progressed, the L% and LY count decreased progressively accompanied by a continuous increase in the N%. CONCLUSIONS: Lung lesions in COVID-19 patients are significantly correlated with the peripheral blood lymphocyte and neutrophil levels, both of which could serve as prognostic indicators that provide warning implications, and contribute to clinical interventions in patients.


Subject(s)
/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Machine Learning , Adult , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(2): e23685, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia caused by the 2019 novel Coronavirus (COVID-2019) shares overlapping signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, imaging features with influenza A pneumonia. We aimed to identify their clinical characteristics to help early diagnosis. METHODS: We retrospectively retrieved data for laboratory-confirmed patients admitted with COVID-19-induced or influenza A-induced pneumonia from electronic medical records in Ningbo First Hospital, China. We recorded patients' epidemiological and clinical features, as well as radiologic and laboratory findings. RESULTS: The median age of influenza A cohort was higher and it exhibited higher temperature and higher proportion of pleural effusion. COVID-19 cohort exhibited higher proportions of fatigue, diarrhea and ground-glass opacity and higher levels of lymphocyte percentage, absolute lymphocyte count, red-cell count, hemoglobin and albumin and presented lower levels of monocytes, c-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, serum creatinine. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that fatigue, ground-glass opacity, and higher level of albumin were independent risk factors for COVID-19 pneumonia, while older age, higher temperature, and higher level of monocyte count were independent risk factors for influenza A pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: In terms of COVID-19 pneumonia and influenza A pneumonia, fatigue, ground-glass opacity, and higher level of albumin tend to be helpful for diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia, while older age, higher temperature, and higher level of monocyte count tend to be helpful for the diagnosis of influenza A pneumonia.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Influenza A virus/physiology , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/virology , /physiology , /diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Wiad Lek ; 73(12 cz 1): 2572-2575, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080024

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: A novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 RNA, detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was identified as the cause of a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China. It rapidly spread, at first in China, then resulting in an epidemic in other countries throughout the world. One of such controversial topics is the issue of diagnostics and interpretation of test for COVID-19. According to Polish and global guidelines, the basis for diagnosis is molecular testing - real-time reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Taking all these data into consideration, the aim of the study was to compare RT-PCR with serological test in our employees post-exposure. According to Polish and global guidelines, the basis for diagnosis is molecular testing, real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The aim: To compare RT-PCR with serological test in our employees post-exposure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: 79 employees of the Clinic, 19 men and 60 women in the age range 27-69 years were evaluated. Tests were begun four days after information about the positive test in our "Employee 0" and lasted for 7 days. At first, we made RT-PCR tests on the specimen from nasopharyngeal swab. Then, we accomplished rapid antibodies tests. This test is based on the qualitative assessment of the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies by immunochromatography using a sample of capillary blood from the fingertip. RESULTS: Results: All the tests were negative. No employee developed symptoms during the 7-day follow-up after the end of the tests. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: As routine tests for patients have been implemented widely, but similar solutions for employees have not gained popularity. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) e.g. facemask and shields, transparent screens, disposable medical uniforms, minimalization the contact time, increasing distance from both colleagues and patients (if possible), and strictly follow sanitary procedures largely contributed to the absence of illness in the surveyed group of employees.


Subject(s)
Nephrology , Adult , Aged , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , Serologic Tests
4.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 122(1): 11-17, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073653

ABSTRACT

AbstractAIMS: Aims: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused not only global pandemic, but it also pointed at unprepared health care systems and countermeasures were introduced under the pressure of urgent circumstances. This review is focused on discussion and critical evaluation of instrumental tools for COVID-19 diagnosis that were developed in the last months. METHODS: Survey of actual literature and scientific reports was made. The most substantial analytical and diagnostical methods were identified and described. Principles and limitations of the methods are described, and actual papers are cited in this review. RESULTS: Analytical and diagnostical methods like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Loop-mediated isothermal Amplification (LAMP), Lateral Flow Immunochromatography Assay (LFIA), Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), biosensors and ChemiLuminescence ImmunoAssay (CLIA) are discussed for assay of viral particles, antigens and specific host antibodies in blood, serum, plasma, nasopharyngeal swab and other samples in order to diagnose COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging disease that has spread over the world since the end of year 2019. The global epidemic pointed at the necessity to introduce sensitive methods for instrumental diagnosis of COVID-19 and distinguishing it from the other viral diseases. (Tab. 2, Ref. 96).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
5.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 623-630, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1070235

