Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.399
Filter
6.
Age Ageing ; 51(5)2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151828

ABSTRACT

Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) usually provide the best evidence for treatments and management. Historically, older people have often been excluded from clinical medication trials due to age, multimorbidity and disabilities. The situation is improving, but still the external validity of many trials may be questioned. Individuals participating in trials are generally less complex than many patients seen in geriatric clinics. Recruitment and retention of older participants are particular challenges in clinical trials. Multiple channels are needed for successful recruitment, and especially individuals experiencing frailty, multimorbidity and disabilities require support to participate. Cognitive decline is common, and often proxies are needed to sign informed consent forms. Older people may fall ill or become tired during the trial, and therefore, special support and empathic study personnel are necessary for the successful retention of participants. Besides the risk of participants dropping out, several other pitfalls may result in underestimating or overestimating the intervention effects. In nonpharmacological trials, imperfect blinding is often unavoidable. Interventions must be designed intensively and be long enough to reveal differences between the intervention and control groups, as control participants must still receive the best normal care available. Outcome measures should be relevant to older people, sensitive to change and targeted to the specific population in the trial. Missing values in measurements are common and should be accounted for when designing the trial. Despite the obstacles, RCTs in geriatrics must be promoted. Reliable evidence is needed for the successful treatment, management and care of older people.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic , Multimorbidity , Aged , Humans
7.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(6): 553-558, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161180

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update of the current state of antibody therapy for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 infection that has progressed immensely in a very short time period. RECENT FINDINGS: Limited clinical effect of classical passive immunotherapy (plasma therapy, hyperimmune immunoglobulin [IgG] preparations) whereas monoclonal antibody therapy, if initiated early in the disease process, shows promising results. SUMMARY: Although antibody therapy still remains to be fully explored in patients with COVID-19, a combination of IgG monoclonal antibodies against the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein currently appears to provide the best form of antibody therapy, Immunoglobulin A dimers and Immunoglobulin M pentamers also show promising preliminary therapeutic results.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin A/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin M/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
9.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143622

ABSTRACT

Evusheld® (tixagevimab + cilgavimab; AZD7442) was the first anti-Spike monoclonal antibody (mAb) cocktail designed not only for treatment but also with pre-exposure prophylaxis in mind. The immunoglobulins were engineered for prolonged half-life by modifying the Fc fragment, thus creating a long-acting antibody (LAAB). We review here preclinical development, baseline and treatment-emergent resistance, clinical efficacy from registration trials, and real-world post-marketing evidence. The combination was initially approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis at the time of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta VOC wave based on a trial conducted in unvaccinated subjects when the Alpha VOC was dominant. Another trial also conducted at the time of the Alpha VOC wave proved efficacy as early treatment in unvaccinated patients and led to authorization at the time of the BA.4/5 VOC wave. Tixagevimab was ineffective against any Omicron sublineage, so cilgavimab has so far been the ingredient which has made a difference. Antibody monotherapy has a high risk of selecting for immune escape variants in immunocompromised patients with high viral loads, which nowadays represent the main therapeutic indication for antibody therapies. Among Omicron sublineages, cilgavimab was ineffective against BA.1, recovered efficacy against BA.2 and BA.2.12.1, but lost efficacy again against BA.4/BA.5 and BA.2.75. Our analysis indicated that Evusheld® has been used during the Omicron VOC phase without robust clinical data of efficacy against this variant and suggested that several regulatory decisions regarding its use lacked consistency. There is an urgent need for new randomized controlled trials in vaccinated, immunocompromised subjects, using COVID-19 convalescent plasma as a control arm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Combinations , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 42: 1-10, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140235

ABSTRACT

The conduct of clinical cancer research has faced considerable challenges in recent years, and the situation has only been exacerbated by the global pandemic. The growing complexity of clinical trials and rising administrative burdens had been causing greater expense and difficulty in recruiting and retaining an appropriately trained workforce even before the well-publicized increase in turnover caused by the pandemic. Longstanding issues such as restrictive inclusion criteria and complicated trial designs have negatively affected already low clinical trial accrual rates, limited sites capable of opening studies and enrolling patients, and worsened disparities in trial participation. Opposing these elements are efforts by ASCO and other organizations to increase affordability, access, and equity in clinical trial enrollment. To provide diverse perspectives on how these challenges are affecting cancer research as we emerge from the pandemic, we asked a panel of experienced clinical research leaders from both academic and community cancer centers to answer questions they felt most pressing about the business of conducting clinical research today and where they felt the field was moving in the near future.


