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1.
Circ Res ; 130(10): 1510-1530, 2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease is an incurable, life-threatening disease that was once considered primarily a disorder of lipid deposition. Coronary artery disease is now also characterized by chronic inflammation' notable for the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques containing immune cells in various states of activation and differentiation. Understanding how these immune cells contribute to disease progression may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. METHODS: We used single-cell technology and in vitro assays to interrogate the immune microenvironment of human coronary atherosclerotic plaque at different stages of maturity. RESULTS: In addition to macrophages, we found a high proportion of αß T cells in the coronary plaques. Most of these T cells lack high expression of CCR7 and L-selectin, indicating that they are primarily antigen-experienced memory cells. Notably, nearly one-third of these cells express the HLA-DRA surface marker, signifying activation through their TCRs (T-cell receptors). Consistent with this, TCR repertoire analysis confirmed the presence of activated αß T cells (CD4

Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , T-Lymphocytes , Antigens , Clone Cells/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Endothelial Cells , Epitopes , HLA-DR alpha-Chains , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(4)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788579

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is the primary pathogen causing hospital-acquired infections. The spread of CRAB is mainly driven by the dissemination of resistant clones, and in Latin America, International Clones IC-1 (also known as clonal complex CC1), IC-4 (CC15) and IC-5 (CC79) are the most prevalent.Gap Statement. There are no documented outbreaks of CRAB International Clone 2 (IC-2) reported in Brazil.Aim. To describe a large outbreak of CRAB caused by the uncommon IC-2 in a Brazilian COVID-19 hospital.Methodology. From May 2020 to May 2021, 224 patients infected or colonized with CRAB were identified in a single hospital; 92 % of them were also infected with SARS-CoV-2. From these patients, 137 isolates were recovered and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR analysis and molecular typing. Whole-genome sequencing and downstream analysis were carried out on a representative isolate (the first available isolate).Results. In 76 % of the patients, a single OXA-23-producing CRAB IC-2 was identified. All the isolates were susceptible to polymyxin B, but highly resistant (>95 %) to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones and beta-lactams. Genomic analysis revealed that the representative isolate also carried the 16S rRNA Methylase ArmA, which was detected for the first time in this species in Brazil.Conclusion. We report the rapid spread of an emerging CRAB clone responsible for causing a large outbreak in a hospital in Brazil, a country with predominance of other CRAB clones. Continuous and prospective surveillance is warranted to evaluate the impact of this clone in Brazilian hospital settings.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clone Cells , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics
3.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2005507, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585297

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has triggered a serious public health crisis worldwide, and considering the novelty of the disease, preventative and therapeutic measures alike are urgently needed. To accelerate such efforts, the development of JS016, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody directed against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, was expedited from a typical 12- to 18-month period to a 4-month period. During this process, transient Chinese hamster ovary cell lines are used to support preclinical, investigational new drug-enabling toxicology research, and early Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls development; mini-pool materials to supply Phase 1 clinical trials; and a single-clone working cell bank for late-stage and pivotal clinical trials were successively adopted. Moreover, key process performance and product quality investigations using a series of orthogonal and state-of-the-art techniques were conducted to demonstrate the comparability of products manufactured using these three processes, and the results indicated that, despite observed variations in process performance, the primary and high-order structures, purity and impurity profiles, biological and immunological functions, and degradation behaviors under stress conditions were largely comparable. The study suggests that, in particular situations, this strategy can be adopted to accelerate the development of therapeutic biopharmaceuticals and their access to patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibody Affinity/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Circular Dichroism , Clone Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Isoelectric Point , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
4.
Cell ; 185(4): 603-613.e15, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588149

