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2.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 86-90, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201765

ABSTRACT

To implement the strategy of test, track and treat to tackle the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the number of real-time RT-PCR-based testing laboratories was increased for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in the country. To ensure reliability of the laboratory results, the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated external quality assessment (EQA) by deploying inter-laboratory quality control (ILQC) activity for these laboratories by nominating 34 quality control (QC) laboratories. This report presents the results of this activity for a period of September 2020 till November 2020. A total of 597 laboratories participated in this activity and 86 per cent of these scored ≥90 per cent concordance with QC laboratories. This ILQC activity showcased India's preparedness in quality diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 960938, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154694

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an extremely contagious illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Early disease recognition of COVID-19 is crucial not only for prompt diagnosis and treatment of the patients, but also for effective public health surveillance and response. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most common method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral mRNA and is regarded as the gold standard test for COVID-19. However, this test and those for antibodies (IgM and IgG) and antigens have certain limitations (e.g., by yielding false-negative and false-positive results). We have developed an RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method for high-sensitivity detection of SARS-CoV-2 mRNAs in HEK 293T cell cultures as a model. After transfection of HEK 293T cells with plasmids, Spike (S)/envelope (E) proteins and their mRNAs were clearly detected inside the cells. In addition, hybridization time could be reduced to 2 hours for faster detection when probe concentration was increased. Our approach might thus significantly improve the sensitivity and specificity of SARS-CoV-2 detection and be widely applied for the high-sensitivity single-molecular detection of other RNA viruses (e.g., Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Hepatitis A virus, all influenza viruses, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) in various types of samples including tissue, body fluid, blood, and water. RNA FISH can also be utilized for the detection of DNA viruses (e.g., Monkeypox virus, human papillomavirus (HPV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV)) by detection of their mRNAs inside cells or body fluid.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , RNA, Messenger/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , HEK293 Cells , Immunoglobulin M , Immunoglobulin G , Water
4.
N Z Med J ; 135(1559): 53-58, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2147482

ABSTRACT

AIM: To compare detection of SARS-CoV-2 from paired nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and saliva using molecular methods in common use for testing swabs in New Zealand. METHOD: Samples from individuals testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Auckland, Wellington and Dunedin were tested at the local laboratories using methods previously established for these sample types. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-six paired samples from unique individuals were tested, with 46 (23%) positive from either sample type, of which 43/46 (93%) tested positive from NPS, and 42/46 (91%) from saliva, indicating no significant difference in performance between sample types (p=0.69). The average Δ Ct between saliva and nasopharyngeal swabs overall across the sample set was 0.22 cycles, indicating excellent concordance; however, the difference between NPS and saliva collected from the same individual was quite variable with up to 19 cycles difference between the sample types. CONCLUSION: We found that saliva is an equivalent sample type to nasopharyngeal swab for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in our laboratories using multiple assay combinations and is suitable for use as a diagnostic and surveillance test for selected groups of individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , Nasopharynx , New Zealand , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva , Specimen Handling/methods
5.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1234: 340533, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129675

ABSTRACT

The emerging pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) critically challenges early and accurate virus diagnoses. However, the current gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 detection, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), has reportedly failed to detect low-viral loads. One compound, graphene oxide (GO), which adsorbs single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), has been widely applied in molecular pathogen detection. This study presents a highly sensitive GO-multiplex qPCR method for simultaneous detection of two SARS-CoV-2 genes (RdRP and E) and one reference gene (RNase P). In a GO-multiplex qPCR system, GO pre-absorbs each forward primer to form specific GO-forward primer composites before entering the amplification system. Target gene amplification is confined within the primer-enriched composites, thus, improving the sensitivity of the assay. Compared to conventional multiplex qPCR, GO-multiplex qPCR reduces the limit of detection by 10-fold to 10 copies/reaction. Hence, the GO-multiplex qPCR assay can be effectively used for SARS-CoV-2 detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(10): e1010629, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089313

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 has placed a significant burden on public health systems to provide swift and accurate diagnostic testing highlighting the critical need for innovative testing approaches for future pandemics. In this study, we present a novel sample pooling procedure based on compressed sensing theory to accurately identify virally infected patients at high prevalence rates utilizing an innovative viral RNA extraction process to minimize sample dilution. At prevalence rates ranging from 0-14.3%, the number of tests required to identify the infection status of all patients was reduced by 69.26% as compared to conventional testing in primary human SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swabs and a coronavirus model system. Our method provided quantification of individual sample viral load within a pool as well as a binary positive-negative result. Additionally, our modified pooling and RNA extraction process minimized sample dilution which remained constant as pool sizes increased. Compressed sensing can be adapted to a wide variety of diagnostic testing applications to increase throughput for routine laboratory testing as well as a means to increase testing capacity to combat future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17733, 2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087289