Subject(s)
Financial Management , Neoplasms , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Workforce
11.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(2): 270-278, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic surveillance is recommended for patients with Barrett's oesophagus because, although the progression risk is low, endoscopic intervention is highly effective for high-grade dysplasia and cancer. However, repeated endoscopy has associated harms and access has been limited during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to evaluate the role of a non-endoscopic device (Cytosponge) coupled with laboratory biomarkers and clinical factors to prioritise endoscopy for Barrett's oesophagus. METHODS: We first conducted a retrospective, multicentre, cross-sectional study in patients older than 18 years who were having endoscopic surveillance for Barrett's oesophagus (with intestinal metaplasia confirmed by TFF3 and a minimum Barrett's segment length of 1 cm [circumferential or tongues by the Prague C and M criteria]). All patients had received the Cytosponge and confirmatory endoscopy during the BEST2 (ISRCTN12730505) and BEST3 (ISRCTN68382401) clinical trials, from July 7, 2011, to April 1, 2019 (UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio 9461). Participants were divided into training (n=557) and validation (n=334) cohorts to identify optimal risk groups. The biomarkers evaluated were overexpression of p53, cellular atypia, and 17 clinical demographic variables. Endoscopic biopsy diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia or cancer was the primary endpoint. Clinical feasibility of a decision tree for Cytosponge triage was evaluated in a real-world prospective cohort from Aug 27, 2020 (DELTA; ISRCTN91655550; n=223), in response to COVID-19 and the need to provide an alternative to endoscopic surveillance. FINDINGS: The prevalence of high-grade dysplasia or cancer determined by the current gold standard of endoscopic biopsy was 17% (92 of 557 patients) in the training cohort and 10% (35 of 344) in the validation cohort. From the new biomarker analysis, three risk groups were identified: high risk, defined as atypia or p53 overexpression or both on Cytosponge; moderate risk, defined by the presence of a clinical risk factor (age, sex, and segment length); and low risk, defined as Cytosponge-negative and no clinical risk factors. The risk of high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal cancer in the high-risk group was 52% (68 of 132 patients) in the training cohort and 41% (31 of 75) in the validation cohort, compared with 2% (five of 210) and 1% (two of 185) in the low-risk group, respectively. In the real-world setting, Cytosponge results prospectively identified 39 (17%) of 223 patients as high risk (atypia or p53 overexpression, or both) requiring endoscopy, among whom the positive predictive value was 31% (12 of 39 patients) for high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal cancer and 44% (17 of 39) for any grade of dysplasia. INTERPRETATION: Cytosponge atypia, p53 overexpression, and clinical risk factors (age, sex, and segment length) could be used to prioritise patients for endoscopy. Further investigation could validate their use in clinical practice and lead to a substantial reduction in endoscopy procedures compared with current surveillance pathways. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, Innovate UK.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Barrett Esophagus/pathology , COVID-19 , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Patient Selection , Watchful Waiting/methods , Adenocarcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Aged , Barrett Esophagus/diagnostic imaging , Barrett Esophagus/metabolism , Barrett Esophagus/therapy , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Decision-Making , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Decision Trees , Disease Progression , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Esophageal Neoplasms/metabolism , Esophagoscopy , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Trefoil Factor-3/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 923106, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109760

ABSTRACT

First-generation anit-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were highly successful. They rapidly met an unforeseen emergency need, saved millions of lives, and simultaneously eased the burden on healthcare systems worldwide. The first-generation vaccines, however, focused too narrowly on antibody-based immunity as the sole marker of vaccine trial success, resulting in large knowledge gaps about waning vaccine protection, lack of vaccine robustness to viral mutation, and lack of efficacy in immunocompromised populations. Detailed reviews of first-generation vaccines, including their mode of action and geographical distribution, have been published elsewhere. Second-generation clinical trials must address these gaps by evaluating a broader range of immune markers, including those representing cell-mediated immunity, to ensure the most protective and long-lasting vaccines are brought to market.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans
15.
Elife ; 112022 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080852