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines induce robust anti-spike (S) antibody and CD4+ T cell responses. It is not yet clear whether vaccine-induced follicular helper CD4+ T (TFH) cell responses contribute to this outstanding immunogenicity. Using fine-needle aspiration of draining axillary lymph nodes from individuals who received the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, we evaluated the T cell receptor sequences and phenotype of lymph node TFH. Mining of the responding TFH T cell receptor repertoire revealed a strikingly immunodominant HLA-DPB1∗04-restricted response to S167-180 in individuals with this allele, which is among the most common HLA alleles in humans. Paired blood and lymph node specimens show that while circulating S-specific TFH cells peak one week after the second immunization, S-specific TFH persist at nearly constant frequencies for at least six months. Collectively, our results underscore the key role that robust TFH cell responses play in establishing long-term immunity by this efficacious human vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Immunity/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T Follicular Helper Cells/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , Clone Cells , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Germinal Center/immunology , HLA-DP beta-Chains/immunology , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Jurkat Cells , Lymph Nodes/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , Protein Multimerization , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism
5.
N Engl J Med ; 385(24): 2264-2270, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560911

ABSTRACT

Inherited junctional epidermolysis bullosa is a severe genetic skin disease that leads to epidermal loss caused by structural and mechanical fragility of the integuments. There is no established cure for junctional epidermolysis bullosa. We previously reported that genetically corrected autologous epidermal cultures regenerated almost an entire, fully functional epidermis on a child who had a devastating form of junctional epidermolysis bullosa. We now report long-term clinical outcomes in this patient. (Funded by POR FESR 2014-2020 - Regione Emilia-Romagna and others.).


Subject(s)
Epidermis/transplantation , Epidermolysis Bullosa, Junctional/therapy , Keratinocytes/transplantation , Transduction, Genetic , Transgenes , Cell Self Renewal , Cells, Cultured/transplantation , Child , Clone Cells , Epidermis/pathology , Epidermolysis Bullosa, Junctional/genetics , Epidermolysis Bullosa, Junctional/pathology , Follow-Up Studies , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/pathology , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/therapy , Genetic Therapy , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Keratinocytes/cytology , Keratinocytes/physiology , Male , Regeneration , Stem Cells/physiology , Transplantation, Autologous
6.
Nature ; 602(7895): 148-155, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556858

ABSTRACT

Immunological memory is a hallmark of adaptive immunity and facilitates an accelerated and enhanced immune response upon re-infection with the same pathogen1,2. Since the outbreak of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, a key question has focused on which SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells stimulated during acute infection give rise to long-lived memory T cells3. Here, using spectral flow cytometry combined with cellular indexing of transcriptomes and T cell receptor sequencing, we longitudinally characterized individual SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells of patients with COVID-19 from acute infection to 1 year into recovery and found a distinct signature identifying long-lived memory CD8+ T cells. SARS-CoV-2-specific memory CD8+ T cells persisting 1 year after acute infection express CD45RA, IL-7 receptor-α and T cell factor 1, but they maintain low expression of CCR7, thus resembling CD45RA+ effector memory T cells. Tracking individual clones of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells, we reveal that an interferon signature marks clones that give rise to long-lived cells, whereas prolonged proliferation and mechanistic target of rapamycin signalling are associated with clonal disappearance from the blood. Collectively, we describe a transcriptional signature that marks long-lived, circulating human memory CD8+ T cells following an acute viral infection.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , /metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Acute Disease , COVID-19/virology , Cell Proliferation , Clone Cells/cytology , Clone Cells/immunology , Humans , Interferons/immunology , Interleukin-7 Receptor alpha Subunit/metabolism , Leukocyte Common Antigens/metabolism , Longitudinal Studies , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/metabolism , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , Receptors, CCR7/metabolism , T Cell Transcription Factor 1/metabolism , Time Factors , Transcriptome
7.
BMC Genomics ; 22(Suppl 5): 518, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: All diseases containing genetic material undergo genetic evolution and give rise to heterogeneity including cancer and infection. Although these illnesses are biologically very different, the ability for phylogenetic retrodiction based on the genomic reads is common between them and thus tree-based principles and assumptions are shared. Just as the different frequencies of tumor genomic variants presupposes the existence of multiple tumor clones and provides a handle to computationally infer them, we postulate that the different variant frequencies in viral reads offers the means to infer multiple co-infecting sublineages. RESULTS: We present a common methodological framework to infer the phylogenomics from genomic data, be it reads of SARS-CoV-2 of multiple COVID-19 patients or bulk DNAseq of the tumor of a cancer patient. We describe the Concerti computational framework for inferring phylogenies in each of the two scenarios.To demonstrate the accuracy of the method, we reproduce some known results in both scenarios. We also make some additional discoveries. CONCLUSIONS: Concerti successfully extracts and integrates information from multi-point samples, enabling the discovery of clinically plausible phylogenetic trees that capture the heterogeneity known to exist both spatially and temporally. These models can have direct therapeutic implications by highlighting "birth" of clones that may harbor resistance mechanisms to treatment, "death" of subclones with drug targets, and acquisition of functionally pertinent mutations in clones that may have seemed clinically irrelevant. Specifically in this paper we uncover new potential parallel mutations in the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In the context of cancer, we identify new clones harboring resistant mutations to therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Clone Cells , Humans , Mutation , Neoplasms/genetics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Immunity ; 54(9): 2159-2166.e6, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454205

