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1.
Cell ; 181(4): 865-876.e12, 2020 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684968

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has highlighted the need for antiviral approaches that can target emerging viruses with no effective vaccines or pharmaceuticals. Here, we demonstrate a CRISPR-Cas13-based strategy, PAC-MAN (prophylactic antiviral CRISPR in human cells), for viral inhibition that can effectively degrade RNA from SARS-CoV-2 sequences and live influenza A virus (IAV) in human lung epithelial cells. We designed and screened CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) targeting conserved viral regions and identified functional crRNAs targeting SARS-CoV-2. This approach effectively reduced H1N1 IAV load in respiratory epithelial cells. Our bioinformatic analysis showed that a group of only six crRNAs can target more than 90% of all coronaviruses. With the development of a safe and effective system for respiratory tract delivery, PAC-MAN has the potential to become an important pan-coronavirus inhibition strategy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , RNA, Viral/antagonists & inhibitors , A549 Cells , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Computer Simulation , Conserved Sequence , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/growth & development , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/growth & development , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA Replicase/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
3.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(2): 164-167, 2020 Feb 29.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-213369

ABSTRACT

The ongoing epidemic of caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 starting in December 2019 poses a serious public health threat globally. The virus is highly infectious and transmitted mainly through droplets and contacts, and is associated with a high risk of pneumonia. A small number of patients may present with acute respiratory distress syndrome with severe respiratory complications, which can lead even to death. The selection of appropriate detection techniques and methods for accurate and rapid identification of pathogens therefore plays a key role in improving the diagnosis and treatment of the patients and containing the outbreak. In this review, the authors gives an overview of the virus laboratory detection technology, including virus isolation and culture, real-time fluorescent PCR, gene sequencing, serological antibody detection, and the gene editing technology based on CRISPR/Cas13 system. These techniques are expected to provide valuable assistance in controlling the epidemic and new ideas for future researches.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Humans , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis , Serologic Tests
4.
RNA ; 26(7): 771-783, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154676

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic presents a serious public health crisis, and a better understanding of the scope and spread of the virus would be aided by more widespread testing. Nucleic-acid-based tests currently offer the most sensitive and early detection of COVID-19. However, the "gold standard" test pioneered by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention takes several hours to complete and requires extensive human labor, materials such as RNA extraction kits that could become in short supply, and relatively scarce qPCR machines. It is clear that a huge effort needs to be made to scale up current COVID-19 testing by orders of magnitude. There is thus a pressing need to evaluate alternative protocols, reagents, and approaches to allow nucleic-acid testing to continue in the face of these potential shortages. There has been a tremendous explosion in the number of papers written within the first weeks of the pandemic evaluating potential advances, comparable reagents, and alternatives to the "gold-standard" CDC RT-PCR test. Here we present a collection of these recent advances in COVID-19 nucleic acid testing, including both peer-reviewed and preprint articles. Due to the rapid developments during this crisis, we have included as many publications as possible, but many of the cited sources have not yet been peer-reviewed, so we urge researchers to further validate results in their own laboratories. We hope that this review can urgently consolidate and disseminate information to aid researchers in designing and implementing optimized COVID-19 testing protocols to increase the availability, accuracy, and speed of widespread COVID-19 testing.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Betacoronavirus/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Time Factors , United States , Workflow
6.
Cell ; 181(4): 865-876.e12, 2020 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-60309

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has highlighted the need for antiviral approaches that can target emerging viruses with no effective vaccines or pharmaceuticals. Here, we demonstrate a CRISPR-Cas13-based strategy, PAC-MAN (prophylactic antiviral CRISPR in human cells), for viral inhibition that can effectively degrade RNA from SARS-CoV-2 sequences and live influenza A virus (IAV) in human lung epithelial cells. We designed and screened CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) targeting conserved viral regions and identified functional crRNAs targeting SARS-CoV-2. This approach effectively reduced H1N1 IAV load in respiratory epithelial cells. Our bioinformatic analysis showed that a group of only six crRNAs can target more than 90% of all coronaviruses. With the development of a safe and effective system for respiratory tract delivery, PAC-MAN has the potential to become an important pan-coronavirus inhibition strategy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , RNA, Viral/antagonists & inhibitors , A549 Cells , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Computer Simulation , Conserved Sequence , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/growth & development , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/growth & development , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA Replicase/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
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