ABSTRACT

Resumen: SARS-CoV-2 es un virus de alta estabilidad ambiental. Es principalmente un patógeno respiratorio que también afecta el tracto gastrointestinal. El receptor ACE2 es el principal receptor de SARS- CoV-2, hay evidencia de su elevada presencia en intestino, colon y colangiocitos; igualmente se en cuentra expresado en hepatocitos pero en menor proporción. SARS-CoV-2 tiene un tropismo gas trointestinal que explica los síntomas digestivos y la diseminación viral en deposiciones. Las caracte rísticas de SARS-CoV-2 incluyen a la proteína S (Spike o Espícula) que se une de forma muy estable al receptor ACE2. La infección por SARS-CoV-2 produce disbiosis y alteraciones en el eje pulmón- intestino. A nivel intestinal y hepático produce una respuesta Linfocitos T evidente y una respuesta de citocinas que producirían daño intestinal inflamatorio. Las manifestaciones a nivel intestinal en orden de frecuencia son pérdida de apetito, diarrea, náuseas, vómitos y dolor abdominal. Éste último podría ser un marcador de gravedad. En niños la diarrea es habitualmente leve y autolimitada. A nivel hepático la hipertransaminasemia ocurre en 40-60% de los pacientes graves. SARS-CoV-2 puede per manecer en deposiciones un tiempo más prolongado que en secreciones respiratorias, este hallazgo influiría en la diseminación de enfermedad. En esta revisión se destaca la importancia de efectuar un reconocimiento precoz de las manifestaciones gastrointestinales y hepáticas, aumentar el índice de sospecha, efectuar un diagnóstico oportuno y reconocer eventuales complicaciones de la enferme dad. La potencial transmisión fecal oral puede influir en la diseminación de enfermedad. Reconocer este hallazgo es importante para definir aislamiento.


Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 is a high environmental stable virus. It is predominantly a respiratory pathogen that also affects the gastrointestinal tract. The ACE 2 receptor is the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2, with evidence of its high presence in the intestine, colon and cholangiocytes, and, in smaller proportion, in hepatocytes. SARS-CoV-2 has a gastrointestinal tropism that explains digestive symptoms and viral spread in stools. The characteristics of this virus include the S (Spike) protein that binds very stably to the ACE-2 receptor and, at the same time, SARS-CoV-2 produces dysbiosis and alterations in the gut-lung axis. It produces a clear T-cell response and a cytokines storm in the intestine and liver that would produce inflammatory bowel damage. Intestinal manifestations by order of frequency are loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and abdominal pain, where the latter could be a severity marker. In children, diarrhea is the most frequent symptom, usually mild and self-limiting. In the liver, hypertransaminasemia occurs in severe patients ranging from 40 to 60%. SARS-CoV-2 can re main in stools longer than in respiratory secretions, which would influence the spread of disease. This article highlights the importance of an early diagnosis of gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations, increase the index of suspicion, make a timely diagnosis, and recognize eventual complications of the disease. The potential oral-fecal route of transmission may influence the disease spread. Recognizing this finding is important to define isolation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Liver Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Cytokines/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/physiopathology
6.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 623-630, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1070104

ABSTRACT

Resumen: SARS-CoV-2 es un virus de alta estabilidad ambiental. Es principalmente un patógeno respiratorio que también afecta el tracto gastrointestinal. El receptor ACE2 es el principal receptor de SARS- CoV-2, hay evidencia de su elevada presencia en intestino, colon y colangiocitos; igualmente se en cuentra expresado en hepatocitos pero en menor proporción. SARS-CoV-2 tiene un tropismo gas trointestinal que explica los síntomas digestivos y la diseminación viral en deposiciones. Las caracte rísticas de SARS-CoV-2 incluyen a la proteína S (Spike o Espícula) que se une de forma muy estable al receptor ACE2. La infección por SARS-CoV-2 produce disbiosis y alteraciones en el eje pulmón- intestino. A nivel intestinal y hepático produce una respuesta Linfocitos T evidente y una respuesta de citocinas que producirían daño intestinal inflamatorio. Las manifestaciones a nivel intestinal en orden de frecuencia son pérdida de apetito, diarrea, náuseas, vómitos y dolor abdominal. Éste último podría ser un marcador de gravedad. En niños la diarrea es habitualmente leve y autolimitada. A nivel hepático la hipertransaminasemia ocurre en 40-60% de los pacientes graves. SARS-CoV-2 puede per manecer en deposiciones un tiempo más prolongado que en secreciones respiratorias, este hallazgo influiría en la diseminación de enfermedad. En esta revisión se destaca la importancia de efectuar un reconocimiento precoz de las manifestaciones gastrointestinales y hepáticas, aumentar el índice de sospecha, efectuar un diagnóstico oportuno y reconocer eventuales complicaciones de la enferme dad. La potencial transmisión fecal oral puede influir en la diseminación de enfermedad. Reconocer este hallazgo es importante para definir aislamiento.


Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 is a high environmental stable virus. It is predominantly a respiratory pathogen that also affects the gastrointestinal tract. The ACE 2 receptor is the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2, with evidence of its high presence in the intestine, colon and cholangiocytes, and, in smaller proportion, in hepatocytes. SARS-CoV-2 has a gastrointestinal tropism that explains digestive symptoms and viral spread in stools. The characteristics of this virus include the S (Spike) protein that binds very stably to the ACE-2 receptor and, at the same time, SARS-CoV-2 produces dysbiosis and alterations in the gut-lung axis. It produces a clear T-cell response and a cytokines storm in the intestine and liver that would produce inflammatory bowel damage. Intestinal manifestations by order of frequency are loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and abdominal pain, where the latter could be a severity marker. In children, diarrhea is the most frequent symptom, usually mild and self-limiting. In the liver, hypertransaminasemia occurs in severe patients ranging from 40 to 60%. SARS-CoV-2 can re main in stools longer than in respiratory secretions, which would influence the spread of disease. This article highlights the importance of an early diagnosis of gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations, increase the index of suspicion, make a timely diagnosis, and recognize eventual complications of the disease. The potential oral-fecal route of transmission may influence the disease spread. Recognizing this finding is important to define isolation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Liver Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Cytokines/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/physiopathology
7.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 99(3): 115260, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065005

ABSTRACT

The BioFire® COVID-19 Test and Respiratory Panel 2.1 (RP2.1) are rapid, fully automated assays for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in nasopharyngeal swabs. In the case of the RP2.1, an additional 21 viral and bacterial pathogens can be detected. Both tests have received emergency use authorization from the U.S. Food & Drug Administration and Interim Order authorization from Health Canada for use in clinical laboratories. We evaluated the performance characteristics of these tests in comparison to a laboratory-developed real-time PCR assay targeting the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and E genes. A total of 78 tests were performed using the BioFire COVID-19 Test, including 30 clinical specimens and 48 tests in a limit of detection study; 57 tests were performed using the RP2.1 for evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 detection, including 30 clinical specimens and 27 tests for limit of detection. Results showed 100% concordance between the BioFire assays and the laboratory-developed test for all clinical samples tested, and acceptable performance of both BioFire assays at their stated limits of detection. Conclusively, the BioFire COVID-19 Test and RP2.1 are highly sensitive assays that can be effectively used in the clinical laboratory for rapid SARS-CoV-2 testing.


Subject(s)
/methods , Nasopharynx/virology , /isolation & purification , /standards , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Limit of Detection , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(1): 103-109, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapidly growing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has challenged health systems globally. Here we report the first identified infections of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; aetiology of COVID-19) among recent international arrivals to Sudan and their contacts. METHODS: Suspected cases were identified clinically and/or epidemiologically. Samples from suspected cases and their contacts were tested in the National Influenza Centre following World Health Organization protocols. Two real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were used to detect and confirm SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Seven cases of COVID-19, including two deaths, were confirmed in Sudan between 27 February and 30 March 2020. Suspected cases were identified and tested. As of 30 March, no local transmission was yet reported in the country. Fifty-nine percent of the suspected cases were international travellers coming from areas with current COVID-19 epidemics. Cough and fever were the major symptoms, presented by 65% and 60% of the suspected cases, respectively. By early April, an additional seven cases were confirmed through limited contact tracing that identified the first locally acquired infections in recent contact with imported cases. CONCLUSIONS: The high mortality rate of COVID-19 cases in Sudan might be due to limitations in test and trace and case management services. Unfortunately, infections have spread further into other states and the country has no capacity for mass community screening to better estimate disease prevalence. Therefore external support is urgently needed to improve the healthcare and surveillance systems.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Imported , Laboratories , Pandemics , Travel , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , /diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Contact Tracing , Cough/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Sudan/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Medwave ; 20(11)31-12-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1067938

