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1.
Trials ; 23(1): 303, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has quickly become a global pandemic with a substantial number of deaths and is a considerable burden for healthcare systems worldwide. Although most cases are paucisymptomatic and limited to the viral infection-related symptoms, some patients evolve to a second phase, with an impaired inflammatory response (cytokine storm) that may lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. This is thought to be caused by increased bradykinin synthesis. METHODS: ICAT-COVID is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, proof-of-concept phase II clinical trial assessing the clinical efficacy and safety of adding icatibant to the standard of care in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 without invasive mechanical ventilation. Patients hospitalized with a confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia diagnosis (RT-PCR or antigen test ≤ 10 days prior to randomization, and radiographic evidence of pulmonary infiltrates), rated "4" or "5" on the WHO's clinical status scale, are eligible. Patients will be randomized on a 1:1 ratio to either standard of care-plus-icatibant (experimental group) or to standard of care alone (control group). The experimental group will receive 30 mg of icatibant subcutaneously 3 times a day for 3 days (for a total of 9 doses). The expected sample size is 120 patients (60 per group) from 2 sites in Spain. Primary outcomes are the efficacy and safety of Icatibant. The main efficacy outcome is the number of patients reaching grades "2" or "1" on the WHO scale within 10 days of starting treatment. Secondary outcomes include "long-term efficacy": number of patients discharged who do not present COVID-19-related relapse or comorbidity up until 28 days after discharge, and mortality. DISCUSSION: Icatibant, a bradykinin type 2 receptor antagonist with proven effectiveness and safety against hereditary angioedema attacks, may be beneficial for COVID-19 patients by inhibiting bradykinin's action on endothelial cells and by inhibiting the SARS-CoV-2 M protease. Our working hypothesis is that treatment with standard of care-plus-icatibant is effective and safe to treat patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to hospital for pneumonia without invasive mechanical ventilation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT 2020-002166-13. CLINICALTRIALS: gov NCT04978051.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Bradykinin/adverse effects , Bradykinin/analogs & derivatives , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Endothelial Cells , Hospital Units , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
2.
Trials ; 23(1): 263, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779666

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to dramatic improvements in survival for people living with HIV, but is unable to cure infection, or induce viral control off therapy. Designing intervention trials with novel agents with the potential to confer a period of HIV remission without ART remains a key scientific and community goal. We detail the rationale, design, and outcomes of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of two HIV-specific long-acting broadly neutralising antibodies (bNAbs): 3BNC117-LS and 10-1074-LS, which target CD4 binding site and V3 loop respectively, on post-treatment viral control. METHODS: RIO is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded prospective phase II study. Eligible individuals will have started ART within 3 months of primary HIV infection and have viral sequences that appear to be sensitive to both bNAbs. It will randomise 72 eligible participants 1:1 to the following arms via a two-stage design. In Stage 1, arm A participants are given dual long-acting (LS-variants) bNAbs infusions, followed by intensively monitored Analytical Treatment Interruption (ATI) (n = 36); in arm B, participants receive placebo infusions followed by ATI. The primary endpoint will be time to viral rebound within 36 weeks after ATI. Upon viral rebound, the participant and researcher are unblinded. Participants in arm A recommence ART and complete the study. Participants in arm B are invited to restart ART and enroll into Stage 2 where they will receive open-label LS bNAbs, followed by a second ATI 24 weeks after. Secondary and exploratory endpoints include adverse events, time to undetectable viraemia after restarting ART, immunological markers, HIV proviral DNA, serum bNAb concentrations in blood, bNAb resistance at viral rebound, and quality of life measures. DISCUSSION: The two-stage design was determined in collaboration with community involvement. This design allows all participants the option to receive bNAbs. It also tests the hypothesis that bNAbs may drive sustained HIV control beyond the duration of detectable bNAb concentrations. Community representatives were involved at all stages. This included the two-stage design, discussion on the criteria to restart ART, frequency of monitoring visits off ART, and reducing the risk of onward transmission to HIV-negative partners. It also included responding to the challenges of COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol is registered on Clinical. TRIALS: gov and EudraCT and has approval from UK Ethics and MHRA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Community Participation , HIV Antibodies , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Vaccine ; 40(9): 1253-1260, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721051