ABSTRACT

Background: The great majority of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections are mild and uncomplicated, but some individuals with initially mild COVID-19 progressively develop more severe symptoms. Furthermore, there is substantial heterogeneity in SARS-CoV-2-specific memory immune responses following infection. There remains a critical need to identify host immune biomarkers predictive of clinical and immunological outcomes in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Methods: Leveraging longitudinal samples and data from a clinical trial (N=108) in SARS-CoV-2-infected outpatients, we used host proteomics and transcriptomics to characterize the trajectory of the immune response in COVID-19 patients. We characterized the association between early immune markers and subsequent disease progression, control of viral shedding, and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell and antibody responses measured up to 7 months after enrollment. We further compared associations between early immune markers and subsequent T cell and antibody responses following natural infection with those following mRNA vaccination. We developed machine-learning models to predict patient outcomes and validated the predictive model using data from 54 individuals enrolled in an independent clinical trial. Results: We identify early immune signatures, including plasma RIG-I levels, early IFN signaling, and related cytokines (CXCL10, MCP1, MCP-2, and MCP-3) associated with subsequent disease progression, control of viral shedding, and the SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell and antibody response measured up to 7 months after enrollment. We found that several biomarkers for immunological outcomes are shared between individuals receiving BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine and COVID-19 patients. Finally, we demonstrate that machine-learning models using 2-7 plasma protein markers measured early within the course of infection are able to accurately predict disease progression, T cell memory, and the antibody response post-infection in a second, independent dataset. Conclusions: Early immune signatures following infection can accurately predict clinical and immunological outcomes in outpatients with COVID-19 using validated machine-learning models. Funding: Support for the study was provided from National Institute of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH/NIAID) (U01 AI150741-01S1 and T32-AI052073), the Stanford's Innovative Medicines Accelerator, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIH/NIDA) DP1DA046089, and anonymous donors to Stanford University. Peginterferon lambda provided by Eiger BioPharmaceuticals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Biomarkers , BNT162 Vaccine , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Clinical Trials as Topic
16.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 47(12): 4096-4102, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075342

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the decision patterns of a neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN) tumor board (TB) and the factors behind those. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all NEN-TB recommendations from 07/2018 to 12/2021 and recorded patient characteristics, TB outcomes and associations between them. RESULTS: A total of 652 patient entries were identified. Median age of participants was 61 years and an equal number of men and women were presented. Most patients (33.4%) had tumors originating in the small bowel with 16.8% of high grade and 25.9% of pancreatic origin. Imaging was reviewed 97.2% of the time, with most frequently reviewed modalities being PET (55.3%) and CT (44.3%). Imaging review determined that there was no disease progression 20.8% of the time and significant treatment changes were recommended in 36.1% of patients. Major pathology amendments occurred in 3.7% of cases and a clinical trial was identified in 2.6%. There was no association between patient or disease presentation with the tumor board outcomes. There was a slight decrease in number of patients discussed per session, from 10.0 to 8.2 (p < 0.001) when the TB transitioned to a virtual format during the COVID-19 pandemic but all other factors remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: NEN-TB relies heavily on image review, can impact significant treatment changes in patients with rare tumors like NENs, and was not affected by the switch to a virtual format. Finally, none of the examined factors were predictive of the tumor board recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroendocrine Tumors/pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Clinical Trials as Topic
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2237540, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074861

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study estimates the trial capacity of sites participating in the COVID-19 convalescent plasma expanded access program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2 , Clinical Trials as Topic
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16956, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062264

ABSTRACT

In late 2019 the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus emerged in China and quickly spread into a worldwide pandemic. It has caused millions of hospitalizations and deaths, despite the use of COVID-19 vaccines. Convalescent plasma and monoclonal antibodies emerged as major therapeutic options for treatment of COVID-19. We have developed an anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin intravenous (Human) (COVID-HIGIV), a potential improvement from using convalescent plasma. In this report the efficacy of COVID-HIGIV was evaluated in hamster and mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-HIGIV treatment in both mice and hamsters significantly reduced the viral load in the lungs. Among COVID-HIGIV treated animals, infection-related body weight loss was reduced and the animals regained their baseline body weight faster than the PBS controls. In hamsters, COVID-HIGIV treatment reduced infection-associated lung pathology including lung inflammation, and pneumocyte hypertrophy in the lungs. These results support ongoing trials for outpatient treatment with COVID-HIGIV for safety and efficacy evaluation (NCT04910269, NCT04546581).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Lung/pathology , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL