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1.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703897

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised the problem of efficient, low-cost materials enabling the effective protection of people from viruses transmitted through the air or via surfaces. Nanofibers can be a great candidate for efficient air filtration due to their structure, although they cannot protect from viruses. In this work, we prepared a wide range of nanofibrous biodegradable samples containing Ag (up to 0.6 at.%) and Cu (up to 20.4 at.%) exhibiting various wettability. By adjusting the magnetron current (0.3 A) and implanter voltage (5 kV), the deposition of TiO2 and Ag+ implantation into PCL/PEO nanofibers was optimized in order to achieve implantation of Ag+ without damaging the nanofibrous structure of the PCL/PEO. The optimal conditions to implant silver were achieved for the PCL-Ti0.3-Ag-5kV sample. The coating of PCL nanofibers by a Cu layer was successfully realized by magnetron sputtering. The antiviral activity evaluated by widely used methodology involving the cultivation of VeroE6 cells was the highest for PCL-Cu and PCL-COOH, where the VeroE6 viability was 73.1 and 68.1%, respectively, which is significantly higher compared to SARS-CoV-2 samples without self-sanitizing (42.8%). Interestingly, the samples with implanted silver and TiO2 exhibited no antiviral effect. This difference between Cu and Ag containing nanofibers might be related to the different concentrations of ions released from the samples: 80 µg/L/day for Cu2+ versus 15 µg/L/day for Ag+. The high antiviral activity of PCL-Cu opens up an exciting opportunity to prepare low-cost self-sanitizing surfaces for anti-SARS-CoV-2 protection and can be essential for air filtration application and facemasks. The rough cost estimation for the production of a biodegradable nanohybrid PCL-Cu facemask revealed ~$0.28/piece, and the business case for the production of these facemasks would be highly positive, with an Internal Rate of Return of 34%.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Nanofibers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Chlorocebus aethiops , Copper/chemistry , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Polyesters/chemistry , Titanium/chemistry , Vero Cells
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650511

ABSTRACT

International interest in metal-based antimicrobial coatings to control the spread of bacteria, fungi, and viruses via high contact human touch surfaces are growing at an exponential rate. This interest recently reached an all-time high with the outbreak of the deadly COVID-19 disease, which has already claimed the lives of more than 5 million people worldwide. This global pandemic has highlighted the major role that antimicrobial coatings can play in controlling the spread of deadly viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and scientists and engineers are now working harder than ever to develop the next generation of antimicrobial materials. This article begins with a review of three discrete microorganism-killing phenomena of contact-killing surfaces, nanoprotrusions, and superhydrophobic surfaces. The antimicrobial properties of metals such as copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and zinc (Zn) are reviewed along with the effects of combining them with titanium dioxide (TiO2) to create a binary or ternary contact-killing surface coatings. The self-cleaning and bacterial resistance of purely structural superhydrophobic surfaces and the potential of physical surface nanoprotrusions to damage microbial cells are then considered. The article then gives a detailed discussion on recent advances in attempting to combine these individual phenomena to create super-antimicrobial metal-based coatings with binary or ternary killing potential against a broad range of microorganisms, including SARS-CoV-2, for high-touch surface applications such as hand rails, door plates, and water fittings on public transport and in healthcare, care home and leisure settings as well as personal protective equipment commonly used in hospitals and in the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Metals/chemistry , Touch , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/chemical synthesis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/transmission , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemical synthesis , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/microbiology , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Surface Properties , Viruses/drug effects
3.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 458, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577211

ABSTRACT

Bio-inspired Topographically Mediated Surfaces (TMSs) based on high aspect ratio nanostructures have recently been attracting significant attention due to their pronounced antimicrobial properties by mechanically disrupting cellular processes. However, scalability of such surfaces is often greatly limited, as most of them rely on micro/nanoscale fabrication techniques. In this report, a cost-effective, scalable, and versatile approach of utilizing diamond nanotechnology for producing TMSs, and using them for limiting the spread of emerging infectious diseases, is introduced. Specifically, diamond-based nanostructured coatings are synthesized in a single-step fabrication process with a densely packed, needle- or spike-like morphology. The antimicrobial proprieties of the diamond nanospike surface are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and compared to other surfaces including copper, silicon, and even other diamond surfaces without the nanostructuring. This surface is found to have superior biocidal activity, which is confirmed via scanning electron microscopy images showing definite and widespread destruction of E. coli cells on the diamond nanospike surface. Consistent antimicrobial behavior is also observed on a sample prepared seven years prior to testing date.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Diamond/chemistry , Nanostructures/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Copper/chemistry , Copper/pharmacology , Diamond/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/growth & development , Nanostructures/ultrastructure , Nanotechnology , Surface Properties
4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(1): 49-56, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608662