ABSTRACT

To address the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a recombinant subunit vaccine, AKS-452, is being developed comprising an Fc fusion protein of the SARS-CoV-2 viral spike protein receptor binding domain (SP/RBD) antigen and human IgG1 Fc emulsified in the water-in-oil adjuvant, Montanide™ ISA 720. A single-center, open-label, phase I dose-finding and safety study was conducted with 60 healthy adults (18-65 years) receiving one or two doses 28 days apart of 22.5 µg, 45 µg, or 90 µg of AKS-452 (i.e., six cohorts, N = 10 subjects per cohort). Primary endpoints were safety and reactogenicity and secondary endpoints were immunogenicity assessments. No AEs ≥ 3, no SAEs attributable to AKS-452, and no SARS-CoV-2 viral infections occurred during the study. Seroconversion rates of anti-SARS-CoV-2 SP/RBD IgG titers in the 22.5, 45, and 90 µg cohorts at day 28 were 70%, 90%, and 100%, respectively, which all increased to 100% at day 56 (except 89% for the single-dose 22.5 µg cohort). All IgG titers were Th1-isotype skewed and efficiently bound mutant SP/RBD from several SARS-CoV-2 variants with strong neutralization potencies of live virus infection of cells (including alpha and delta variants). The favorable safety and immunogenicity profiles of this phase I study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04681092) support phase II initiation of this room-temperature stable vaccine that can be rapidly and inexpensively manufactured to serve vaccination at a global scale without the need of a complex distribution or cold chain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Subunit , Young Adult
5.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262114, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, commentators warned that some COVID trials were inadequately conceived, designed and reported. Here, we retrospectively assess the prevalence of informative COVID trials launched in the first 6 months of the pandemic. METHODS: Based on prespecified eligibility criteria, we created a cohort of Phase 1/2, Phase 2, Phase 2/3 and Phase 3 SARS-CoV-2 treatment and prevention efficacy trials that were initiated from 2020-01-01 to 2020-06-30 using ClinicalTrials.gov registration records. We excluded trials evaluating behavioural interventions and natural products, which are not regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We evaluated trials on 3 criteria of informativeness: potential redundancy (comparing trial phase, type, patient-participant characteristics, treatment regimen, comparator arms and primary outcome), trials design (according to the recommendations set-out in the May 2020 FDA guidance document on SARS-CoV-2 treatment and prevention trials) and feasibility of patient-participant recruitment (based on timeliness and success of recruitment). RESULTS: We included all 500 eligible trials in our cohort, 58% of which were Phase 2 and 84.8% were directed towards the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Close to one third of trials met all three criteria and were deemed informative (29.9% (95% Confidence Interval 23.7-36.9)). The proportion of potentially redundant trials in our cohort was 4.1%. Over half of the trials in our cohort (56.2%) did not meet our criteria for high quality trial design. The proportion of trials with infeasible patient-participant recruitment was 22.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Less than one third of COVID-19 trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov during the first six months met all three criteria for informativeness. Shortcomings in trial design, recruitment feasibility and redundancy reflect longstanding weaknesses in the clinical research enterprise that were likely amplified by the exceptional circumstances of a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Research Design/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic/ethics , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic/ethics , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic/ethics , Humans , Patient Selection/ethics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
Trials ; 22(1): 172, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622253