ABSTRACT

For workplaces which cannot operate as telework or remotely, there is a critical need for routine occupational SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing. Although diagnostic tests including the CDC 2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel (CDC Diagnostic Panel) (EUA200001) were made available early in the pandemic, resource scarcity and high demand for reagents and equipment necessitated priority of symptomatic patients. There is a clearly defined need for flexible testing methodologies and strategies with rapid turnaround of results for (1) symptomatic, (2) asymptomatic with high-risk exposures and (3) asymptomatic populations without preexisting conditions for routine screening to address the needs of an on-site work force. We developed a distinct SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic assay based on the original CDC Diagnostic Panel (EUA200001), yet, with minimum overlap for currently employed reagents to eliminate direct competition for limited resources. As the pandemic progressed with testing loads increasing, we modified the assay to include 5-sample pooling and amplicon target multiplexing. Analytical sensitivity of the pooled and multiplexed assays was rigorously tested with contrived positive samples in realistic patient backgrounds. Assay performance was determined with clinical samples previously assessed with an FDA authorized assay. Throughout the pandemic we successfully tested symptomatic, known contact and travelers within our occupational population with a ~ 24-48-h turnaround time to limit the spread of COVID-19 in the workplace. Our singleplex assay had a detection limit of 31.25 copies per reaction. The three-color multiplexed assay maintained similar sensitivity to the singleplex assay, while tripling the throughput. The pooling assay further increased the throughput to five-fold the singleplex assay, albeit with a subtle loss of sensitivity. We subsequently developed a hybrid 'multiplex-pooled' strategy to testing to address the need for both rapid analysis of samples from personnel at high risk of COVID infection and routine screening. Herein, our SARS-CoV-2 assays specifically address the needs of occupational healthcare for both rapid analysis of personnel at high-risk of infection and routine screening that is essential for controlling COVID-19 disease transmission. In addition to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, this work demonstrates successful flexible assays developments and deployments with implications for emerging highly transmissible diseases and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Medicine , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Anal Biochem ; 659: 114960, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085839

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the demand for the fast and reliable detection of viral RNA. Although various methods for RNA amplification and detection have been proposed, some limitations, including those caused by reverse transcription (RT), need to be overcome. Here, we report on the direct detection of specific RNA by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) requiring no prior RT step. It was found that Hemo KlenTaq (HKTaq), which is posed as DNA-dependent DNA polymerase, possesses reverse transcriptase activity and provides reproducible amplification of RNA targets with an efficiency comparable to common RT-PCR. Using nasopharyngeal swab extracts from COVID-19-positive patients, the high reliability of SARS-CoV-2 detection based on HKTaq was demonstrated. The most accurate detection of specific targets are provided by nearby primers, which allow to determine RNA in solutions affected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles. HKTaq can be used for elaboration of simplified amplification techniques intended for the analysis of any specific RNA and requiring only one DNA polymerase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Humans , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Taq Polymerase/metabolism
11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(9): 1376-1384, 2022 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066666

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of COVID-19 is considered a significant step in the management of the disease that is causing a major worldwide public health challenge from the time of its emergence in December 2019. Since it has been established that SARS-CoV-2 spreads rapidly, timely detection of the positive cases and isolation of such individuals and their contacts helps in containing viral transmission. In this paper, we review the in vitro technology platforms for testing and diagnosing COVID-19 patients: molecular tests, rapid antigen tests, and serology tests. As part of our review of each category of tests, we discuss the commercialized testing platforms, their analyzing systems, specimen collection protocols, and testing methodologies. Moreover, the efficacy and limitations of each technique are also discussed. The key structural components of the virus are presented to provide an understanding of the scientific principles behind the testing tools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods
12.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 120(5): 336-339, 2022 10.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056105

ABSTRACT

Stopping the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is critical and can be achieved through rapid and effective detection techniques. Our objective was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of rapid antigen tests (RAgT) and reverse transcriptionquantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and to describe amplification cycle thresholds (Cts). Participants were children aged 1 month to 11 years with symptoms for less than 7 days, who did not have a detectable result in the past 90 days, and were immunocompetent. A total of 1855 patients were included; the prevalence of COVID-19 was 4.7%. For the RAgT, overall sensitivity was 60.2% and specificity, 99.8%; in children older than 5 years, values were 69.8% and 99.8%, respectively. Ct values for discordant samples were higher. To conclude, the diagnostic accuracy indicated that the specificity of RAgT is similar to that of RT-qPCR, but its sensitivity is notably lower, especially in children younger than 5 years.