ABSTRACT

The development of low-cost, non-toxic, scalable antimicrobial textiles is needed to address the spread of deadly pathogens. Here, we report a polysiloxane textile coating that possesses two modes of antimicrobial inactivation, passive contact inactivation through amine/imine functionalities and active photodynamic inactivation through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This material can be coated and cross-linked onto natural and synthetic textiles through a simple soak procedure, followed by UV cure to afford materials exhibiting no aqueous leaching and only minimal leaching in organic solvents. This coating minimally impacts the mechanical properties of the fabric while also imparting hydrophobicity. Passive inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is achieved with >98% inactivation after 24 h, with a 23× and 3× inactivation rate increase against E. coli and MRSA, respectively, when green light is used to generate ROS. Up to 90% decrease in the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 after 2 h of irradiated incubation with the material is demonstrated. These results show that modifying textiles with dual-functional polymers results in robust and highly antimicrobial materials that are expected to find widespread use in combating the spread of deadly pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Textiles/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Photochemotherapy/methods , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/toxicity , Ultraviolet Rays
5.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282538

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative) bacteria represent major infectious threats in the hospital environment due to their wide distribution, opportunistic behavior, and increasing antibiotic resistance. This study reports on the deposition of polyvinylpyrrolidone/antibiotic/isoflavonoid thin films by the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) method as anti-adhesion barrier coatings, on biomedical surfaces for improved resistance to microbial colonization. The thin films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, infrared microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. In vitro biological assay tests were performed to evaluate the influence of the thin films on the development of biofilms formed by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. In vitro biocompatibility tests were assessed on human endothelial cells examined for up to five days of incubation, via qualitative and quantitative methods. The results of this study revealed that the laser-fabricated coatings are biocompatible and resistant to microbial colonization and biofilm formation, making them successful candidates for biomedical devices and contact surfaces that would otherwise be amenable to contact transmission.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Biofilms/growth & development , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Lasers/standards , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/growth & development , Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development , Surface Properties
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12410, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268005

ABSTRACT

In situ generation of antibacterial and antiviral agents by harnessing the catalytic activity of enzymes on surfaces provides an effective eco-friendly approach for disinfection. The perhydrolase (AcT) from Mycobacterium smegmatis catalyzes the perhydrolysis of acetate esters to generate the potent disinfectant, peracetic acid (PAA). In the presence of AcT and its two substrates, propylene glycol diacetate and H2O2, sufficient and continuous PAA is generated over an extended time to kill a wide range of bacteria with the enzyme dissolved in aqueous buffer. For extended self-disinfection, however, active and stable AcT bound onto or incorporated into a surface coating is necessary. In the current study, an active, stable and reusable AcT-based coating was developed by incorporating AcT into a polydopamine (PDA) matrix in a single step, thereby forming a biocatalytic composite onto a variety of surfaces. The resulting AcT-PDA composite coatings on glass, metal and epoxy surfaces yielded up to 7-log reduction of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria when in contact with the biocatalytic coating. This composite coating also possessed potent antiviral activity, and dramatically reduced the infectivity of a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus within minutes. The single-step approach enables rapid and facile fabrication of enzyme-based disinfectant composite coatings with high activity and stability, which enables reuse following surface washing. As a result, this enzyme-polymer composite technique may serve as a general strategy for preparing antibacterial and antiviral surfaces for applications in health care and common infrastructure safety, such as in schools, the workplace, transportation, etc.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Hydrolases/chemistry , Indoles/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/metabolism , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Drug Stability , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , Hydrolases/genetics , Hydrolases/metabolism , Kinetics , Mycobacterium smegmatis/enzymology , Peracetic Acid/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
7.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(23): 4620-4642, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240778