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El SARS-CoV-2 tiene una rápida expansión por todo el mundo, sin embargo, su capacidad para causar enfermedad grave no es homogénea según sexo y edad. OBJETIVO: Determinar las características perinatales, morbilidad, mortalidad y resultados serológicos en neonatos de gestantes seropositivas para SARS-CoV-2. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, descriptivo y retrospectivo. Participaron todos los neonatos cuyas madres presentaron resultado seropositivo para SARS-CoV-2 antes del parto, entre el 15 de abril y 10 de mayo de 2020 en el Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal de Perú. Se recogió información materna y neonatal a partir de sus historias clínicas. En el análisis se usó estadística descriptiva y prueba exacta de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 114 neonatos, el 36,8% presentó inmunoglobulinas M y G positivas para SARS-CoV-2; el 7% inmunoglobulinas G y 56,2% fue no reactivo. Las complicaciones obstétricas más frecuentes fueron rotura prematura de membranas (14,9%) y parto pretérmino (8,8%). El 8,8% de los neonatos presentaron un puntaje Apgar al minuto menor o igual a seis, y de ellos solo uno persistió a los cinco minutos; tres neonatos fallecieron. Se evidenció asociación entre el tipo de inmunoglobulina materna y la serología de su recién nacido (p < 0,05). No se observó asociación entre resultados perinatales y el tipo de inmunoglobulinas materna (p > 0,05), ni con los resultados serológicos en el neonato para SARS-CoV-2 (p > 0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: El 43,9% de neonatos de madre seropositiva a SARS-CoV-2 tuvo un resultado serológico positivo, siendo más frecuente de tipo Inmunoglobulinas M e Inmunoglobulinas G. El 10,5% de los neonatos presentó alguna morbilidad, siendo más frecuente prematuridad y bajo peso al nacer y el 2,6% falleció. Los resultados perinatales no estuvieron asociadas al tipo de inmunoglobulina de las madres seropositivas a SARS-CoV-2. De igual modo, los resultados perinatales no estuvieron asociados a los resultados serológicos en el neonato.


INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly throughout the world. However, its ability to cause severe disease is not homogeneous according to sex and the different age groups. OBJECTIVE: To determine perinatal characteristics, morbidity, mortality, and serological results in neonates from seropositive pregnant women to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We did a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study. We included all newborns from positive pregnant women to SARS-CoV-2, between April 15 and May 10, 2020, who delivered in the National Perinatal Maternal Institute of Peru. The study extracted maternal and neonatal variables collected from the medical charts. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Fischer's exact test. RESULTS: One hundred fourteen neonates were identified, 36.8% IgM/IgG positive for SARS-CoV-2, 7% IgG, and 56.2% had negative serology. The obstetric complications were premature rupture of membranes (14.9%) and preterm birth (8,8%). 8.8% of newborns had an Apgar score of less than or equal to six minutes, and of those, only one persisted after five minutes; three newborns died. There was an association between the type of maternal immunoglobulin and the serology of the newborn (p < 0.05). No association was observed between perinatal results and maternal immunoglobulin type (p > 0.05) or serological results in the newborn for SARS-CoV-2 (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: 43.9% of seropositive mothers' neonates to SARS-CoV-2 had a positive serological result, more frequently type IgM/IgG. 10.5% of the neonates had some morbidity, more frequent prematurity, low birth weight, and 2.6% died. Perinatal results were not associated with the type of immunoglobulin of mothers seropositive to SARS-CoV-2; similarly, perinatal results were not associated with serological results in the newborn.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Clinical Laboratory Techniques
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(3): 403-410, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059461

ABSTRACT

Among 146 nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swab pairs collected ≤7 days after illness onset, Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction assay for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR) diagnostic results were 95.2% concordant. However, NP swab cycle threshold values were lower (indicating more virus) in 66.7% of concordant-positive pairs, suggesting NP swabs may more accurately detect the amount of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Nasopharynx , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , United States
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(1): 518-522, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052578

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: From the beginning of the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) pandemic in the world, much efforts have been accomplished to explain a precise clinical feature for the disease and to find the best therapeutic approach for the patients. Although coagulation abnormalities have found in novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) patients, still little is known about the association between the disease and changes in coagulation parameters. Our purpose is to evaluate the differences between the coagulation parameters between COVID-19 patients and healthy counterparts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 63 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection were admitted to the present study. We evaluated coagulation value in these patients and in 40 healthy individuals. RESULTS: We found that although there was no significant difference between PT and PTT values in patients and healthy counterparts, the fibrinogen values in patients were higher than the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the values of fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) and D-dimer in all COVID-19 cases were considerably higher than those in control people (p < 0.05). Of note, FDP and D-dimer in patients with regular COVID-19 infection were lower than patients with severe forms. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that the conduction of routine blood coagulation test could be a beneficial supplementary approach for early diagnosis of COVID-19. In addition, our study shed more light on the therapeutic value of anti-coagulant-based treatment for COVID-19 patients, especially for those with severe type of the disease.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/prevention & control , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Tests , Case-Control Studies , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Female , Humans , Male , Predictive Value of Tests
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(1): 503-517, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052577