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 antigenic variants with increased transmissibility is a public health threat. Some variants show substantial resistance to neutralization by SARS-CoV-2 infection- or vaccination-induced antibodies. Here, we analyzed receptor binding domain-binding monoclonal antibodies derived from SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine-elicited germinal center B cells for neutralizing activity against the WA1/2020 D614G SARS-CoV-2 strain and variants of concern. Of five monoclonal antibodies that potently neutralized the WA1/2020 D614G strain, all retained neutralizing capacity against the B.1.617.2 variant, four also neutralized the B.1.1.7 variant, and only one, 2C08, also neutralized the B.1.351 and B.1.1.28 variants. 2C08 reduced lung viral load and morbidity in hamsters challenged with the WA1/2020 D614G, B.1.351, or B.1.617.2 strains. Clonal analysis identified 2C08-like public clonotypes among B cells responding to SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination in 41 out of 181 individuals. Thus, 2C08-like antibodies can be induced by SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and mitigate resistance by circulating variants of concern.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Clone Cells , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Viral Load
9.
Cell Rep ; 35(12): 109286, 2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274179

ABSTRACT

B cell responses are critical for antiviral immunity. However, a comprehensive picture of antigen-specific B cell differentiation, clonal proliferation, and dynamics in different organs after infection is lacking. Here, by combining single-cell RNA and B cell receptor (BCR) sequencing of antigen-specific cells in lymph nodes, spleen, and lungs after influenza infection in mice, we identify several germinal center (GC) B cell subpopulations and organ-specific differences that persist over the course of the response. We discover transcriptional differences between memory cells in lungs and lymphoid organs and organ-restricted clonal expansion. Remarkably, we find significant clonal overlap between GC-derived memory and plasma cells. By combining BCR-mutational analyses with monoclonal antibody (mAb) expression and affinity measurements, we find that memory B cells are highly diverse and can be selected from both low- and high-affinity precursors. By linking antigen recognition with transcriptional programming, clonal proliferation, and differentiation, these finding provide important advances in our understanding of antiviral immunity.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Clone Cells , Germinal Center/immunology , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/immunology , Humans , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mutation/genetics , Mutation Rate , Organ Specificity , Plasma Cells/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic
10.
Nature ; 596(7870): 109-113, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284697