ABSTRACT

Despite significant accomplishments in developing efficient rapid sensing systems and nano-therapeutics of higher efficacy, the recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is not under control successfully because the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV-2, original and mutated) transmits easily from human to -human and causes life-threatening respiratory disorders. Thus, it has become crucial to avoid this transmission through precautions and keep premises hygienic using high-performance anti-viral nanomaterials to trap and eradicate SARS-CoV-2. Such an antiviral nano-system has successfully demonstrated useful significant contribution in COVID-19 pandemic/endemic management effectively. However, their projection with potential sustainable prospects still requires considerable attention and efforts. With this aim, the presented review highlights various severe life-threatening viral infections and the role of multi-functional anti-viral nanostructures with manipulative properties investigated as an efficient precative shielding agent against viral infection progression. The salient features of such various nanostructures, antiviral mechanisms, and high impact multi-dimensional roles are systematically discussed in this review. Additionally, the challenges associated with the projection of alternative approaches also support the demand and significance of this selected scientific topic. The outcomes of this review will certainly be useful to motivate scholars of various expertise who are planning future research in the field of investigating sustainable and affordable high-performance nano-systems of desired antiviral performance to manage not only COVID-19 infection but other targeted viral infections as well.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Models, Biological , Nanostructures/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Humans , Nanostructures/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 172: 112724, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108087

ABSTRACT

The uneven morphology and the trapped charges at the surface of the traditionally used supporting substrate-based 2D biosensors produces a scattering effect, which leads to a irregular signals from individually fabricated devices. Though suspended 2D channel material has the potential to overcome scattering effects from the substrates but achieving reliability and selectivity, have been limiting the using of this biosensor technology. Here, we have demonstrated nanogap electrodes fabrication by using the self-assembly technique, which provides suspension to the 2D-MoS2. These nano-spacing electrodes not only give suspension but also provide robustness strength to the atomic layer, which remains freestanding after coating of the Hafnium oxide (HfO2) as well as linkers and antibodies. For evaluating the electrical characteristics of suspended MoS2 FET, gating potential was applied through an electrolyte on the suspended MoS2 transistor. This helped in achieved a lower subthreshold swing 70 mV/dec and ON/OFF ratio 107. Later, pH detection was conducted at room temperature, which showed an impressive sensitivity of ~880 by changing 1 unit of pH. We have also successfully shown Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria sensing from the suspended MoS2 transistor by functionalizing dielectric layer with E. coli antibodies. The reported biosensor has shown the ~9% of conductance changes with a lower concentration of E. coli (10 CFU/mL; colony-forming unit per mL) as well as maintain the constant sensitivity in three fabricated devices. The obtained enhancement in the sensitivity of devices and its effect on biomolecules detection can be extened to other biomolecules and this type of architecture has the potential to detect COVID-19 viruses based biomolecules.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Disulfides , Molybdenum , Nanostructures/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Escherichia coli/chemistry , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Microelectrodes , Microtechnology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Static Electricity , Volatilization
9.
Biointerphases ; 16(1): 011006, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066780

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has reached more than 160 countries and has been declared a pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 infects host cells by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) surface receptor via the spike (S) receptor-binding protein (RBD) on the virus envelope. Global data on a similar infectious disease spread by SARS-CoV-1 in 2002 indicated improved stability of the virus at lower temperatures facilitating its high transmission in the community during colder months (December-February). Seasonal viral transmissions are strongly modulated by temperatures, which can impact viral trafficking into host cells; however, an experimental study of temperature-dependent activity of SARS-CoV-2 is still lacking. We mimicked SARS-CoV-2 with polymer beads coated with the SARS-CoV-2 S protein to study the effect of seasonal temperatures on the binding of virus-mimicking nanospheres to lung epithelia. The presence of the S protein RBD on nanosphere surfaces led to binding by Calu-3 airway epithelial cells via the ACE-2 receptor. Calu-3 and control fibroblast cells with S-RBD-coated nanospheres were incubated at 33 and 37 °C to mimic temperature fluctuations in the host respiratory tract, and we found no temperature dependence in contrast to nonspecific binding of bovine serum ablumin-coated nanospheres. Moreover, the ambient temperature changes from 4 to 40 °C had no effect on S-RBD-ACE-2 ligand-receptor binding and minimal effect on the S-RBD protein structure (up to 40 °C), though protein denaturing occurred at 51 °C. Our results suggest that ambient temperatures from 4 to 40 °C have little effect on the SARS-CoV-2-ACE-2 interaction in agreement with the infection data currently reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Coated Materials, Biocompatible , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Nanospheres , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Temperature , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , NIH 3T3 Cells , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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