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1.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 12(4): 222-225, 2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242950

ABSTRACT

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) among children remains a concerning cause of morbidity in hospital settings. We present epidemiological and molecular trends in healthcare- and community-associated CDI among children in Canadian inpatient and outpatient settings, including those who experienced recurrent infections.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Cross Infection , Humans , Child , Canada/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/etiology , Health Facilities , Delivery of Health Care , Cross Infection/epidemiology
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(5): 919-928, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241735

ABSTRACT

Although Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) incidence is high in the United States, standard-of-care (SOC) stool collection and testing practices might result in incidence overestimation or underestimation. We conducted diarrhea surveillance among inpatients >50 years of age in Louisville, Kentucky, USA, during October 14, 2019-October 13, 2020; concurrent SOC stool collection and CDI testing occurred independently. A study CDI case was nucleic acid amplification test‒/cytotoxicity neutralization assay‒positive or nucleic acid amplification test‒positive stool in a patient with pseudomembranous colitis. Study incidence was adjusted for hospitalization share and specimen collection rate and, in a sensitivity analysis, for diarrhea cases without study testing. SOC hospitalized CDI incidence was 121/100,000 population/year; study incidence was 154/100,000 population/year and, in sensitivity analysis, 202/100,000 population/year. Of 75 SOC CDI cases, 12 (16.0%) were not study diagnosed; of 109 study CDI cases, 44 (40.4%) were not SOC diagnosed. CDI incidence estimates based on SOC CDI testing are probably underestimated.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Humans , Adult , United States , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Kentucky/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Diagnostic Errors , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Specimen Handling
3.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 77(1): 23-33, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233067

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The primary symptom of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is diarrhea of varying severity. Both malnutrition and clinical nutrition increase the risk for contracting Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) infection and the likelihood of relapses. Moreover, the risk for recurrence is higher if there is infection with a hypervirulent strain (NAP1/BI/027). Hypoalbuminemia predisposes to a severe course of the disease and morbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis was carried out of the data regarding patients hospitalized at the Regional Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Warsaw from 01 January 2020 to 31 December 2021 who were diagnosed with C. difficile infection. A severe course of infection was diagnosed when a blood test showed a leukocyte count greater than or equal to 15,000/µl and/or a creatinine concentration >1.5 mg/dl (>132.6 mmol/l). RESULTS: Clostridioides difficile infection was the reason for 185 hospitalizations (involving 108 women and 77 men), of 167 patients aged from 22 to 93 years old. There were 68 (37%) cases of recurrent infection. Seventy-five (41%) infections met the study's criteria for severe CDI, and 12 (7%) patients died. Out of the total number of hospitalizations, 41 (22%) were due SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. PCR tests detecting binary toxin revealed 34 (18%) positive results. Infection with a hypervirulent strain was an independent risk factor for the recurrence of diarrhea which had C. difficile etiology. Overall, during an episode of diarrhea, one antibacterial drug was used in 139 cases (75%), two in 27 (15%), three in 14 (8%) situations, and four - twice (1%). Among these, drugs not recommended for the treatment of CDI were used in 21 (11%) cases. The number of antibacterial drugs administered during an episode of diarrhea was an independent risk factor for the death of the infected person. Clinical nutrition was applied during 19 hospitalizations (10%), out of which 12 (63%) cases showed a severe course of C. difficile infection, while four patients (21%) died. Using clinical nutrition methods was an independent risk factor for a severe course of the disease and patient death. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical nutrition and the number of antibiotics used during an episode of diarrhea are independent risk factors for the death of a patient with CDI. Infection with a hypervirulent strain increases the risk for relapse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Male , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Poland/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Clostridium Infections/complications , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Recurrence
4.
J Med Microbiol ; 72(5)2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324001

ABSTRACT

Introduction. C. difficile infection (CDI) represents an important global threat. In the COVID-19 era, the multifactorial nature of CDI has emerged.Hypothesis - Aim. The aim was to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of CDI in a Greek hospital.Methodology. A retrospective study was performed throughout a 51 month period (January 2018 to March 2022), divided into two periods: pre-pandemic (January 2018 to February 2020) and COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020 to March 2022). The effects of the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period on the incidence of CDI [expressed as infections per 10 000 bed days (IBD)] were studied using interrupted time-series analysis.Results. Throughout the study, there was an increase in the monthly CDI incidence from 0.00 to 11.77 IBD (P<0.001). Interrupted time-series disclosed an increase in CDI incidence during the pre-pandemic period from 0.00 to 3.36 IBD (P<0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic period the linear trend for monthly CDI rose from 2.65 to 13.93 IBD (P<0.001). The increase rate was higher during the COVID-19 pandemic period (r2 = +0.47) compared to the pre-pandemic period (r1 = +0.16).Conclusion. A significant increase of CDI incidence was observed, with the rate of the rise being more intense during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Cross Infection , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Incidence , Greece/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(5)2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301170