Frenar la propagación de la enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés) es fundamental, y se puede realizar mediante técnicas de detección rápidas y efectivas. El objetivo fue comparar la precisión diagnóstica de un test rápido de antígeno (TRAg,) con la reacción en cadena de polimerasa con retrotranscripción (RT-qPCR, por su sigla en inglés) y describir los umbrales de amplificación (Ct, por su sigla en inglés). Participaron niños de 1 mes a 11 años que tuvieran menos de 7 días de síntomas, sin resultado detectable en los últimos 90 días, e inmunocompetentes. Se incluyeron 1855 pacientes con una prevalencia de COVID-19 del 4,7 %. La sensibilidad global del TRAg fue del 60,2 % y su especificidad, del 99,8 %; en niños mayores de 5 años los valores fueron de 69,8 % y 99,8 %, respectivamente. Los valores de Ct de las muestras discordantes fueron más altos. En conclusión, la precisión diagnóstica muestra que TRAg tiene una especificidad similar a la RT-qPCR, pero una sensibilidad considerablemente menor, sobre todo en niños de menos de 5 años.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(3): 276-281, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055735

ABSTRACT

Background: Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kits have been reliably employed for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the detection of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA since the beginning of the disease outbreak. In consideration of reliable diagnosis, apart from RT-PCR, the isothermal nucleic acid amplification-based point-of-care automated kits have also been tagged as a simpler and rapid alternative to the conventional techniques. Currently, the availability of a better diagnostic method for COVID-19 when compared to RT-PCR is nil. The most important step in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in a RT-PCR diagnostic laboratory is to identify and employ RT-PCR kits with higher sensitivity as well as specificity. Objectives: This study aimed to study commercially available RT-PCR kits for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Methods: The performance of seven different RT-PCR kits from different manufacturers used for diagnosis of COVID-19 in Govt Theni Medical College and Hospital, Theni, Tamil Nadu were analysed. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from patients and subjected to RT-PCR using these kits. Results and Conclusion: The sensitivities and batch effects of the assessed kits were slightly different for different targets, for SARS-CoV-2 detection in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Examination of COVID-19 kits should be done using currently employed kits in routine diagnosis for better efficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , India/epidemiology , RNA , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0239822, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053141

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, a new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), caused a pandemic that persists to date and has resulted in more than 6.2 million deaths. In the last couple of years, researchers have made great efforts to develop a diagnostic technique that maintains high levels of sensitivity and specificity, since an accurate and early diagnosis is required to minimize the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this context, CRISPR-Cas systems are proposed as promising tools for development as diagnostic techniques due to their high specificity, highlighting that Cas13 endonuclease discriminates single nucleotide changes and displays collateral activity against single-stranded RNA molecules. With the aim of improving the sensitivity of diagnosis, this technology is usually combined with isothermal preamplification reactions (SHERLOCK, DETECTR). Based on this, we developed a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP)-CRISPR-Cas13a method for SARS-CoV-2 virus detection in nasopharyngeal samples without using RNA extraction that exhibits 100% specificity and 83% sensitivity, as well as a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% and negative predictive values (NPVs) of 100%, 81%, 79.1%, and 66.7% for cycle threshold (CT) values of <20, 20 to 30, >30 and overall, respectively. IMPORTANCE The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis has driven the development of innovative molecular diagnosis methods, including CRISPR-Cas technology. In this work, we performed a protocol, working with RNA extraction kit-free samples and using RT-LAMP-CRISPR-Cas13a technology; our results place this method at the forefront of rapid and specific diagnostic methods for COVID-19 due to the high specificity (100%), sensitivity (83%), PPVs (100%), and NPVs (81% for high viral loads) obtained with clinical samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Technology , Endonucleases , RNA , Nucleotides
15.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(11): e24727, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many rapid nucleic acid testing systems have emerged to halt the development and spread of COVID-19. However, so far relatively few studies have compared the diagnostic performance between these testing systems and conventional detection systems. Here, we performed a retrospective analysis to evaluate the clinical detection performance between SARS-CoV-2 rapid and conventional nucleic acid detection system. METHODS: Clinical detection results of 63,352 oropharyngeal swabs by both systems were finally enrolled in this analysis. Sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), and positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV) of both systems were calculated to evaluate their diagnostic accuracy. Concordance between these two systems were assessed by overall, positive, negative percent agreement (OPA, PPA, NPA) and κ value. Sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 rapid nucleic acid detection system (Daan Gene) was further analyzed with respect to the viral load of clinical specimens. RESULTS: Sensitivity of Daan Gene was slightly lower than that of conventional detection system (0.86 vs. 0.979), but their specificity was equivalent. Daan Gene had ≥98.0% PPV and NPV for SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, Daan Gene demonstrated an excellent test agreement with conventional detection system (κ = 0.893, p = 0.000). Daan Gene was 99.31% sensitivity for specimens with high viral load (Ct < 35) and 50% for low viral load (Ct ≥ 35). CONCLUSIONS: While showing an analytical sensitivity slightly below than that of conventional detection system, rapid nucleic acid detection system may be a diagnostic alternative to rapidly identify SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals with high viral loads and a powerful complement to current detection methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Retrospective Studies
16.
Curr Protoc ; 2(10): e521, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047527

ABSTRACT

Antibody detection assays are essential for evaluating immunity of individuals against a given virus, and this has been particularly relevant during the COVID-19 pandemic. Current serology assays either require a laboratory setting and take >1 hr (i.e., enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) or are rapid but only qualitative in nature and cannot accurately track antibody levels over time (i.e., lateral flow assay [LFA]). Therefore, there is a need for development of a rapid and simple but also quantitative assay that can evaluate antibody levels in patients accurately over time. We have developed an assay that uses a split nanoluciferase fused to the spike or nucleocapsid proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus to enable luminescent-based detection of spike- or nucleocapsid-binding antibodies in serum, plasma, and whole blood samples. The resulting approach is simple, rapid, and quantitative and is highly amenable to low-/medium-throughput scale using plate-based assays, high-throughput scale using robotics, and point-of-care applications. In this article, we describe how to perform the assay in a laboratory setting using a plate reader or liquid-handling robotics and in a point-of-care setting using a handheld, battery-powered luminometer. Together, these assays allow antibody detection to be easily performed in multiple settings by simplifying and reducing assay time in a laboratory or clinical environment and by allowing for antibody detection in point-of-care, nonlaboratory settings. © 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol: SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection using the split-luciferase assay on a medium-throughput scale with a laboratory luminometer Alternate Protocol 1: High-throughput-based protocol for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection using a robotic platform Alternate Protocol 2: Point-of-care-based protocol for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection using a handheld luminometer Support Protocol: Determining positive/negative cutoffs for test samples and standardizing the assay between days.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , Luciferases , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 52(4): 677-683, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2045026

ABSTRACT

The devastating COVID-19 outbreak posed serious challenges for the diagnostics laboratories, facing global shortage of reagents and equipment. This study aimed at evaluating an additional RNA extraction method respect to those already recommended by WHO and CDC. A new protocol for RNA extraction from nasopharyngeal swab was set up, adapting a Qiagen kit, and validated on a set of 96 clinical samples. The analysis showed a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 97%, but considering samples with Ct<36.5, the sensitivity and the specificity increased to 100%. The adapted method was also able to detect samples with very low viral load (Ct>38), indicating that the two approaches can be considered equivalent for the SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics. This extraction method can help in increasing the throughput for SARS-CoV-2 molecular test, even in a low automation setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 64(1): e1-e4, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2044084

ABSTRACT

Amidst an ever-evolving pandemic, the demand for timely and accurate diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to increase. Critically, managing and containing the spread of the disease requires expedient testing of infected individuals. Presently, the gold standard for the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Potential vulnerabilities of this testing methodology can range from preanalytical variables to laboratory-related analytical factors and, ultimately, to the interpretation of results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
Anal Biochem ; 658: 114902, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031059

ABSTRACT

The development of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is one of the most important efforts in controlling the pandemic. Serological tests are used to identify highly reactive human donors for convalescent plasma therapy, measuring vaccine efficacy and durability. This review article presents a review of serology tests and how antibody titers in response to vaccines have been developed. Some of the serological test methods discussed are Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT), Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA), chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), and Chemiluminescent Micro-particle Immunoassay (CMIA). This review can provide an understanding of the application of the body's immune response to vaccines to get some new strategies for vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Antibodies, Viral , Serologic Tests/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Vaccination , Antibodies, Neutralizing
20.
Health Secur ; 20(5): 368-375, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028992

ABSTRACT

From April 23 to November 2021, a wave of COVID-19 infections caused by a new Alpha variant swept across Taiwan, resulting in 14,458 positive cases and 830 deaths among over 3.8 million people tested. To cope with the sudden increase in sample volume, as of December 14, 2021, a network of 249 laboratories with a total diagnostic capacity of 158,492 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction tests per day was established in 22 administrative regions. As of April 2022, over 9.5 million specimens were tested. Fully automated high-throughput and point-of-care nucleic acid testing, and rapid antigen testing, were simultaneously implemented to expand the country's daily diagnostic capacity. Saliva testing and sample pooling were also introduced to increase screening efficiency in certain situations. Antibody testing and genomic sequencing were also adopted for more precise epidemic investigation. Other challenges encountered and overcome include a lack of resources and interfacing of laboratory information management systems for case reporting, limited specimen allocation and delivery, and limited staff for diagnostic processing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Laboratories , Taiwan/epidemiology
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