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that administration of dexamethasone 20 mg is superior to a 6 mg dose in adult patients with moderate or severe ARDS due to confirmed COVID-19. The secondary objective is to investigate the efficacy and safety of dexamethasone 20 mg versus dexamethasone 6 mg. The exploratory objective of this study is to assess long-term consequences on mortality and quality of life at 180 and 360 days. TRIAL DESIGN: REMED is a prospective, phase II, open-label, randomised controlled trial testing superiority of dexamethasone 20 mg vs 6 mg. The trial aims to be pragmatic, i.e. designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention in conditions that are close to real-life routine clinical practice. PARTICIPANTS: The study is multi-centre and will be conducted in the intensive care units (ICUs) of ten university hospitals in the Czech Republic. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Subjects will be eligible for the trial if they meet all of the following criteria: 1. Adult (≥18 years of age) at time of enrolment; 2. Present COVID-19 (infection confirmed by RT-PCR or antigen testing); 3. Intubation/mechanical ventilation or ongoing high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy; 4. Moderate or severe ARDS according to Berlin criteria: • Moderate - PaO2/FiO2 100-200 mmHg; • Severe - PaO2/FiO2 < 100 mmHg; 5. Admission to ICU in the last 24 hours. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Subjects will not be eligible for the trial if they meet any of the following criteria: 1. Known allergy/hypersensitivity to dexamethasone or excipients of the investigational medicinal product (e.g. parabens, benzyl alcohol); 2. Fulfilled criteria for ARDS for ≥14 days at enrolment; 3. Pregnancy or breastfeeding; 4. Unwillingness to comply with contraception measurements from enrolment until at least 1 week after the last dose of dexamethasone (sexual abstinence is considered an adequate contraception method); 5. End-of-life decision or patient is expected to die within next 24 hours; 6. Decision not to intubate or ceilings of care in place; 7. Immunosuppression and/or immunosuppressive drugs in medical history: a) Systemic immunosuppressive drugs or chemotherapy in the past 30 days; b) Systemic corticosteroid use before hospitalization; c) Any dose of dexamethasone during the present hospital stay for COVID-19 for ≥5 days before enrolment; d) Systemic corticosteroids during present hospital stay for conditions other than COVID-19 (e.g. septic shock); 8. Current haematological or generalized solid malignancy; 9. Any contraindication for corticosteroid administration, e.g. • intractable hyperglycaemia; • active gastrointestinal bleeding; • adrenal gland disorders; • presence of superinfection diagnosed with locally established clinical and laboratory criteria without adequate antimicrobial treatment; 10. Cardiac arrest before ICU admission; 11. Participation in another interventional trial in the last 30 days. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Dexamethasone solution for injection/infusion is the investigational medicinal product as well as the comparator. The trial will assess two doses, 20 mg (investigational) vs 6 mg (comparator). Patients in the intervention group will receive dexamethasone 20 mg intravenously once daily on day 1-5, followed by dexamethasone 10 mg intravenously once daily on day 6-10. Patients in the control group will receive dexamethasone 6 mg day 1-10. All authorized medicinal products containing dexamethasone in the form of solution for i.v. injection/infusion can be used. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoint: Number of ventilator-free days (VFDs) at 28 days after randomisation, defined as being alive and free from mechanical ventilation. SECONDARY ENDPOINTS: a) Mortality from any cause at 60 days after randomisation; b) Dynamics of inflammatory marker (C-Reactive Protein, CRP) change from Day 1 to Day 14; c) WHO Clinical Progression Scale at Day 14; d) Adverse events related to corticosteroids (new infections, new thrombotic complications) until Day 28 or hospital discharge; e) Independence at 90 days after randomisation assessed by Barthel Index. The long-term outcomes of this study are to assess long-term consequences on mortality and quality of life at 180 and 360 days through telephone structured interviews using the Barthel Index. RANDOMISATION: Randomisation will be carried out within the electronic case report form (eCRF) by the stratified permuted block randomisation method. Allocation sequences will be prepared by a statistician independent of the study team. Allocation to the treatment arm of an individual patient will not be available to the investigators before completion of the whole randomisation process. The following stratification factors will be applied: • Age <65 and ≥ 65; • Charlson Comorbidity index (CCI) <3 and ≥3; • CRP <150 mg/L and ≥150 mg/L • Trial centre. Patients will be randomised in a 1 : 1 ratio into one of the two treatment arms. Randomisation through the eCRF will be available 24 hours every day. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-label trial in which the participants and the study staff will be aware of the allocated intervention. Blinded pre-planned statistical analysis will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The sample size is calculated to detect the difference of 3 VFDs at 28 days (primary efficacy endpoint) between the two treatment arms with a two-sided type I error of 0.05 and power of 80%. Based on data from a multi-centre randomised controlled trial in COVID-19 ARDS patients in Brazil and a multi-centre observational study from French and Belgian ICUs regarding moderate to severe ARDS related to COVID-19, investigators assumed a standard deviation of VFD at 28 days as 9. Using these assumptions, a total of 142 patients per treatment arm would be needed. After adjustment for a drop-out rate, 150 per treatment arm (300 patients per study) will be enrolled. TRIAL STATUS: This is protocol version 1.1, 15.01.2021. The trial is due to start on 2 February 2021 and recruitment is expected to be completed by December 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study protocol was registered on EudraCT No.:2020-005887-70, and on December 11, 2020 on ClinicalTrials.gov (Title: Effect of Two Different Doses of Dexamethasone in Patients With ARDS and COVID-19 (REMED)) Identifier: NCT04663555 with a last update posted on February 1, 2021. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol (version 1.1) is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the standard formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Disease Progression , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Equivalence Trials as Topic , Humans , Length of Stay , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(51): e28288, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral respiratory disease that spreads rapidly, reaching pandemic status, causing the collapse of numerous health systems, and a strong economic and social impact. The treatment so far has not been well established and there are several clinical trials testing known drugs that have antiviral activity, due to the urgency that the global situation imposes. Drugs with specific mechanisms of action can take years to be discovered, while vaccines may also take a long time to be widely distributed while new virus variants emerge. Thus, drug repositioning has been shown to be a good strategy for defining new therapeutic approaches. Studies of the effect of enriched heparin in the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro assays justify the advance for clinical tests. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A phase I/II triple-blind parallel clinical trial will be conducted. Fifty participants with radiological diagnosis of grade IIA pneumonia will be selected, which will be allocated in 2 arms. Participants allocated in Group 1 (placebo) will receive nebulized 0.9% saline. Participants allocated in Group 2 (intervention) will receive nebulized enriched heparin (2.5 mg/mL 0.9% saline). Both groups will receive the respective solutions on a 4/4 hour basis, for 7 days. The main outcomes of interest will be safety (absence of serious adverse events) and efficacy (measured by the viral load).Protocols will be filled on a daily basis, ranging from day 0 (diagnosis) until day 8.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Saline Solution , Treatment Outcome
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e054442, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583096

