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3.
Immunol Rev ; 295 Suppl s1: 4-10, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116789

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection is creating serious challenges for health laboratories that seek to identify viral infections as early as possible, optimally at the earliest appearance of symptom. Indeed, there is urgent need to develop and deploy robust diagnostic methodologies not only to use in health laboratory environments but also directly in places where humans circulate and spread the virus such as airports, trains, boats, and any public aggregation places. The success of a reliable and sensitive asymptomatic diagnosis relies on the identification and measurement of informative biomarkers from human host and virus in a rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive manner. The objective of this article is to describe an innovative multidisciplinary approach to develop an efficient, inexpensive, and easy-to-use portable instrument (bCUBE® by Hyris Ltd) that can be employed as a surveillance system for the emergency caused by SARS-CoV-2. A solution for Coronavirus testing, compliant with CDC guidelines, is scheduled to be released in the next weeks. In addition, we will describe a workflow and path of an integrated multi-omic approach that will lead to host and pathogen biomarker discovery in order to train the instrument to provide reliable results based on a specific biomarker's fingerprint of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Mass Screening/instrumentation , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Animals , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Services , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Workflow
4.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 153(6): 715-718, 2020 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109161

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To establish the optimal parameters for group testing of pooled specimens for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: The most efficient pool size was determined to be five specimens using a web-based application. From this analysis, 25 experimental pools were created using 50 µL from one SARS-CoV-2 positive nasopharyngeal specimen mixed with 4 negative patient specimens (50 µL each) for a total volume of 250 µL. Viral RNA was subsequently extracted from each pool and tested using the CDC SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assay. Positive pools were consequently split into individual specimens and tested by extraction and PCR. This method was also tested on an unselected group of 60 nasopharyngeal specimens grouped into 12 pools. RESULTS: All 25 pools were positive with cycle threshold (Ct) values within 0 and 5.03 Ct of the original individual specimens. The analysis of 60 specimens determined that 2 pools were positive followed by identification of 2 individual specimens among the 60 tested. This testing was accomplished while using 22 extractions/PCR tests, a savings of 38 reactions. CONCLUSIONS: When the incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection is 10% or less, group testing will result in the saving of reagents and personnel time with an overall increase in testing capability of at least 69%.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/economics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Medical Laboratory Personnel/economics , Specimen Handling/economics , Specimen Handling/methods , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/economics , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling/standards
5.
Life Sci ; 273: 119117, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065431

ABSTRACT

Biosensors are important devices in clinical diagnostics, food processing, and environmental monitoring for detecting various analytes, especially viruses. These biosensors provide rapid and effective instruments for qualitative and quantitative detection of infectious diseases in real-time. Here, we report the development of biosensors based on various techniques. Additionally, we will explain the mechanisms, advantages, and disadvantages of the most common biosensors that are currently used for viral detection, which could be optical (e.g., surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)) and electrochemical biosensors. Based on that, this review recommends methods for efficient, simple, low-cost, and rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 (the causative agent of COVID-19) that employ the two types of biosensors depending on attaching hemoglobin ß-chain and binding of specific antibodies with SARS-CoV-2 antigens, respectively.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Equipment Design , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Biotechniques ; 69(4): 317-325, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067502

ABSTRACT

PCR has become one of the most valuable techniques currently used in bioscience, diagnostics and forensic science. Here we review the history of PCR development and the technologies that have evolved from the original PCR method. Currently, there are two main areas of PCR utilization in bioscience: high-throughput PCR systems and microfluidics-based PCR devices for point-of-care (POC) applications. We also discuss the commercialization of these techniques and conclude with a look into their modifications and use in innovative areas of biomedicine. For example, real-time reverse transcription PCR is the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses. It could also be used for POC applications, being a key component of the sample-to-answer system.


Subject(s)
Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Equipment Design , Humans , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/instrumentation , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Point-of-Care Systems , Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(6): 609-616, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999891

ABSTRACT

Confronted with the COVID-19 crisis, healthcare professionals have had to tackle an epidemic crisis of a huge magnitude for which they were not prepared. Medical laboratories have been on the front line, from collecting samples to performing the analysis required to diagnose this new pathology. Responding to the needs and to the urgency of the situation, the authorities relied on the network of private laboratories. In France, private laboratory medicine represents 70% of overall activity, and with a network of more than 4,000 local laboratories, private laboratory medicine has been the cornerstone of the « screen-trace-isolate ¼ strategy. This article gives feedback from private laboratory medicine professionals, directly involved in the reorganization carried out at the pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical stages, during the crisis from March to October 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Services/organization & administration , Pandemics , Private Sector/organization & administration , Specimen Handling/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Services/standards , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Equipment Safety/methods , Equipment Safety/standards , France/epidemiology , Hospital Units/organization & administration , Humans , Intersectoral Collaboration , Medical Staff/organization & administration , Medical Staff/standards , Patient Safety/standards , Pre-Analytical Phase/methods , Pre-Analytical Phase/standards , Private Sector/standards , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods
8.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(8)2020 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999200

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a severe international shortage of the nasopharyngeal swabs that are required for collection of optimal specimens, creating a critical bottleneck blocking clinical laboratories' ability to perform high-sensitivity virological testing for SARS-CoV-2. To address this crisis, we designed and executed an innovative, cooperative, rapid-response translational-research program that brought together health care workers, manufacturers, and scientists to emergently develop and clinically validate new swabs for immediate mass production by 3D printing. We performed a multistep preclinical evaluation of 160 swab designs and 48 materials from 24 companies, laboratories, and individuals, and we shared results and other feedback via a public data repository (http://github.com/rarnaout/Covidswab/). We validated four prototypes through an institutional review board (IRB)-approved clinical trial that involved 276 outpatient volunteers who presented to our hospital's drive-through testing center with symptoms suspicious for COVID-19. Each participant was swabbed with a reference swab (the control) and a prototype, and SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) results were compared. All prototypes displayed excellent concordance with the control (κ = 0.85 to 0.89). Cycle threshold (CT ) values were not significantly different between each prototype and the control, supporting the new swabs' noninferiority (Mann-Whitney U [MWU] test, P > 0.05). Study staff preferred one of the prototypes over the others and preferred the control swab overall. The total time elapsed between identification of the problem and validation of the first prototype was 22 days. Contact information for ordering can be found at http://printedswabs.org Our experience holds lessons for the rapid development, validation, and deployment of new technology for this pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Equipment Design/methods , Nasopharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling/methods , Young Adult
12.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 5248569, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883419

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we developed a model that suggests the use of robots in identifying COVID-19-positive patients and which studied the effectiveness of the government policy of prohibiting migration of individuals into their countries especially from those countries that were known to have COVID-19 epidemic. Two compartmental models consisting of two equations each were constructed. The models studied the use of robots for the identification of COVID-19-positive patients. The effect of migration ban strategy was also studied. Four biologically meaningful equilibrium points were found. Their local stability analysis was also carried out. Numerical simulations were carried out, and the most effective strategy to curtail the spread of the disease was shown.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Models, Biological , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Mathematical Concepts , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Robotics/instrumentation , Robotics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel
13.
IEEE Pulse ; 11(5): 28-31, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873194

ABSTRACT

An at-home test for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be released commercially as early as August, according to Scanwell Health of Los Angeles. A combination of a finger-prick blood sample and a smart-phone app, the test is designed to detect the presence of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19. The company hopes to receive Emergency Use Authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) by the end of summer, and make its first commercially available tests soon after.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Mobile Applications , Pandemics , Patient Participation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
14.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112715, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866446