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccines are about 95% effective in preventing COVID-191-5. The dynamics of antibody-secreting plasmablasts and germinal centre B cells induced by these vaccines in humans remain unclear. Here we examined antigen-specific B cell responses in peripheral blood (n = 41) and draining lymph nodes in 14 individuals who had received 2 doses of BNT162b2, an mRNA-based vaccine that encodes the full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) gene1. Circulating IgG- and IgA-secreting plasmablasts that target the S protein peaked one week after the second immunization and then declined, becoming undetectable three weeks later. These plasmablast responses preceded maximal levels of serum anti-S binding and neutralizing antibodies to an early circulating SARS-CoV-2 strain as well as emerging variants, especially in individuals who had previously been infected with SARS-CoV-2 (who produced the most robust serological responses). By examining fine needle aspirates of draining axillary lymph nodes, we identified germinal centre B cells that bound S protein in all participants who were sampled after primary immunization. High frequencies of S-binding germinal centre B cells and plasmablasts were sustained in these draining lymph nodes for at least 12 weeks after the booster immunization. S-binding monoclonal antibodies derived from germinal centre B cells predominantly targeted the receptor-binding domain of the S protein, and fewer clones bound to the N-terminal domain or to epitopes shared with the S proteins of the human betacoronaviruses OC43 and HKU1. These latter cross-reactive B cell clones had higher levels of somatic hypermutation as compared to those that recognized only the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, which suggests a memory B cell origin. Our studies demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccination of humans induces a persistent germinal centre B cell response, which enables the generation of robust humoral immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , Plasma Cells/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clone Cells/cytology , Clone Cells/immunology , Germinal Center/cytology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Middle Aged , Plasma Cells/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Time Factors , Vero Cells
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13164, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281736

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed a range of disease phenotypes in infected patients with asymptomatic, mild, or severe clinical outcomes, but the mechanisms that determine such variable outcomes remain unresolved. In this study, we identified immunodominant CD8 T-cell epitopes in the spike antigen using a novel TCR-binding algorithm. The predicted epitopes induced robust T-cell activation in unexposed donors demonstrating pre-existing CD4 and CD8 T-cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2 antigen. The T-cell reactivity to the predicted epitopes was higher than the Spike-S1 and S2 peptide pools in the unexposed donors. A key finding of our study is that pre-existing T-cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is contributed by TCRs that recognize common viral antigens such as Influenza and CMV, even though the viral epitopes lack sequence identity to the SARS-CoV-2 epitopes. This finding is in contrast to multiple published studies in which pre-existing T-cell immunity is suggested to arise from shared epitopes between SARS-CoV-2 and other common cold-causing coronaviruses. However, our findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 reactive T-cells are likely to be present in many individuals because of prior exposure to flu and CMV viruses.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Algorithms , Clone Cells , Gene Expression , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 205(3): 363-378, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249405

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly throughout the world, leading to a global effort to develop vaccines and treatments. Despite extensive progress, there remains a need for treatments to bolster the immune responses in infected immunocompromised individuals, such as cancer patients who recently underwent a haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Immunological protection against COVID-19 is mediated by both short-lived neutralizing antibodies and long-lasting virus-reactive T cells. Therefore, we propose that T cell therapy may augment efficacy of current treatments. For the greatest efficacy with minimal adverse effects, it is important that any cellular therapy is designed to be as specific and directed as possible. Here, we identify T cells from COVID-19 patients with a potentially protective response to two major antigens of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, Spike and Nucleocapsid protein. By generating clones of highly virus-reactive CD4+ T cells, we were able to confirm a set of nine immunodominant epitopes and characterize T cell responses against these. Accordingly, the sensitivity of T cell clones for their specific epitope, as well as the extent and focus of their cytokine response was examined. Moreover, using an advanced T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing approach, we determined the paired TCR-αß sequences of clones of interest. While these data on a limited population require further expansion for universal application, the results presented here form a crucial first step towards TCR-transgenic CD4+ T cell therapy of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amino Acid Sequence , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/virology , Clone Cells/immunology , Clone Cells/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Immunodominant Epitopes/genetics , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
14.
Sci Immunol ; 6(56)2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099742

ABSTRACT

Hyperinflammation contributes to lung injury and subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with high mortality in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To understand the underlying mechanisms involved in lung pathology, we investigated the role of the lung-specific immune response. We profiled immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood collected from COVID-19 patients with severe disease and bacterial pneumonia patients not associated with viral infection. By tracking T cell clones across tissues, we identified clonally expanded tissue-resident memory-like Th17 cells (Trm17 cells) in the lungs even after viral clearance. These Trm17 cells were characterized by a a potentially pathogenic cytokine expression profile of IL17A and CSF2 (GM-CSF). Interactome analysis suggests that Trm17 cells can interact with lung macrophages and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, which have been associated with disease severity and lung damage. High IL-17A and GM-CSF protein levels in the serum of COVID-19 patients were associated with a more severe clinical course. Collectively, our study suggests that pulmonary Trm17 cells are one potential orchestrator of the hyperinflammation in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Immunologic Memory , Lung/immunology , Th17 Cells/metabolism , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Clone Cells , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/immunology , Lung/pathology , Myeloid Cells , Pneumonia, Bacterial/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology
15.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(578)2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007317

ABSTRACT

Stereotypic antibody clonotypes exist in healthy individuals and may provide protective immunity against viral infections by neutralization. We observed that 13 of 17 patients with COVID-19 had stereotypic variable heavy chain (VH) antibody clonotypes directed against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. These antibody clonotypes were composed of immunoglobulin heavy variable 3-53 (IGHV3-53) or IGHV3-66 and immunoglobulin heavy joining 6 (IGHJ6) genes. These clonotypes included IgM, IgG3, IgG1, IgA1, IgG2, and IgA2 subtypes and had minimal somatic mutations, which suggested swift class switching after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The different IGHV chains were paired with diverse light chains resulting in binding to the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Human antibodies specific for the RBD can neutralize SARS-CoV-2 by inhibiting entry into host cells. We observed that one of these stereotypic neutralizing antibodies could inhibit viral replication in vitro using a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2. We also found that these VH clonotypes existed in 6 of 10 healthy individuals, with IgM isotypes predominating. These findings suggest that stereotypic clonotypes can develop de novo from naïve B cells and not from memory B cells established from prior exposure to similar viruses. The expeditious and stereotypic expansion of these clonotypes may have occurred in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 because they were already present.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Clone Cells , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mutation/genetics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2714-2726, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-964632

ABSTRACT

The MERS-CoV isolated during the 2015 nosocomial outbreak in Korea showed distinctive differences in mortality and transmission patterns compared to the prototype MERS-CoV EMC strain belonging to clade A. We established a BAC-based reverse genetics system for a Korean isolate of MERS-CoV KNIH002 in the clade B phylogenetically far from the EMC strain, and generated a recombinant MERS-CoV expressing red fluorescent protein. The virus rescued from the infectious clone and KNIH002 strain displayed growth attenuation compared to the EMC strain. Consecutive passages of the rescued virus rapidly generated various ORF5 variants, highlighting its genetic instability and calling for caution in the use of repeatedly passaged virus in pathogenesis studies and for evaluation of control measures against MERS-CoV. The infectious clone for the KNIH002 in contemporary epidemic clade B would be useful for better understanding of a functional link between molecular evolution and pathophysiology of MERS-CoV by comparative studies with EMC strain.


Subject(s)
DNA, Complementary/toxicity , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clone Cells , Cricetinae , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/growth & development , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/metabolism
17.
Nature ; 588(7839): 670-675, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943910