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a new viral-induced pneumonia caused by infection with a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. At present, there are few proven effective treatments. This early-phase experimental medicine protocol describes an overarching and adaptive trial designed to provide safety data in patients with COVID-19, pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) information and exploratory biological surrogates of efficacy, which may support further development and deployment of candidate therapies in larger scale trials of patients positive for COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Define is an ongoing exploratory multicentre-platform, open-label, randomised study. Patients positive for COVID-19 will be recruited from the following cohorts: (a) community cases; (b) hospitalised patients with evidence of COVID-19 pneumonitis; and (c) hospitalised patients requiring assisted ventilation. The cohort recruited from will be dependent on the experimental therapy, its route of administration and mechanism of action. Randomisation will be computer generated in a 1:1:n ratio. Twenty patients will be recruited per arm for the initial two arms. This is permitted to change as per the experimental therapy. The primary statistical analyses are concerned with the safety of candidate agents as add-on therapy to standard of care in patients with COVID-19. Secondary analysis will assess the following variables during treatment period: (1) the response of key exploratory biomarkers; (2) change in WHO ordinal scale and National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) score; (3) oxygen requirements; (4) viral load; (5) duration of hospital stay; (6) PK/PD; and (7) changes in key coagulation pathways. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Define trial platform and its initial two treatment and standard of care arms have received a favourable ethical opinion from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee (REC) (20/SS/0066), notice of acceptance from The Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) (EudraCT 2020-002230-32) and approval from the relevant National Health Service (NHS) Research and Development (R&D) departments (NHS Lothian and NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde). Appropriate processes are in place in order to be able to consent adults with and without capacity while following the necessary COVID-19 safe procedures. Patients without capacity could be recruited via a legal representative. Witnessed electronic consent of participants or their legal representatives following consent discussions was established. The results of each study arm will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal as soon as the treatment arm has finished recruitment, data input is complete and any outstanding patient safety follow-ups have been completed. Depending on the results of these or future arms, data will be shared with larger clinical trial networks, including the Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy trial (RECOVERY), and to other partners for rapid roll-out in larger patient cohorts. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN14212905, NCT04473053.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Electronics , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , State Medicine
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e049650, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546519

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, remains a global pandemic that has affected more than 100 million people worldwide with over 4.8 million deaths as of October 2021. Patients with diabetes have both an increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, enhanced disease severity and increased risk of mortality. The challenge presented in these patients is both to improve glycaemic control-which itself may confer a survival advantage-and to help maintain or restore immunological homeostasis. The specific glucokinase activator AZD1656 may address both of these challenges via its glucose-lowering effect and its immunological mechanism of action. The aim of the Alleviation of cardioRespiratory complications in patients with COVID-19 And DIAbetes (ARCADIA) trial is to investigate this hypothesis and determine whether AZD1656 can improve clinical outcomes for these patients. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: ARCADIA is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, interventional study of AZD1656 in 150 patients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes who have been admitted to hospital with COVID-19. Eligible, consented patients will be randomised in a 1:1 manner to receive either active drug or matched placebo tablets while they are in hospital. All patients will receive the usual and current standard of care for patients with COVID-19 in that hospital. Clinical and laboratory data will be collected and assessed at baseline and throughout their participation in the study. Data will be captured in the case report form, which will be electronically archived at the end of the trial in the trial master file. The WHO 8-point Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement will be used to measure clinical outcome for the primary endpoint of the trial. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained from the East Midlands-Leicester South Ethics Committee (REC 20/EM/0198) in the UK, from the National Bioethics Committee of Medicines and Medical Devices in Bucharest, Romania, and from the Ethics Committee IKEM a TN in Prague, Czech Republic. All study-related data will be used by the sponsor in accordance with local data protection law. In the UK, all patient identifiable data will be stored on a password-protected National Health Service N3 network with full audit trail. Anonymised data will be stored in an ISO27001 certificated data warehouse. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: EudraCT 2020-002211-21, NCT04516759.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Azetidines , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Pyrazines , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , Treatment Outcome
11.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 37(11): 1062-1065, 2021 Nov.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545680

ABSTRACT

The elimination of some senescent cells by « senolytic ¼ compounds can greatly improve the health of aged mice and in some cases reverse the effects of aging. Using a microbial exposure system that closely models coronavirus infection, it is possible to largely protect old mice from the effects of viral infection. This immediately suggests clinical application of the approach, and is the aim of ongoing phase II clinical trials in Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cellular Senescence , Aging/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Nature ; 601(7894): 617-622, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528018

