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1.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 12(4): 222-225, 2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242950

ABSTRACT

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) among children remains a concerning cause of morbidity in hospital settings. We present epidemiological and molecular trends in healthcare- and community-associated CDI among children in Canadian inpatient and outpatient settings, including those who experienced recurrent infections.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Cross Infection , Humans , Child , Canada/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/etiology , Health Facilities , Delivery of Health Care , Cross Infection/epidemiology
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(5): 919-928, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241735

ABSTRACT

Although Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) incidence is high in the United States, standard-of-care (SOC) stool collection and testing practices might result in incidence overestimation or underestimation. We conducted diarrhea surveillance among inpatients >50 years of age in Louisville, Kentucky, USA, during October 14, 2019-October 13, 2020; concurrent SOC stool collection and CDI testing occurred independently. A study CDI case was nucleic acid amplification test‒/cytotoxicity neutralization assay‒positive or nucleic acid amplification test‒positive stool in a patient with pseudomembranous colitis. Study incidence was adjusted for hospitalization share and specimen collection rate and, in a sensitivity analysis, for diarrhea cases without study testing. SOC hospitalized CDI incidence was 121/100,000 population/year; study incidence was 154/100,000 population/year and, in sensitivity analysis, 202/100,000 population/year. Of 75 SOC CDI cases, 12 (16.0%) were not study diagnosed; of 109 study CDI cases, 44 (40.4%) were not SOC diagnosed. CDI incidence estimates based on SOC CDI testing are probably underestimated.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Humans , Adult , United States , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Kentucky/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Diagnostic Errors , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Specimen Handling
3.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 77(1): 23-33, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233067

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The primary symptom of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is diarrhea of varying severity. Both malnutrition and clinical nutrition increase the risk for contracting Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) infection and the likelihood of relapses. Moreover, the risk for recurrence is higher if there is infection with a hypervirulent strain (NAP1/BI/027). Hypoalbuminemia predisposes to a severe course of the disease and morbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis was carried out of the data regarding patients hospitalized at the Regional Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Warsaw from 01 January 2020 to 31 December 2021 who were diagnosed with C. difficile infection. A severe course of infection was diagnosed when a blood test showed a leukocyte count greater than or equal to 15,000/µl and/or a creatinine concentration >1.5 mg/dl (>132.6 mmol/l). RESULTS: Clostridioides difficile infection was the reason for 185 hospitalizations (involving 108 women and 77 men), of 167 patients aged from 22 to 93 years old. There were 68 (37%) cases of recurrent infection. Seventy-five (41%) infections met the study's criteria for severe CDI, and 12 (7%) patients died. Out of the total number of hospitalizations, 41 (22%) were due SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. PCR tests detecting binary toxin revealed 34 (18%) positive results. Infection with a hypervirulent strain was an independent risk factor for the recurrence of diarrhea which had C. difficile etiology. Overall, during an episode of diarrhea, one antibacterial drug was used in 139 cases (75%), two in 27 (15%), three in 14 (8%) situations, and four - twice (1%). Among these, drugs not recommended for the treatment of CDI were used in 21 (11%) cases. The number of antibacterial drugs administered during an episode of diarrhea was an independent risk factor for the death of the infected person. Clinical nutrition was applied during 19 hospitalizations (10%), out of which 12 (63%) cases showed a severe course of C. difficile infection, while four patients (21%) died. Using clinical nutrition methods was an independent risk factor for a severe course of the disease and patient death. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical nutrition and the number of antibiotics used during an episode of diarrhea are independent risk factors for the death of a patient with CDI. Infection with a hypervirulent strain increases the risk for relapse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Male , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Poland/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Clostridium Infections/complications , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Recurrence
4.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 118(6): 1069-1079, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239981

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute infectious gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common reason for outpatient visits and hospitalizations in the United States. This study aimed to understand the demographic and clinical characteristics, common pathogens detected, health care resource utilization (HRU), and cost among adult outpatients with AGE visiting US health systems. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using one of the largest hospital discharge databases (PINC AI Healthcare Database) in the United States. Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with a principal diagnosis of AGE during an outpatient visit between January 1, 2016, and June 30, 2021, were included. Pathogen detection analysis was performed in those with microbiology data available. RESULTS: Among 248,896 patients, the mean age was 44.3 years (range 18-89+ years), 62.9% were female, and 68.5% were White. More than half (62.0%) of the patients did not have any preexisting comorbidity, and only 18.3% underwent stool workup at the hospital. Most patients (84.7%) were seen in the emergency department, and most (96.4%) were discharged home. Within 30 days of discharge, 1.0% were hospitalized, and 2.8% had another outpatient visit due to AGE. The mean cost of the index visit plus 30-day AGE-related follow-up was $1,338 per patient, amounting to $333,060,182 for the total study population. Among patients with microbiology data available (n = 12,469), common pathogens detected were Clostridioides difficile (32.2%), norovirus (6.3%), and Campylobacter spp. (4.0%). DISCUSSION: AGE is a common and costly disease affecting adults of all ages and more females than males, including individuals with or without baseline conditions in a hospital-based outpatient setting. C. difficile was the most common pathogen detected.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Gastroenteritis , Male , Adult , Humans , Female , United States/epidemiology , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , Financial Stress , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology
5.
J Med Microbiol ; 72(5)2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324001

ABSTRACT

Introduction. C. difficile infection (CDI) represents an important global threat. In the COVID-19 era, the multifactorial nature of CDI has emerged.Hypothesis - Aim. The aim was to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of CDI in a Greek hospital.Methodology. A retrospective study was performed throughout a 51 month period (January 2018 to March 2022), divided into two periods: pre-pandemic (January 2018 to February 2020) and COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020 to March 2022). The effects of the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period on the incidence of CDI [expressed as infections per 10 000 bed days (IBD)] were studied using interrupted time-series analysis.Results. Throughout the study, there was an increase in the monthly CDI incidence from 0.00 to 11.77 IBD (P<0.001). Interrupted time-series disclosed an increase in CDI incidence during the pre-pandemic period from 0.00 to 3.36 IBD (P<0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic period the linear trend for monthly CDI rose from 2.65 to 13.93 IBD (P<0.001). The increase rate was higher during the COVID-19 pandemic period (r2 = +0.47) compared to the pre-pandemic period (r1 = +0.16).Conclusion. A significant increase of CDI incidence was observed, with the rate of the rise being more intense during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Cross Infection , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Incidence , Greece/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(5)2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301170

ABSTRACT

Recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (RCDI) causes an increased burden on the healthcare system. We calculated RCDI incidence and identified factors associated with RCDI cases in New Haven County, Connecticut, USA, during 2015-2020 by using data from population-based laboratory surveillance. A subset of C. difficile cases had complete chart reviews conducted for RCDI and potentially associated variables. RCDI was defined as a positive C. difficile specimen occurring 2-8 weeks after incident C. difficile infection. We compared cases with and without RCDI by using multiple regression. RCDI occurred in 12.0% of 4,301 chart-reviewed C. difficile cases, showing a U-shaped time trend with a sharp increase in 2020, mostly because of an increase in hospital-onset cases. Malignancy (odds ratio 1.51 [95% CI 1.11-2.07]) and antecedent nitrofurantoin use (odds ratio 2.37 [95% CI 1.23-4.58]) were medical risk factors for RCDI. The 2020 increase may reflect the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Connecticut/epidemiology , Pandemics , Recurrence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(4)2023 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305190

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives. The intensive care unit (ICU), especially in an infectious disease hospital, is both an area with a high consumption of antibiotics (atb) and a "reservoir" of multidrug-resistant bacteria. We proposed the analysis of antibiotic therapy practices in such a department that treated, in conditions of a pandemic wave, patients with COVID-19 and its complications. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective transversal study of 184 COVID-19 patients treated in the ICU of a regional infectious disease hospital of Iasi, Romania, in a 3-month interval of 2020 and 2021. Results. All the included patients (Caucasians, 53% males, with a median age of 68 years, and a Charlton comorbidity index of 3) received at least one antibiotic during their stay in the ICU (43% also had antibiotics prior to hospital admission and 68% in the Infectious Diseases ward). Only 22.3% of the ICU patients had only one antibiotic. A total of 77.7% of them started with an association of two antibiotics, and 19.6% of them received more than three antibiotics. The most-used ones were linezolid (77.2%), imipenem (75.5%), and ceftriaxone (33.7%). The median atb duration was 9 days. No change in the number or type of atb prescription was seen in 2021 (compared to 2020). Only 9.8% of the patients had a microbiological confirmation of bacterial infection. A total of 38.3% of the tested patients had elevated procalcitonin levels at ICU admission. The overall fatality rate was 68.5%, with no significant differences between the two analyzed periods or the number of administered antibiotics. More than half (51.1%) of the patients developed oral candidiasis during their stay in the ICU, but only 5.4% had C. difficile colitis. Conclusion. Antibiotics were widely used in our ICU patients in the presence of a reduced microbiological confirmation of a bacterial co-infection, and were justified by other clinical or biological criteria.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Communicable Diseases , Male , Humans , Aged , Female , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Romania/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units , Hospitals
8.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 38(4): 590-597, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of hospital acquired-infectious diarrhea in the USA. In this study, we assess the prevalence and impact of CDI in COVID-19 hospitalizations in the USA. METHODS: We used the 2020 National Inpatient Sample database to identify adult patients with COVID-19. The patients were stratified into two groups based on the presence of CDI. The impact of CDI on outcomes such as in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, shock, acute kidney injury (AKI), and sepsis rates. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the effects of CDI on outcomes. RESULTS: The study population comprised 1581 585 patients with COVID-19. Among these, 0.65% of people had a CDI. There was a higher incidence of mortality in patients with COVID-19 and CDI compared with patients without COVID-19 (23.25% vs 13.33%, P < 0.001). The patients with COVID-19 and CDI had a higher incidence of sepsis (7.69% vs 5%, P < 0.001), shock (23.59% vs 8.59%, P < 0.001), ICU admission (25.54% vs 12.28%, P < 0.001), and AKI (47.71% vs 28.52%, P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, patients with CDI had a statistically significant higher risk of mortality than those without (aOR = 1.47, P < 0.001). We also noted a statistically significant higher risk of sepsis (aOR = 1.47, P < 0.001), shock (aOR = 2.7, P < 0.001), AKI (aOR = 1.55, P < 0.001), and ICU admission (aOR = 2.16, P < 0.001) in the study population. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed the prevalence of CDI in COVID-19 patients was 0.65%. Although the prevalence was low, its presence is associated with worse outcomes and higher resource utilization.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Sepsis , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Clostridioides , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
9.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 118(3): 435-439, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261517

ABSTRACT

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a rapidly growing therapy aimed at reconstituting the dysbiotic microbiota of a patient with the beneficial stool microbiota of a healthy individual. The efficacy rates of FMT are very robust for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection in both children and adults. Although complications of FMT have been reported, it is generally believed to be a safe procedure. Novel indications for FMT are being studied, with the hope that ultimately it may be useful for a variety of disorders. As this field continues to grow, however, it is necessary to consider efficacy, safety, and innovation across the lifespan. There are unique concerns regarding FMT as it pertains to children, adults, and the elderly. In this review, we seek to update clinicians, researchers, and regulators on how these factors must be balanced across the lifespan as we move forward with this innovative therapy.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Adult , Child , Humans , Aged , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/adverse effects , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/methods , Longevity , Treatment Outcome , Feces , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Recurrence
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(3)2023 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259618

ABSTRACT

The main symptoms of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are fever, cough, tiredness, and loss of smell and taste. Gastrointestinal symptoms are less common. A 38-year-old female patient, previously healthy, presented with a history of hematochezia up to 8 times per day, followed by abdominal cramps, urgency, and chills for two days. She did not have any respiratory symptoms and was previously vaccinated for COVID-19. She was afebrile, with normal vital signs. Blood samples showed normal complete blood count and increased C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels (66 mg/L, 4.1 g/L, and 2302 µ/L FEU, respectively). Stool samples for stool culture, C. difficile, and viral examination came back negative. On day 3, she reported a mild cough, fever and loss of smell and taste. Nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) PCR test came back positive. On day 6, the patient still had hematochezia accompanied by abdominal cramps, but fever and respiratory symptoms withdrew. CRP, fibrinogen, and D-dimers were still elevated, as well as liver enzyme levels. Sigmoidoscopy was performed with biopsies taken from sigmoid and rectum for histology and PCR SARS-CoV-2 testing. CT angiography showed no signs of thrombosis in mesenteric veins or arteries. PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 virus from rectal biopsy sample was positive. Patient was treated with methylprednisolone iv for two days and peroral prednisone afterwards, with mesalamine, metronidazole and enoxaparin. Sigmoidoscopy was repeated after two weeks showing only mild hyperemia. At that time, the patient had normal stool, normal CRP, liver enzyme, fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels, and normocytic anemia (hemoglobin level of 103 g/L). We wanted to show that severe gastrointestinal symptoms, such as hemorrhagic colitis, can be the main presentation of COVID-19, even in young patients with no prior comorbidities. In such a case, PCR test in biopsy samples can be performed to prove SARS-CoV-2 infection of bowel mucosa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Colic , Colitis , Female , Humans , Adult , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Cough , Anosmia , COVID-19 Testing , Fibrinogen , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
11.
Melanoma Res ; 33(2): 136-148, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259451

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiome acts as a tumor-extrinsic regulator of responses to immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting PD-1 and CTLA-4 receptors. Primary resistance to anti-PD-1 ICI can be reversed via responder-derived fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in patients with refractory melanoma. Efforts to create stool banks for FMT have proved difficult. Therefore, we aimed to establish a novel donor-screening program to generate responder-derived FMT for use in PD-1 refractory melanoma. Candidate PD-1 responder donors and PD-1 refractory recipients were recruited via clinic-based encounters at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center hospitals. Eligible donors and recipients underwent physician assessment and screening of serum, stool and nasopharynx for transmissible agents, which included SARS-CoV-2 modification. The cost of donor and recipient screening was calculated. Initially, 29 donors were screened with 14 eligible donors identified after exclusion; of the 14 donors, eight were utilized in clinical trials. The overall efficiency of screening was 48%. Seroprevalence rates for cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, HSV-2, HHV-6, HTLV-1, HTLV-2, and syphilis were similar to published statistics from healthy blood donors in the USA. Donor stool studies indicated a 3.6% incidence of E. histolytica and norovirus, 3.7% incidence of giardia and 7.1% incidence of C. difficile. A single donor tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in stool only. The cost for finding a single eligible donor was $2260.24 (pre-COVID) and $2,460.24 (post-COVID). The observed screening efficiency suggests that a well-resourced screening program can generate sufficient responder-derived donor material for clinical trial purposes. Eliminating testing for low-prevalence organisms may improve cost-effectiveness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Melanoma , Skin Neoplasms , Humans , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/adverse effects , Donor Selection , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/etiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Melanoma/etiology , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Skin Neoplasms/etiology
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 132, 2023 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259116

ABSTRACT

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) affects approximately 500,000 patients annually in the United States, of these around 30,000 will die. CDI carries significant burdens including clinical, social and economic. While healthcare-associated CDI has declined in recent years, community-associated CDI is on the rise. Many patients are also impacted by recurrent C. difficile infections (rCDI); up to 35% of index CDI will recur and of these up to 60% will further recur with multiple recurrences observed. The range of outcomes adversely affected by rCDI is significant and current standard of care does not alter these recurrence rates due to the damaged gut microbiome and subsequent dysbiosis. The clinical landscape of CDI is changing, we discuss the impact of CDI, rCDI, and the wide range of financial, social, and clinical outcomes by which treatments should be evaluated.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Dysbiosis , Health Facilities
13.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(12): 1389-1391, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270947

ABSTRACT

Contrary to national reports, rates of healthcare facility-onset Clostridioides difficile infection across an 11-hospital system rose after the spring of 2020, when New York City was the epicenter for the COVID-19 pandemic. Antibiotic pressure from an escalation in cephalosporin usage correlated with this increase. The majority of cases of Clostridioides difficile were in patients without COVID-19, suggesting the pandemic has adversely impacted the healthcare of other inpatients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Cross Infection , Humans , Pandemics , New York City/epidemiology , Public Health , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals
14.
Anaerobe ; 80: 102699, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2176141

ABSTRACT

We analyzed our challenging experience with a randomized controlled trial of misoprostol for prevention of recurrent C. difficile. Despite careful prescreening and thoughtful protocol modifications to facilitate enrollment, we closed the study early after enrolling just 7 participants over 3 years. We share lessons learned, noting the importance of feasibility studies, inclusion of biomarker outcomes, and dissemination of such findings to inform future research design and implementation successes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Misoprostol , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Misoprostol/therapeutic use , Clostridioides , Feasibility Studies , Clostridium Infections/prevention & control
15.
Anaerobe ; 79: 102693, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165050

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Healthcare facility-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI) is a major nosocomial infection associated with high mortality and healthcare costs. We aimed to determine if HO-CDI incidence decreased due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We hypothesized that the pandemic decreased HO-CDI as healthcare workers became more diligent in handwashing and sanitization. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, adult patients with sepsis hospitalized in general wards from January 2018 to February 2021 were identified using a nationwide Japanese administrative database. Patients were divided into two groups according to the hospitalization date (before and after the first declaration of a state of emergency). The primary outcome was a change in the level of the HO-CDI monthly incidence ratio (per 10000 patient-days). RESULTS: Of the 49,156 eligible hospitalizations for sepsis, 41,870 were before and 7,283 were after the first state of emergency declaration. Interrupted time-series (ITS) analysis showed no significant difference in the HO-CDI incidence ratio after Japan's first state of emergency declaration (level change -1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) -8.6 to 6.6, p = 0.8, slope change 0.06, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.3, p = 0.6). The overall HO-CDI incidence ratio was 3.86/10000 patient-days (interquartile range 2.97-4.53); higher incidence existed in subgroups with older adults or a lower Barthel index at admission. CONCLUSIONS: No significant change in HO-CDI incidence was observed in patients with sepsis hospitalized in general wards before and after Japan's first state of emergency declaration. Our study revealed that HO-CDI in general wards in Japan had been consistently decreasing since before the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridium Infections , Cross Infection , Sepsis , Humans , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , East Asian People , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/epidemiology
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(9)2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033055