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a newly emerging human infectious disease. Because no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines are available to treat COVID-19, early diagnostics, isolation, and prevention are crucial for containing the outbreak. Molecular diagnostics using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are the current gold standard for detection. However, viral RNAs are much less stable during transport and storage than proteins such as antigens and antibodies. Consequently, false-negative RT-PCR results can occur due to inadequate collection of clinical specimens or poor handling of a specimen during testing. Although antigen immunoassays are stable diagnostics for detection of past infection, infection progress, and transmission dynamics, no matched antibody pair for immunoassay of SARS-CoV-2 antigens has yet been reported. In this study, we designed and developed a novel rapid detection method for SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 (S1) protein using the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2, which can form matched pairs with commercially available antibodies. ACE2 and S1-mAb were paired with each other for capture and detection in a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) that did not cross-react with SARS-CoV Spike 1 or MERS-CoV Spike 1 protein. The SARS-CoV-2 S1 (<5 ng of recombinant proteins/reaction) was detected by the ACE2-based LFIA. The limit of detection of our ACE2-LFIA was 1.86 × 105 copies/mL in the clinical specimen of COVID-19 Patients without no cross-reactivity for nasal swabs from healthy subjects. This is the first study to detect SARS-CoV-2 S1 antigen using an LFIA with matched pair consisting of ACE2 and antibody. Our findings will be helpful to detect the S1 antigen of SARS-CoV-2 from COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/economics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/economics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Equipment Design , Humans , Immunoassay/economics , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Immunoconjugates/chemistry , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
15.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 170: 112673, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807919

ABSTRACT

Currently the world is being challenged by a public health emergency caused by the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). Extensive efforts in testing for coronavirus infection, combined with isolating infected cases and quarantining those in contact, have proven successful in bringing the epidemic under control. Rapid and facile screening of this disease is in high demand. This review summarises recent advances in strategies reported by international researchers and engineers concerning how to tackle COVID-19 via rapid testing, mainly through nucleic acid- and antibody- testing. The roles of biosensors as powerful analytical tools are emphasized for the detection of viral RNAs, surface antigens, whole viral particles, antibodies and other potential biomarkers in human specimen. We critically review in depth newly developed biosensing methods especially for in-field and point-of-care detection of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, this review describes possible future strategies for virus rapid detection. It helps researchers working on novel sensor technologies to tailor their technologies in a way to address the challenge for effective detection of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Animals , Biosensing Techniques/economics , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/economics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Equipment Design , Humans , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(18)2020 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760951

ABSTRACT

Lung sounds acquired by stethoscopes are extensively used in diagnosing and differentiating respiratory diseases. Although an extensive know-how has been built to interpret these sounds and identify diseases associated with certain patterns, its effective use is limited to individual experience of practitioners. This user-dependency manifests itself as a factor impeding the digital transformation of this valuable diagnostic tool, which can improve patient outcomes by continuous long-term respiratory monitoring under real-life conditions. Particularly patients suffering from respiratory diseases with progressive nature, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, are expected to benefit from long-term monitoring. Recently, the COVID-19 pandemic has also shown the lack of respiratory monitoring systems which are ready to deploy in operational conditions while requiring minimal patient education. To address particularly the latter subject, in this article, we present a sound acquisition module which can be integrated into a dedicated garment; thus, minimizing the role of the patient for positioning the stethoscope and applying the appropriate pressure. We have implemented a diaphragm-less acousto-electric transducer by stacking a silicone rubber and a piezoelectric film to capture thoracic sounds with minimum attenuation. Furthermore, we benchmarked our device with an electronic stethoscope widely used in clinical practice to quantify its performance.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Monitoring, Ambulatory/instrumentation , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory Sounds/diagnosis , Respiratory Sounds/physiopathology , Stethoscopes , Wearable Electronic Devices , Acoustics , Auscultation/instrumentation , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Electric Impedance , Equipment Design , Humans , Pandemics , Remote Sensing Technology/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Transducers , Wireless Technology/instrumentation
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4464, 2020 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752502