ABSTRACT

The distal lung contains terminal bronchioles and alveoli that facilitate gas exchange. Three-dimensional in vitro human distal lung culture systems would strongly facilitate the investigation of pathologies such as interstitial lung disease, cancer and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here we describe the development of a long-term feeder-free, chemically defined culture system for distal lung progenitors as organoids derived from single adult human alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) or KRT5+ basal cells. AT2 organoids were able to differentiate into AT1 cells, and basal cell organoids developed lumens lined with differentiated club and ciliated cells. Single-cell analysis of KRT5+ cells in basal organoids revealed a distinct population of ITGA6+ITGB4+ mitotic cells, whose offspring further segregated into a TNFRSF12Ahi subfraction that comprised about ten per cent of KRT5+ basal cells. This subpopulation formed clusters within terminal bronchioles and exhibited enriched clonogenic organoid growth activity. We created distal lung organoids with apical-out polarity to present ACE2 on the exposed external surface, facilitating infection of AT2 and basal cultures with SARS-CoV-2 and identifying club cells as a target population. This long-term, feeder-free culture of human distal lung organoids, coupled with single-cell analysis, identifies functional heterogeneity among basal cells and establishes a facile in vitro organoid model of human distal lung infections, including COVID-19-associated pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Lung/cytology , Models, Biological , Organoids/cytology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tissue Culture Techniques , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/cytology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Differentiation , Cell Division , Clone Cells/cytology , Clone Cells/metabolism , Clone Cells/virology , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/growth & development , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Integrin alpha6/analysis , Integrin beta4/analysis , Keratin-5/analysis , Organoids/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Single-Cell Analysis , TWEAK Receptor/analysis
18.
Virology ; 553: 35-45, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922156

ABSTRACT

We report the generation of a full-length infectious cDNA clone for porcine deltacoronavirus strain USA/IL/2014/026. Similar to the parental strain, the infectious clone virus (icPDCoV) replicated efficiently in cell culture and caused mild clinical symptoms in piglets. To investigate putative viral interferon (IFN) antagonists, we generated two mutant viruses: a nonstructural protein 15 mutant virus that encodes a catalytically-inactive endoribonuclease (icEnUmut), and an accessory gene NS6-deletion virus in which the NS6 gene was replaced with the mNeonGreen sequence (icDelNS6/nG). By infecting PK1 cells with these recombinant PDCoVs, we found that icDelNS6/nG elicited similar levels of type I IFN responses as icPDCoV, however icEnUmut stimulated robust type I IFN responses, demonstrating that the deltacoronavirus endoribonuclease, but not NS6, functions as an IFN antagonist in PK1 cells. Collectively, the construction of a full-length infectious clone and the identification of an IFN-antagonistic endoribonuclease will aid in the development of live-attenuated deltacoronavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
DNA, Complementary/isolation & purification , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Swine/virology , Animals , Clone Cells , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Deltacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Deltacoronavirus/physiology , Endoribonucleases/physiology , Interferons/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Replication
20.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(4): 2130-2146, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810790

ABSTRACT

As a novel enteropathogenic coronavirus, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) warrants further investigation. In this study, a Chinese PDCoV strain, designated CHN-HN-1601, was isolated from the faeces of a diarrhoeic piglet. After plaque purification, the genome was determined which shared 97.5%-99.5% nucleotide identities with 71 representative PDCoV strains available in the GenBank. The pathogenic properties of CHN-HN-1601 were evaluated using 5-day-old piglets. All inoculated piglets developed severe diarrhoea from 2 days post-infection (dpi) onwards. To our surprise, two periods of diarrhoea starting from 2 to 7 dpi and from 13 to 19 dpi were observed in affected piglets during the experiment. Faecal viral shedding of the inoculated piglets was detected by real-time RT-PCR, with viral shedding peaked at 4 and 16 dpi, respectively. At necropsy at 5 dpi, the main gross lesions included transparent, thin-walled and gas-distended intestines containing yellow watery contents. Further histopathological examinations, including haematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry and RNAscope in situ hybridization, revealed that the virus infection caused severe villous atrophy of the small intestines, with PDCoV antigen and RNA mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the villous epithelial cells of jejunum and ileum in piglets. The dynamic production of PDCoV-specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies in serum of the affected piglets was also assessed using a whole virus-based ELISA and an immunofluorescence assay-based neutralization test, respectively. Furthermore, a full-length cDNA infectious clone of CHN-HN-1601 was constructed using a bacterial artificial chromosome system. The rescued virus exhibited in vitro growth and pathogenic properties similar to the parental virus. Taken together, our study not only enriches the information of PDCoV, but also provides a useful reverse genetics platform for further pathogenesis exploration of the virus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Swine Diseases , Animals , Clone Cells , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , DNA, Complementary , Deltacoronavirus , Genomics , Swine , Virulence
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