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Food and Drug Administration Emergency Use Authorization (FDA-EUA) authorized point-of-care tests (POCTs) for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for articles published till August 10, 2020. We included studies providing information regarding diagnostic test accuracy of FDA-EUA POCTs for SARS-CoV-2 detection. The methodologic quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. The review protocol is registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (protocol number CRD42020202248). RESULTS: We included 26 studies describing a total of 3242 samples. The summary sensitivity and specificity were 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-0.97] and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.00), respectively. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.00). A pooled analysis based on the index test revealed a summary sensitivity and specificity of Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 [0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00) and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.94-1.00, respectively)] and ID NOW COVID-19 [0.78 (95% CI: 0.74-0.82) and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.98-1.00), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: FDA-EUA POCTs, especially molecular assays, have high sensitivity, specificity, and overall diagnostic accuracy for detecting SARS-CoV-2. If approved, FDA-EUA POCTs can provide a rapid and practical way to identify infected individuals early on and help to limit the strain on the healthcare system. However, more high-quality clinical data are required to support our results.


Subject(s)
/methods , /diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing/standards , /isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Humans , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Sensitivity and Specificity , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2261, 2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049974

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of COVID-19 relies on the direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in respiratory specimens by RT-PCR. The pandemic spread of the disease caused an imbalance between demand and supply of materials and reagents needed for diagnostic purposes including swab sets. In a comparative effectiveness study, we conducted serial follow-up swabs in hospitalized laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients. We assessed the diagnostic performance of an in-house system developed according to recommendations by the US CDC. In a total of 96 serial swabs, we found significant differences in the accuracy of the different swab systems to generate a positive result in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, ranging from around 50 to 80%. Of note, an in-house swab system was superior to most commercially available sets as reflected by significantly lower Ct values of viral genes. Thus, a simple combination of broadly available materials may enable diagnostic laboratories to bypass global limitations in the supply of swab sets.


Subject(s)
/instrumentation , Disposable Equipment/supply & distribution , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , /isolation & purification , /methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Genes, Viral , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Quality Control , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Resource Allocation , Specimen Handling
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1873, 2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043028

ABSTRACT

The development of alternative isothermal amplification assays including multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA) may address speed and portability limitations of real-time PCR (rt-PCR) methods for SARS-CoV-2 detection. We developed a novel SARS-CoV-2 MCDA assay and compared its speed and sensitivity to loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and rt-PCR. Two MCDA assays targeting SARS-CoV-2 N gene and ORF1ab were designed. The fastest time to detection and sensitivity of MCDA was compared to LAMP and rt-PCR using DNA standards and transcribed RNA. For the N gene, MCDA was faster than LAMP and rt-PCR by 10 and 20 min, respectively with fastest time to detection at 5.2 min. rt-PCR had the highest sensitivity with the limit of detection at 10 copies/µl compared with MCDA (100 copies/µl) and LAMP (500 copies/µl). For ORF1ab, MCDA and LAMP had similar speed with fastest time to detection at 9.7 and 8.4 min, respectively. LAMP was more sensitive for ORF1ab detection with 50 copies/µl compared to MCDA (500 copies/µl). In conclusion, different nucleic acid amplification methods provide different advantages. MCDA is the fastest nucleic acid amplification method for SARS-CoV-2 while rt-PCR is the most sensitive. These advantages should be considered when determining the most suitable nucleic acid amplification methods for different applications.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , /isolation & purification , Biological Assay/methods , /methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Polyproteins/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/genetics
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e043925, 2021 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033097