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has shown how a rapid rise in demand for patient and community sample testing can quickly overwhelm testing capability globally. With most diagnostic infrastructure dependent on specialized instruments, their exclusive reagent supplies quickly become bottlenecks, creating an urgent need for approaches to boost testing capacity. We address this challenge by refocusing the London Biofoundry onto the development of alternative testing pipelines. Here, we present a reagent-agnostic automated SARS-CoV-2 testing platform that can be quickly deployed and scaled. Using an in-house-generated, open-source, MS2-virus-like particle (VLP) SARS-CoV-2 standard, we validate RNA extraction and RT-qPCR workflows as well as two detection assays based on CRISPR-Cas13a and RT-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). In collaboration with an NHS diagnostic testing lab, we report the performance of the overall workflow and detection of SARS-CoV-2 in patient samples using RT-qPCR, CRISPR-Cas13a, and RT-LAMP. The validated RNA extraction and RT-qPCR platform has been installed in NHS diagnostic labs, increasing testing capacity by 1000 samples per day.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biological Assay , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Skeletal Radiol ; 49(11): 1873-1877, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-723995

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased the need for safe and efficient testing as a key containment strategy. Drive-through testing with nasopharyngeal swab has been implemented in many places in the USA as it allows for expeditious testing of large numbers of patients, limits healthcare workers' risk of exposure, and minimizes the use of personal protective equipment. We present a case where the aluminum shaft of the nasopharyngeal swab fractured during specimen collection at a drive-through testing facility and was suspected to have remained in the asymptomatic patient. Initial evaluation with a series of radiographs covering the skull base, neck, chest, and abdomen did not reveal the swab. On further clinical evaluation, the swab was found endoscopically, lodged between the left inferior turbinate and nasal floor, and was removed by an otorhinolaryngologist. Using a phantom model, we aimed to delineate an imaging technique to better visualize the aluminum shaft of the nasopharyngeal swab on radiographs to help in identification. A technique using lower tube voltage (kVp) with tight collimation centered at the nasal bones area produced the best visualization of the aluminum shaft of the swab. Recognition that aluminum foreign bodies may be difficult to visualize radiographically and  optimization of radiograph acquisition technique may help guide clinical management in unusual cases. Further evaluation with computed tomography or endoscopy should be considered in suspected cases where radiographs are negative.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Equipment Failure , Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , Aged, 80 and over , Aluminum , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Radiography/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Instruments
19.
Virus Res ; 288: 198129, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-719033

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 affects all aspects of human life. Detection platforms that are efficient, rapid, accurate, specific, sensitive, and user friendly are urgently needed to manage and control the spread of SARS-CoV-2. RT-qPCR based methods are the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 detection. However, these methods require trained personnel, sophisticated infrastructure, and a long turnaround time, thereby limiting their usefulness. Reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), a one-step nucleic acid amplification method conducted at a single temperature, has been used for colorimetric virus detection. CRISPR-Cas12 and CRISPR-Cas13 systems, which possess collateral activity against ssDNA and RNA, respectively, have also been harnessed for virus detection. Here, we built an efficient, rapid, specific, sensitive, user-friendly SARS-CoV-2 detection module that combines the robust virus amplification of RT-LAMP with the specific detection ability of SARS-CoV-2 by CRISPR-Cas12. Furthermore, we combined the RT-LAMP-CRISPR-Cas12 module with lateral flow cells to enable highly efficient point-of-care SARS-CoV-2 detection. Our iSCAN SARS-CoV-2 detection module, which exhibits the critical features of a robust molecular diagnostic device, should facilitate the effective management and control of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Colorimetry/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Colorimetry/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endodeoxyribonucleases/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Point-of-Care Systems , Rheology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Talanta ; 222: 121534, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709442

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 has reached pandemic status and the number of cases continues to grow, widespread availability of diagnostic testing is critical in helping identify and control the emergence of this rapidly spreading and serious illness. However, a lacking in making a quick reaction to the threat and starting early development of diagnostic sensing tools has had an important impact globally. In this regard, here we will review critically the current developed diagnostic tools in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and compare the different types through the discussion of their pros and cons such as nucleic acid detection tests (including PCR and CRISPR), antibody and protein-based diagnosis tests. In addition, potential technologies that are under development such as on-site diagnosis platforms, lateral flow, and portable PCR units are discussed. Data collection and epidemiological analysis could also be an interesting factor to incorporate with the emerging technologies especially with the wide access to smartphones. Lastly, a SWOT analysis and perspectives on how the development of novel sensory platforms should be treated by the different decision-makers are analyzed.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Humans , Point-of-Care Testing , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic
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