ABSTRACT

T cell immunity is central for the control of viral infections. CoVac-1 is a peptide-based vaccine candidate, composed of SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes derived from various viral proteins1,2, combined with the Toll-like receptor 1/2 agonist XS15 emulsified in Montanide ISA51 VG, aiming to induce profound SARS-CoV-2 T cell immunity to combat COVID-19. Here we conducted a phase I open-label trial, recruiting 36 participants aged 18-80 years, who received a single subcutaneous CoVac-1 vaccination. The primary end point was safety analysed until day 56. Immunogenicity in terms of CoVac-1-induced T cell response was analysed as the main secondary end point until day 28 and in the follow-up until month 3. No serious adverse events and no grade 4 adverse events were observed. Expected local granuloma formation was observed in all study participants, whereas systemic reactogenicity was absent or mild. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses targeting multiple vaccine peptides were induced in all study participants, mediated by multifunctional T helper 1 CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. CoVac-1-induced IFNγ T cell responses persisted in the follow-up analyses and surpassed those detected after SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as after vaccination with approved vaccines. Furthermore, vaccine-induced T cell responses were unaffected by current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Together, CoVac-1 showed a favourable safety profile and induced broad, potent and variant of concern-independent T cell responses, supporting the presently ongoing evaluation in a phase II trial for patients with B cell or antibody deficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Administration, Cutaneous , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Female , Granuloma/immunology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/adverse effects , Young Adult
13.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 16(3): 257-261, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522052

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-COV2 infection represents a therapeutic challenge due to the limited number of effective therapies available and due to the fact that it is not clear which host response in terms of inflammation pattern is the most predictive for an optimal (and rapid) recovery. Interferon ß pathway is impaired in SARS-COV2 infection and this is associated with a bigger disease burden. Exogenous inhaled interferon might be beneficial in this setting. AREAS COVERED: Nebulized interferon-ß is currently investigated as a potential therapy for SARS-COV2 because the available data from a phase II study demonstrate that this medication is able to accelerate the recovery from disease. EXPERT OPINION: Further clinical studies are needed in order to better document the efficacy of this therapy especially in severe forms of COVID-19, the optimal duration of therapy and if such a medication is appropriate for domiciliary use. Also combined regimens with antivirals or with compounds which are able to enhance the endogenous production of interferon might be of promise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferons , Administration, Inhalation , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Humans , Interferons/administration & dosage , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e050202, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515299

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a dysregulated immune response. Inflammatory monocytes and macrophages are crucial, promoting injurious, proinflammatory sequelae. Immunomodulation is, therefore, an attractive therapeutic strategy and we sought to test licensed and novel candidate drugs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The CATALYST trial is a multiarm, open-label, multicentre, phase II platform trial designed to identify candidate novel treatments to improve outcomes of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 compared with usual care. Treatments with evidence of biomarker improvements will be put forward for larger-scale testing by current national phase III platform trials. Hospitalised patients >16 years with a clinical picture strongly suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (confirmed by chest X-ray or CT scan, with or without a positive reverse transcription PCR assay) and a C reactive protein (CRP) ≥40 mg/L are eligible. The primary outcome measure is CRP, measured serially from admission to day 14, hospital discharge or death. Secondary outcomes include the WHO Clinical Progression Improvement Scale as a principal efficacy assessment. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol was approved by the East Midlands-Nottingham 2 Research Ethics Committee (20/EM/0115) and given urgent public health status; initial approval was received on 5 May 2020, current protocol version (V.6.0) approval on 12 October 2020. The MHRA also approved all protocol versions. The results of this trial will be disseminated through national and international presentations and peer-reviewed publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: EudraCT2020-001684-89, ISRCTN40580903.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Hospitalization , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Research , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Trials ; 22(1): 674, 2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Moderate/severe cases of COVID-19 present a dysregulated immune system with T cell lymphopenia and a hyper-inflammatory state. This is a study protocol of an open-label, multi-center, double-arm, randomized, dose-finding phase I/II clinical trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, alloreactivity, and efficacy of the administration of allogeneic memory T cells and natural killer (NK) cells in COVID-19 patients with lymphopenia and/or pneumonia. The aim of the study is to determine the safety and the efficacy of the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of this treatment for patients with moderate/severe COVID-19. METHODS: In the phase I trial, 18 patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia and/or lymphopenia with no oxygen requirement or with an oxygen need of ≤ 2.5 liters per minute (lpm) in nasal cannula will be assigned to two arms, based on the biology of the donor and the patient. Treatment of arm A consists of the administration of escalating doses of memory T cells, plus standard of care (SoC). Treatment of arm B consists of the administration of escalating doses of NK cells, plus SoC. In the phase II trial, a total of 182 patients with COVID-19-related pneumonia and/or lymphopenia requiring or not oxygen supplementation but without mechanical ventilation will be allocated to arm A or B, considering HLA typing. Within each arm, they will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio. In arm A, patients will receive SoC or RP2D for memory T cells plus the SoC. In arm B, patients will receive SoC or RP2D for NK cells plus the SoC. DISCUSSION: We hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T-lymphocytes obtained from convalescent donors recovered from COVID-19 can be used as a passive cell immunotherapy to treat pneumonia and lymphopenia in moderate/severe patients. The lymphopenia induced by COVID-19 constitutes a therapeutic window that may facilitate donor engraftment and viral protection until recovery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04578210 . First Posted : October 8, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/therapy , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Treatment Outcome
16.
Trials ; 22(1): 595, 2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic lower limb ischemia develops earlier and more frequently in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes remains the main cause of lower-extremity non-traumatic amputations. Current medical treatment, based on antiplatelet therapy and statins, has demonstrated deficient improvement of the disease. In recent years, research has shown that it is possible to improve tissue perfusion through therapeutic angiogenesis. Both in animal models and humans, it has been shown that cell therapy can induce therapeutic angiogenesis, making mesenchymal stromal cell-based therapy one of the most promising therapeutic alternatives. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of cell therapy based on mesenchymal stromal cells derived from adipose tissue intramuscular administration to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with critical limb ischemia and without possibility of revascularization. METHODS: A multicenter, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial has been designed. Ninety eligible patients will be randomly assigned at a ratio 1:1:1 to one of the following: control group (n = 30), low-cell dose treatment group (n = 30), and high-cell dose treatment group (n = 30). Treatment will be administered in a single-dose way and patients will be followed for 12 months. Primary outcome (safety) will be evaluated by measuring the rate of adverse events within the study period. Secondary outcomes (efficacy) will be measured by assessing clinical, analytical, and imaging-test parameters. Tertiary outcome (quality of life) will be evaluated with SF-12 and VascuQol-6 scales. DISCUSSION: Chronic lower limb ischemia has limited therapeutic options and constitutes a public health problem in both developed and underdeveloped countries. Given that the current treatment is not established in daily clinical practice, it is essential to provide evidence-based data that allow taking a step forward in its clinical development. Also, the multidisciplinary coordination exercise needed to develop this clinical trial protocol will undoubtfully be useful to conduct academic clinical trials in the field of cell therapy in the near future. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04466007 . Registered on January 07, 2020. All items from the World Health Organization Trial Registration Data Set are included within the body of the protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Noma , Adipose Tissue , Animals , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Ischemia/diagnosis , Ischemia/therapy , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2124483, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1396814