ABSTRACT

Recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (RCDI) causes an increased burden on the healthcare system. We calculated RCDI incidence and identified factors associated with RCDI cases in New Haven County, Connecticut, USA, during 2015-2020 by using data from population-based laboratory surveillance. A subset of C. difficile cases had complete chart reviews conducted for RCDI and potentially associated variables. RCDI was defined as a positive C. difficile specimen occurring 2-8 weeks after incident C. difficile infection. We compared cases with and without RCDI by using multiple regression. RCDI occurred in 12.0% of 4,301 chart-reviewed C. difficile cases, showing a U-shaped time trend with a sharp increase in 2020, mostly because of an increase in hospital-onset cases. Malignancy (odds ratio 1.51 [95% CI 1.11-2.07]) and antecedent nitrofurantoin use (odds ratio 2.37 [95% CI 1.23-4.58]) were medical risk factors for RCDI. The 2020 increase may reflect the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Connecticut/epidemiology , Pandemics , Recurrence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 132, 2023 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259116

ABSTRACT

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) affects approximately 500,000 patients annually in the United States, of these around 30,000 will die. CDI carries significant burdens including clinical, social and economic. While healthcare-associated CDI has declined in recent years, community-associated CDI is on the rise. Many patients are also impacted by recurrent C. difficile infections (rCDI); up to 35% of index CDI will recur and of these up to 60% will further recur with multiple recurrences observed. The range of outcomes adversely affected by rCDI is significant and current standard of care does not alter these recurrence rates due to the damaged gut microbiome and subsequent dysbiosis. The clinical landscape of CDI is changing, we discuss the impact of CDI, rCDI, and the wide range of financial, social, and clinical outcomes by which treatments should be evaluated.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Dysbiosis , Health Facilities
7.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(12): 1389-1391, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270947

ABSTRACT

Contrary to national reports, rates of healthcare facility-onset Clostridioides difficile infection across an 11-hospital system rose after the spring of 2020, when New York City was the epicenter for the COVID-19 pandemic. Antibiotic pressure from an escalation in cephalosporin usage correlated with this increase. The majority of cases of Clostridioides difficile were in patients without COVID-19, suggesting the pandemic has adversely impacted the healthcare of other inpatients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Cross Infection , Humans , Pandemics , New York City/epidemiology , Public Health , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals
8.
Anaerobe ; 79: 102693, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165050