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although widespread testing for SARS-CoV-2 is in place, little is known about how well the public understands these results. We aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the general public's grasp of the accuracy and significance of the results of the swab test. DESIGN: Web-based behavioural experiment. SETTING: Italy during the April 2020 lockdown. PARTICIPANTS: 566 Italian residents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants' estimates of the SARS-CoV-2 prevalence; the predictive and diagnostic accuracy of the test; the behavioural impact of (positive vs negative) test results; the perceived usefulness of a short-term repetition of the test following positive or negative results; and rankings of causes for false positives and false negatives. RESULTS: Most participants considered the swab test useful (89.6%) and provided predictive values consistent with their estimates of test diagnostic accuracy and infection prevalence (67.0%). Participants acknowledged the effects of symptomatic status and geographical location on prevalence (all p<0.001) but failed to take this information into account when estimating the positive or negative predictive value. Overall, test specificity was underestimated (91.5%, 95% CI 90.2% to 92.8%); test sensitivity was overestimated (89.7%, 95% CI 88.3% to 91.0%). Positive results were evaluated as more informative than negative ones (91.6, 95% CI 90.2 to 93.1 and 41.0, 95% CI 37.9 to 44.0, respectively, p<0.001); a short-term repetition of the test was considered more useful after a positive than a negative result (62.7, 95% CI 59.6 to 65.7 and 47.2, 95% CI 44.4 to 50.0, respectively, p=0.013). Human error and technical characteristics were assessed as more likely to be the causes of false positives (p<0.001); the level of the viral load as the cause of false negatives (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: While some aspects of the swab for SARS-CoV-2 are well grasped, others are not and may have a strong bearing on the general public's health and well-being. The obtained findings provide policymakers with a detailed picture that can guide the design and implementation of interventions for improving efficient communication with the general public as well as adherence to precautionary behaviour.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Nasopharynx/virology , /genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , False Negative Reactions , False Positive Reactions , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Social Isolation , Specimen Handling/methods , Young Adult
18.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(4): 275-278, 2020 Apr 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024679

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore imaging characteristics of children with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical data and chest CT images of 15 children diagnosed with 2019-nCoV infection. They were admitted to the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen from January 16 to February 6, 2020. The distribution and morphology of pulmonary lesions on chest CT images were analyzed. Results: Among the 15 children, 5 were males and 10 females, aged from 4 to 14 years. Five of the 15 children were febrile and 10 were asymptomatic on the first visit. The first nasal or pharyngeal swab samples in all the 15 cases were positive for 2019-nCoV nucleic acid. For their first chest CT images, 6 patients had no lesions, while 9 patients had pulmonary inflammatory lesions. Seven cases had small nodular ground glass opacities and 2 cases had speckled ground glass opacities. After 3 to 5 days of treatment, 2019-nCoV nucleic acid in a second respiratory sample turned negative in 6 cases. Among them, chest CT images showed less lesions in 2 cases, no lesion in 3 cases, and no improvement in 1 case. The remaining 9 cases were still positive in a second nucleic acid test. Six patients showed similar chest CT inflammation, while 3 patients had new lesions, which were all small nodular ground glass opacities. Conclusions: The early chest CT images of children with 2019-nCoV infection are mostly small nodular ground glass opacities. The clinical symptoms of children with 2019-nCoV infection are nonspecific. Dynamic reexamination of chest CT and nucleic acid are important.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies
19.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(11): 889-891, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024147

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) cycle amplifications until detection, the cycle threshold (Ct), could help inform return to work (RTW) strategies for health care workers (HCWs) recovering from COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Sequential Ct data from COVID-19 nasal pharyngeal (NP) RT-PCR testing in all COVID-19 positive HCWs at a single institution. Analysis of Ct in relation to time until negative testing for RTW clearance. RESULTS: Data for 12 employees showed that time elapsed until RT-PCR test-based RTW clearance ranged from 7 to 57 days (median, 34.5 days). Lower initial Ct correlated with the total time elapsed until clearance (r = -0.80; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Considering the RT-PCR Ct, which correlates with the estimated viral load, may help inform RTW planning and decision making beyond solely relying on dichotomized positive/negative results.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Health Personnel , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Return to Work , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load
20.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(11): 1727-1731, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024115

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to understand how people respond to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) screening chatbots. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an online experiment with 371 participants who viewed a COVID-19 screening session between a hotline agent (chatbot or human) and a user with mild or severe symptoms. RESULTS: The primary factor driving user response to screening hotlines (human or chatbot) is perceptions of the agent's ability. When ability is the same, users view chatbots no differently or more positively than human agents. The primary factor driving perceptions of ability is the user's trust in the hotline provider, with a slight negative bias against chatbots' ability. Asian individuals perceived higher ability and benevolence than did White individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Ensuring that COVID-19 screening chatbots provide high-quality service is critical but not sufficient for widespread adoption. The key is to emphasize the chatbot's ability and assure users that it delivers the same quality as human agents.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Medical Informatics Applications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Telemedicine , Trust , Communication , Female , Humans , Male , Text Messaging
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