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with substantial reduction in screening, case identification, and hospital referrals among patients with cancer. However, no study has quantitatively examined the implications of this correlation for cancer patient management. Objective: To evaluate the association of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown with the tumor burden of patients who were diagnosed with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) before vs after lockdown. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed participants in the screening procedure of the PANIRINOX (Phase II Randomized Study Comparing FOLFIRINOX + Panitumumab vs FOLFOX + Panitumumab in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Stratified by RAS Status from Circulating DNA Analysis) phase 2 randomized clinical trial. These newly diagnosed patients received care at 1 of 18 different clinical centers in France and were recruited before or after the lockdown was enacted in France in the spring of 2020. Patients underwent a blood-sampling screening procedure to identify their RAS and BRAF tumor status. Exposures: mCRC. Main Outcomes and Measures: Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis was used to identify RAS and BRAF status. Tumor burden was evaluated by the total plasma ctDNA concentration. The median ctDNA concentration was compared in patients who underwent screening before (November 11, 2019, to March 9, 2020) vs after (May 14 to September 3, 2020) lockdown and in patients who were included from the start of the PANIRINOX study. Results: A total of 80 patients were included, of whom 40 underwent screening before and 40 others underwent screening after the first COVID-19 lockdown in France. These patients included 48 men (60.0%) and 32 women (40.0%) and had a median (range) age of 62 (37-77) years. The median ctDNA concentration was statistically higher in patients who were newly diagnosed after lockdown compared with those who were diagnosed before lockdown (119.2 ng/mL vs 17.3 ng/mL; P < .001). Patients with mCRC and high ctDNA concentration had lower median survival compared with those with lower concentration (14.7 [95% CI, 8.8-18.0] months vs 20.0 [95% CI, 14.1-32.0] months). This finding points to the potential adverse consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic and related lockdown. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that tumor burden differed between patients who received an mCRC diagnosis before vs after the first COVID-19 lockdown in France. The findings of this study suggest that CRC is a major area for intervention to minimize pandemic-associated delays in screening, diagnosis, and treatment.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Tumor Burden , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Circulating Tumor DNA/blood , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Cohort Studies , Colorectal Neoplasms/mortality , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Controlled Before-After Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Trials ; 22(1): 584, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388817