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Healthcare facility-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI) is a major nosocomial infection associated with high mortality and healthcare costs. We aimed to determine if HO-CDI incidence decreased due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We hypothesized that the pandemic decreased HO-CDI as healthcare workers became more diligent in handwashing and sanitization. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, adult patients with sepsis hospitalized in general wards from January 2018 to February 2021 were identified using a nationwide Japanese administrative database. Patients were divided into two groups according to the hospitalization date (before and after the first declaration of a state of emergency). The primary outcome was a change in the level of the HO-CDI monthly incidence ratio (per 10000 patient-days). RESULTS: Of the 49,156 eligible hospitalizations for sepsis, 41,870 were before and 7,283 were after the first state of emergency declaration. Interrupted time-series (ITS) analysis showed no significant difference in the HO-CDI incidence ratio after Japan's first state of emergency declaration (level change -1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) -8.6 to 6.6, p = 0.8, slope change 0.06, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.3, p = 0.6). The overall HO-CDI incidence ratio was 3.86/10000 patient-days (interquartile range 2.97-4.53); higher incidence existed in subgroups with older adults or a lower Barthel index at admission. CONCLUSIONS: No significant change in HO-CDI incidence was observed in patients with sepsis hospitalized in general wards before and after Japan's first state of emergency declaration. Our study revealed that HO-CDI in general wards in Japan had been consistently decreasing since before the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridium Infections , Cross Infection , Sepsis , Humans , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , East Asian People , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/epidemiology
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 739, 2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infection (HAI) is a common and largely preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. The COVID-19 pandemic has presented unprecedented challenges to health systems. We conducted a national survey to ascertain hospital characteristics and the use of HAI prevention measures in Israel. METHODS: We e-mailed surveys to infection prevention and control (IPC) leads of acute care hospitals in Israel. The survey included questions about the use of practices to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). The survey also assessed COVID-19 impact and healthcare worker well-being. RESULTS: IPC leads from 15 of 24 invited hospitals (63%) completed the survey. Only one-third of respondents reported strong support for IPC from hospital leadership. Although several prevention practices were used by all hospitals (e.g., maximum sterile barrier precautions for CLABSI and real-time assessment of environmental cleaning for CDI), use of other practices was suboptimal-particularly for CAUTI and VAP. COVID-19 had a profound impact on Israeli hospitals, with all hospitals reporting opening of new units to care for COVID patients and most reporting moderate to extreme financial hardship. All hospitals reported highly successful plans to vaccinate all staff and felt confident that the vaccine is safe and effective. CONCLUSION: We provide a status report of the IPC characteristics and practices Israeli hospitals are currently using to prevent HAIs during the COVID-19 era. While many globally accepted IPC practices are widely implemented, opportunities to increase the use of certain IPC practices in Israeli hospitals exist.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catheter-Related Infections , Clostridium Infections , Cross Infection , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Urinary Tract Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/prevention & control , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Urinary Tract Infections/prevention & control
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(9)2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033055

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to investigate the clinical form, risk factors, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 and Clostridioides difficile co-infections. Methods: This retrospective study (2 September 2021-1 April 2022) included all patients with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and COVID-19 infection who were admitted to the Covid Hospital of the University Clinical Center of Vojvodina. Results: A total of 5124 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the Covid Hospital, and 326 of them (6.36%) developed hospital-onset CDI. Of those, 326 of the CDI patients (88.65%) were older than 65 years. The median time of CDI onset was 12.88 days. Previous hospitalizations showed 69.93% of CDI patients compared to 38.81% in the non-CDI group (p = 0.029). The concomitant antibiotics exposure was higher among the CDI group versus the non-CDI group (88.65% vs. 68.42%, p = 0.037). Albumin levels were ≤ 25 g/L among 39.57% of the CDI patients and 21.71% in the non-CDI patients (p = 0.021). The clinical manifestations of CDI ranged from mild diarrhea (26.9%) to severe diarrhea (63.49%) and a complicated form of colitis (9.81%). Regarding outcomes, 79.14% of the CDI patients recovered and 20.86% had fatal outcomes in-hospital. Although a minority of the patients were in the non-CDI group, the difference in mortality rate between the CDI and non-CDI group was not statistically significant (20.86% vs. 15.13%, p = 0.097). Conclusions: Elderly patients on concomitant antibiotic treatments with hypoalbuminemia and with previous healthcare exposures were the most affected by COVID-19 and CD co-infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Coinfection , Aged , Albumins , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Clostridium Infections/complications , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Serbia/epidemiology , Universities , Yugoslavia
13.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 653-663, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974548

ABSTRACT

Aim: To assess the impact of Clostridioides difficile infection on the course of COVID-19. Methods: The authors included 809 patients with COVID-19 in this retrospective study: 55 had C. difficile infection, 23 had C. difficile-negative antibiotic-associated diarrhea and 731 had no diarrhea. C. difficile in feces was determined by immunochromatographic test for its toxins. Results:C. difficile infection was associated with increased risk of death (hazard ratio = 2.6; p = 0.021), especially after 20 days of disease (hazard ratio = 6.5; p < 0.001). C. difficile infection-associated diarrhea was longer and more severe than C. difficile-negative antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Unlike patients with C. difficile-negative antibiotic-associated diarrhea, patients with C. difficile infection were admitted to the intensive care unit and needed mechanical ventilation more often than those without diarrhea. Conclusion:C. difficile infection worsens the course and prognosis of COVID-19.