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to investigate the clinical form, risk factors, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 and Clostridioides difficile co-infections. Methods: This retrospective study (2 September 2021-1 April 2022) included all patients with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and COVID-19 infection who were admitted to the Covid Hospital of the University Clinical Center of Vojvodina. Results: A total of 5124 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the Covid Hospital, and 326 of them (6.36%) developed hospital-onset CDI. Of those, 326 of the CDI patients (88.65%) were older than 65 years. The median time of CDI onset was 12.88 days. Previous hospitalizations showed 69.93% of CDI patients compared to 38.81% in the non-CDI group (p = 0.029). The concomitant antibiotics exposure was higher among the CDI group versus the non-CDI group (88.65% vs. 68.42%, p = 0.037). Albumin levels were ≤ 25 g/L among 39.57% of the CDI patients and 21.71% in the non-CDI patients (p = 0.021). The clinical manifestations of CDI ranged from mild diarrhea (26.9%) to severe diarrhea (63.49%) and a complicated form of colitis (9.81%). Regarding outcomes, 79.14% of the CDI patients recovered and 20.86% had fatal outcomes in-hospital. Although a minority of the patients were in the non-CDI group, the difference in mortality rate between the CDI and non-CDI group was not statistically significant (20.86% vs. 15.13%, p = 0.097). Conclusions: Elderly patients on concomitant antibiotic treatments with hypoalbuminemia and with previous healthcare exposures were the most affected by COVID-19 and CD co-infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Coinfection , Aged , Albumins , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Clostridium Infections/complications , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Serbia/epidemiology , Universities , Yugoslavia
19.
Inn Med (Heidelb) ; 63(10): 1036-1042, 2022 Oct.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007121

ABSTRACT

Fecal microbiome transfer (FMT) involving the transfer of the microbiome of healthy stool donors to patients with various diseases has been performed in Germany in clinical studies and individual treatment attempts. There is no doubt that FMT is an effective therapeutic principle for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and ulcerative colitis. From a medico-legal point of view, it should be stressed that, in Germany, the microbiome to be transferred is regarded as a drug, the manufacture of which is subject to the Medicines Act and the risk information from the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices. The background of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and the potential risk of transmitting pathogens must also be considered. There is an obligation to notify the competent state authorities to perform FMTs in the context of individual treatment attempts. In the context of the limited availability and the fundamental problem of infection, future studies aim to identify the therapeutically active components in the microbiome. Recombinant production is the aim. Initial results represent preliminary steps, as these concepts are not yet established in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 653-663, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974548

ABSTRACT

Aim: To assess the impact of Clostridioides difficile infection on the course of COVID-19. Methods: The authors included 809 patients with COVID-19 in this retrospective study: 55 had C. difficile infection, 23 had C. difficile-negative antibiotic-associated diarrhea and 731 had no diarrhea. C. difficile in feces was determined by immunochromatographic test for its toxins. Results:C. difficile infection was associated with increased risk of death (hazard ratio = 2.6; p = 0.021), especially after 20 days of disease (hazard ratio = 6.5; p < 0.001). C. difficile infection-associated diarrhea was longer and more severe than C. difficile-negative antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Unlike patients with C. difficile-negative antibiotic-associated diarrhea, patients with C. difficile infection were admitted to the intensive care unit and needed mechanical ventilation more often than those without diarrhea. Conclusion:C. difficile infection worsens the course and prognosis of COVID-19.


Patients with COVID-19 usually receive antibiotic treatment, which predisposes them to antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In some cases, antibiotic-associated diarrhea can be caused by Clostridioides difficile bacteria. To learn more about the impact of C. difficile infection on COVID-19, the authors analyzed data from the medical records of 809 patients with COVID-19. The authors found that C. difficile co-infection worsens the course and prognosis of COVID-19. The authors suggest that patients with COVID-19 who develop diarrhea after taking antibiotics be tested for C. difficile and treated for this co-infection if the test is positive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Coinfection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Clostridium Infections/complications , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies
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