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the efficacy of low-dose IFN-ß in reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 recently infected elderly patients to progress towards severe COVID-19 versus control group within 28 days. Secondary objectives are: 1) To assess the reduction in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission in patients treated with IFN-ß versus control group within 28 days of randomization 2) To assess the reduction in number of deaths in IFN- ß compared to control group (day 28) 3) To evaluate the increase in proportion of participants returning to negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in IFN-ß -treated versus control group at Day 14 and Day 28 4) To assess the increase in SARS-CoV-2-specific binding antibody titers in IFN-ß compared to control group (day 28) 5) To assess the safety of IFN-ß -treated patients versus control group TRIAL DESIGN: Randomized, Open-Label, Controlled, Superiority Phase II Study. Patients, who satisfy all inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria, will be randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups in a ratio 2:1 (IFN-treated versus control patients). Randomization will be stratified by gender. Stratified randomization will balance the presence of male and female in both study arms. PARTICIPANTS: Male and female adults aged 65 years or older with newly diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild COVID-19 symptoms are eligible for the study. The trial is being conducted in Rome. Participants will be either hospitalized or home isolated. A group of physicians belonging to the Special Unit for Regional Continued Care (USCAR), specifically trained for the study and under the supervision of the National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani", will be responsible for the screening, enrolment, treatment and clinical monitoring of patients, thus acting as a bridge between clinical centers and territorial health management. Inclusion criteria are as follows: ≥ 65 years of age at time of enrolment; Laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection as determined by PCR, in any specimen < 72 hours prior to randomization; Subject (or legally authorized representative) provides written informed consent prior to initiation of any study procedures; Understands and agrees to comply with planned study procedures; Agrees to the collection of nasopharyngeal swabs and venous blood samples per protocol; Being symptomatic for less than 7 days before starting therapy; NEWS2 score ≤2. Exclusion criteria are as follows: Hospitalized patients with illness of any duration, and at least one of the following: Clinical assessment (evidence of rales/crackles on exam) and SpO2 ≤ 94% on room air at rest or after walking test, OR Acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation and/or supplemental oxygen; Patients currently using IFN-ß (e.g., multiple sclerosis patients); Patients undergoing chemotherapy or other immunosuppressive treatments; Patients with chronic kidney diseases; Known allergy or hypersensitivity to IFN (including asthma); Any autoimmune disease (resulting from patient anamnesis); Patients with signs of dementia or neurocognitive disorders; Patients with current severe depression and/or suicidal ideations; Being concurrently involved in another clinical trial; HIV infection (based on the anamnesis); Use of any antiretroviral medication; Impaired renal function (eGFR calculated by CKD-EPI Creatinine equation < 30 ml/min); Presence of other severe diseases impairing life expectancy (e.g. patients are not expected to survive 28 days given their pre-existing medical condition); Any physical or psychological impediment in a patient that could let the investigator to suspect his/her poor compliance; Lack or withdrawal of informed consent INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Control arm: No specific antiviral treatment besides standard of care. Treatment arm: 11µg (3MIU) of IFN-ß1a will be injected subcutaneously at day 1, 3, 7, and 10 in addition to standard of care. The drug solution, contained in a pre-filled cartridge, will be injected by means of the RebiSmart® electronic injection device. Interferon ß1a (Rebif®, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) is a disease-modifying drug used to treat relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The dose selected for this study is expected to exploit the antiviral and immunomodulatory properties of the cytokine without causing relevant toxicity or inducing refractoriness phenomena sometimes observed after high-dose and/or chronic IFNß treatments. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoint of the study is the proportion of patients experiencing a disease progression, during at least 5 days, according to the National Early Warning Score (NEWS2). The NEWS2 score is a standardized approach aimed at promptly detecting signs of clinical deterioration in acutely ill patients and establishing the potential need for higher level of care. It is based on the evaluation of vital signs, including respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, temperature, blood pressure, pulse/heart rate, AVPU response. The resulting observations, compared to a normal range, are combined in a single composite "alarm" score. Any other clinical sign clearly indicating a disease worsening will be considered as disease progression. RANDOMIZATION: Sixty patients will be randomized 2:1 to receive IFN-ß1a plus the standard of care or the standard of care only. Eligible patients will be randomized (no later than 36 h after enrolment) by means of a computerized central randomization system. All patients will receive a unique patient identification number at enrolling visit when signing the informed consent and before any study procedure is performed. This number remains constant throughout the entire study. The randomization of patients will be closed when 60 patients have been enrolled. The randomization will be stratified by sex; for each stratum a sequence of treatments randomly permuted in blocks of variable length (3 or 6) will be generated. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-label study. After the randomization, patients will be notified whether they will be in the experimental arm or in the control arm. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The study plans to enrol 60 patients: 40 in the IFN-ß1a arm, 20 in the control arm, according to a 2:1 - treated: untreated ratio. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Version: 3.0 Version Date: 18/03/2021 The study is open for recruitment since 16/04/2021.Recruitment is expected to l be completed before 15/08/2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT N°: 2020-003872-42, registration date: 19/10/2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol."