Patients with COVID-19 usually receive antibiotic treatment, which predisposes them to antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In some cases, antibiotic-associated diarrhea can be caused by Clostridioides difficile bacteria. To learn more about the impact of C. difficile infection on COVID-19, the authors analyzed data from the medical records of 809 patients with COVID-19. The authors found that C. difficile co-infection worsens the course and prognosis of COVID-19. The authors suggest that patients with COVID-19 who develop diarrhea after taking antibiotics be tested for C. difficile and treated for this co-infection if the test is positive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Coinfection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Clostridium Infections/complications , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(27): e29823, 2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927463

ABSTRACT

Beside the changes in the gut microbiota in context of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the increased use of high-risk broad-spectrum antibiotics during the actual pandemic raises concerns about a possible increase of Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs). We retrospectively analyzed 80 consecutive patients, with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and CDI. The mean length of hospitalization was 19.63 days. The mean time of the onset of the digestive symptoms related to CDI was 5.16 days. Patients with an onset of the digestive symptoms from hospital admission have a significantly lower median length in hospital stay. The recovered patients present a statistically significant decreased median age. coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cured patients present CDI symptoms much earlier than the deceased patients, when comparing the median days before the occurrence of any digestive symptoms regarding CDI. Among the patients that prior to their hospitalization for COVID-19 were exposed to antibiotics, 54.7% presented CDI digestive symptoms during their hospitalization and 65.6% had a severe or critical COVID-19 form. Although the incidence of CDI in the pandemic is lower compared to the period before the pandemic, the severity of cases and the death rate increased. In the actual setting clinicians need to be aware of possible CDI and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Coinfection , Cross Infection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Anaerobe ; 75: 102579, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814098

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of COVID19 pandemic on the incidence of health-care associated Clostridioides difficile infection (HA-CDI). METHODS: Retrospective study conducted in the Hospital Universitario de Valme (HUV) and the Hospital General Universitario de Alicante (HGUA) in Spain between January 2019 and February 2021. The study period was divided into non-COVID19 period (2019 and months from 2020 to 2021 with ≤30 hospitalized COVID19 patients) and COVID19 period (months from 2020 to 2021 with >30 COVID19 patients). HA-CDI incidence rates (IR) were calculated as the number of new CDI cases per 10.000 occupied bed-days (OBD) and antimicrobial consumption by means of the defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 OBD. RESULTS: During the COVID19 period, HA-CDI IR in the HUV was 2.6 per 10.000 OBD, which was lower than what was observed during the non-COVID19 period (4.1 per 10.000 OBD; p = 0.1). In the HGUA, HA-CDI IR during COVID19 period was 3.9 per 10.000 OBD, which was not significantly different to the IR observed during the non-COVID19 period (3.7 per 10.000 OBD; p = 0.8). There was a slight increase in the total antibiotic consumption during COVID19 period in both hospitals, with significant increases of certain high-risk antibiotics as cephalosporins. CONCLSUSIONS: HA-CDI incidence has not increased during the COVID19 pandemic in two tertiary centers in Spain, in spite of a slightly higher antibiotic consumption during the COVID19 period in both hospitals. These findings suggest that, in the presence of strict infection control measures, hospital antibiotic consumption might have a lower impact than expected on HA-CDI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Cross Infection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
16.
Anaerobe ; 74: 102518, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637978

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has dramatically tested healthcare systems around the world, with serious repercussions on the measures of prevention and control of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Among HAIs, Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) represents one of the most important global public health threats. Although the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on CDI remains undetermined, depending on the development of the pandemic in the coming months, in this review literature studies of the last three years have been considered in order to depict the current situation, and make some considerations about possible future developments. If on the one hand, a general reduction in CDI incidence has been reported in several settings, mainly due to the extraordinary reinforcement of infection prevention measures, on the other hand, the critical circumstances experienced in many hospitals have limited the effectiveness of these measures, particularly in the intensive care units (ICUs), increasing the possibility of the occurrence of hospital-acquired CDI (HA-CDI). New concerns have arisen from the decrease in C. difficile testing and the increased use of broad-spectrum antibiotics reported during the pandemic. In particular, overuse of antibiotics and disinfectants may lead to a selection of resistant C. difficile strains not only in hospitals but also in the community. Furthermore, patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and patients that have survived COVID-19 may represent a new group of frail patients potentially at a higher risk of CDI, a group that could potentially increase in size due to SARS-CoV-2 evolution. In the dramatic COVID-19 era, the multifactorial nature of CDI has emerged more clearly than before, highlighting the necessity of a strong refocus on efforts to improve prevention strategies and to integrate CDI surveillance in a One Health prospective in order to curtail the public health threat posed by this infection in the next future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Cross Infection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Anaerobe ; 73: 102479, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520680

ABSTRACT

Serious concerns have been raised about a possible increase in cases of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a retrospective observational single centre study which revealed that total combined community and hospital-based quarterly rates of CDI decreased during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Cross Infection , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e046480, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288391

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections in the USA, having high incidence in intensive care units (ICU). Antibiotic use increases risk of CDI, with fluoroquinolones (FQs) particularly implicated. In healthcare settings, antibiotic stewardship (AS) and infection control interventions are effective in CDI control, but there is little evidence regarding the most effective AS interventions. Preprescription authorisation (PPA) restricting FQs is a potentially promising AS intervention to reduce CDI. The FQ Restriction for the Prevention of CDI (FIRST) trial will evaluate the effectiveness of an FQ PPA intervention in reducing CDI rates in adult ICUs compared with preintervention care, and evaluate implementation effectiveness using a human-factors and systems engineering model. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multisite, stepped-wedge, cluster, effectiveness-implementation clinical trial. The trial will take place in 12 adult medical-surgical ICUs with ≥10 beds, using Epic as electronic health record (EHR) and pre-existing AS programmes. Sites will receive facilitated implementation support over the 15-month trial period, succeeded by 9 months of follow-up. The intervention comprises a clinical decision support system for FQ PPA, integrated into the site EHRs. Each ICU will be considered a single site and all ICU admissions included in the analysis. Clinical data will be extracted from EHRs throughout the trial and compared with the corresponding pretrial period, which will constitute the baseline for statistical analysis. Outcomes will include ICU-onset CDI rates, FQ days of therapy (DOT), alternative antibiotic DOT, average length of stay and hospital mortality. The study team will also collect implementation data to assess implementation effectiveness using the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (2018-0852-CP015). Results will be made available to participating sites, funders, infectious disease societies, critical care societies and other researchers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03848689.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Adult , Clostridioides , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/prevention & control , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units
19.
Rom J Intern Med ; 59(4): 409-415, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247777

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Information on healthcare-associated C.difficile infection (HA-CDI) in COVID-19 patients is limited. We aimed to assess the characteristics of HA-CDI acquired during and before the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. We conducted a retrospective study in a tertiary care hospital, in which since March 2020 exclusively COVID-19 patients are hospitalized. We compared HA-CDI adult patients hospitalized in March 2020-February 2021 with those hospitalized during the same period in 2017-2018. Results. We found 51 cases during 2020-2021 (COVID-19 group), incidence 5.6/1000 adult discharge and 99 cases during 2017-2018 (pre-COVID-19 group), incidence 6.1/1000 adult discharge (p=0.6). The patients in COVID-19 group compared to pre-COVID-19 group were older (median age 66 vs 62 years), with similar rate of comorbidities, but with higher rate of cardiovascular diseases (62.7% vs 42.4%) and less immunosuppression (21.6% vs 55.6%), they had a higher proton pump inhibitors use (94.1% vs 32.3%), and a longer hospitalization (median 19 vs 14 days). Eighty-five (85.9%) patients in pre-COVID-19 group versus 44 (86.3%) patients in COVID-19 group received antimicrobial treatment - mainly cephalosporins (34,1%), quinolones (22,3%) and glycopeptides (21,1%) in pre-COVID-19 group and mainly cephalosporins and macrolides (63,6% each) in COVID-19 group. We found four HA-CDI-related deaths in pre-COVID-19 group and none in the COVID-19 group. Conclusions. The HA-CDI incidence in COVID-19 group did not change versus the same period of time during 2017-2018. The antibiotic use was the most important factor associated with HA-CDI. We identified a high use of broad-spectrum antibiotics despite the lack of empirical antimicrobial recommendations in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Romania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
20.
Anaerobe ; 70: 102384, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240162

ABSTRACT

Testing for and incidence of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) was examined at a single center before and during the first surge of the COVID-19 pandemic. Incidence of CDI remained stable but testing statistically significantly decreased during the first surge despite an increase in antibiotic use. There were no new CDI-focused antimicrobial stewardship interventions introduced during this time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Clostridioides difficile/physiology , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Clostridioides difficile/drug effects , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/microbiology , Humans , Pandemics
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