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Aged , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Female , Humans , Male , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
19.
Trials ; 21(1): 828, 2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388814

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives • To assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary objectives • To assess overall survival, and the overall survival rate at 28 56 and 84 days. • To assess SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • To assess the percentage of patients that required mechanical ventilation. • To assess time from randomisation until discharge. TRIAL DESIGN: Randomised, open-label, multicenter phase II trial, designed to assess the clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) following treatment with anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma or standard of care. PARTICIPANTS: High-risk patients >18 years of age hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 10-15 university medical centres will be included. High-risk is defined as SARS-CoV-2 positive infection with Oxygen saturation at ≤ 94% at ambient air with additional risk features as categorised in 4 groups: • Group 1, pre-existing or concurrent hematological malignancy and/or active cancer therapy (incl. chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery) within the last 24 months or less. • Group 2, chronic immunosuppression not meeting the criteria of group 1. • Group 3, age ≥ 50 - 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2 and at least one of these criteria: Lymphopenia < 0.8 x G/l and/or D-dimer > 1µg/mL. • Group 4, age ≥ 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2. Observation time for all patients is expected to be at least 3 months after entry into the study. Patients receive convalescent plasma for two days (day 1 and day 2) or standard of care. For patients in the standard arm, cross over is allowed from day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. Nose/throat swabs for determination of viral load are collected at day 0 and day 1 (before first CP administration) and subsequently at day 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 28 or until discharge. Serum for SARS-Cov-2 diagnostic is collected at baseline and subsequently at day 3, 7, 14 and once during the follow-up period (between day 35 and day 84). There is a regular follow-up of 3 months. All discharged patients are followed by regular phone calls. All visits, time points and study assessments are summarized in the Trial Schedule (see full protocol Table 1). All participating trial sites will be supplied with study specific visit worksheets that list all assessments and procedures to be completed at each visit. All findings including clinical and laboratory data are documented by the investigator or an authorized member of the study team in the patient's medical record and in the electronic case report forms (eCRFs). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: This trial will analyze the effects of convalescent plasma from recovered subjects with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in high-risk patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients at high risk for a poor outcome due to underlying disease, age or condition as listed above are eligible for enrollment. In addition, eligible patients have a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and O2 saturation ≤ 94% while breathing ambient air. Patients are randomised to receive (experimental arm) or not receive (standard arm) convalescent plasma in two bags (238 - 337 ml plasma each) from different donors (day 1, day 2). A cross over from the standard arm into the experimental arm is possible after day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoints: The main purpose of the study is to assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven-point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of a SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary endpoints: • Overall survival, defined as the time from randomisation until death from any cause 28-day, 56-day and 84-day overall survival rates. • SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • Requirement mechanical ventilation at any time during hospital stay (yes/no). • Time until discharge from randomisation. • Viral load, changes in antibody titers and cytokine profiles are analysed in an exploratory manner using paired non-parametric tests (before - after treatment). RANDOMISATION: Upon confirmation of eligibility (patients must meet all inclusion criteria and must not meet exclusion criteria described in section 5.3 and 5.4 of the full protocol), the clinical site must contact a centralized internet randomization system ( https://randomizer.at/ ). Patients are randomized using block randomisation to one of the two arms, experimental arm or standard arm, in a 1:1 ratio considering a stratification according to the 4 risk groups (see Participants). BLINDING (MASKING): The study is open-label, no blinding will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total number of 174 patients is required for the entire trial, n=87 per group. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.2 dated 09/07/2020. A recruitment period of approximately 9 months and an overall study duration of approximately 12 months is anticipated. Recruitment of patients starts in the third quarter of 2020. The study duration of an individual patient is planned to be 3 months. After finishing all study-relevant procedures, therapy, and follow-up period, the patient is followed in terms of routine care and treated if necessary. Total trial duration: 18 months Duration of the clinical phase: 12 months First patient first visit (FPFV): 3rd Quarter 2020 Last patient first visit (LPFV): 2nd Quarter 2021 Last patient last visit (LPLV): 3rd Quarter 2021 Trial Report completed: 4th Quarter 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number: 2020-001632-10, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2020-001632-10/DE , registered on 04/04/2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2). The eCRF is attached (Additional file 3).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Plasma/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Adjustment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376841

ABSTRACT

In recent years, enzymes have risen as promising therapeutic tools for different pathologies, from metabolic deficiencies, such as fibrosis conditions, ocular pathologies or joint problems, to cancer or cardiovascular diseases. Treatments based on the catalytic activity of enzymes are able to convert a wide range of target molecules to restore the correct physiological metabolism. These treatments present several advantages compared to established therapeutic approaches thanks to their affinity and specificity properties. However, enzymes present some challenges, such as short in vivo half-life, lack of targeted action and, in particular, patient immune system reaction against the enzyme. For this reason, it is important to monitor serum immune response during treatment. This can be achieved by conventional techniques (ELISA) but also by new promising tools such as microarrays. These assays have gained popularity due to their high-throughput analysis capacity, their simplicity, and their potential to monitor the immune response of patients during enzyme therapies. In this growing field, research is still ongoing to solve current health problems such as COVID-19. Currently, promising therapeutic alternatives using the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are being studied to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Enzyme Therapy/methods , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/pharmacology , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Drug Compounding/methods , Enzyme Stability , Enzyme Therapy/history , Enzyme Therapy/trends , Half-Life , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Virus Internalization/drug effects
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