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Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3316, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713215


The new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, caused the COVID-19 pandemic, characterized by its high rate of contamination, propagation capacity, and lethality rate. In this work, we approach the use of phthalocyanines as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2, as they present several interactive properties of the phthalocyanines (Pc) of Cobalt (CoPc), Copper (CuPc) and without a metal group (NoPc) can interact with SARS-CoV-2, showing potential be used as filtering by adsorption on paints on walls, masks, clothes, and air conditioning filters. Molecular modeling techniques through Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics were used, where the target was the external structures of the virus, but specifically the envelope protein, main protease, and Spike glycoprotein proteases. Using the g_MM-GBSA module and with it, the molecular docking studies show that the ligands have interaction characteristics capable of adsorbing the structures. Molecular dynamics provided information on the root-mean-square deviation of the atomic positions provided values between 1 and 2.5. The generalized Born implicit solvation model, Gibbs free energy, and solvent accessible surface area approach were used. Among the results obtained through molecular dynamics, it was noticed that interactions occur since Pc could bind to residues of the active site of macromolecules, demonstrating good interactions; in particular with CoPc. Molecular couplings and free energy showed that S-gly active site residues interacted strongly with phthalocyanines with values ​​of - 182.443 kJ/mol (CoPc), 158.954 kJ/mol (CuPc), and - 129.963 kJ/mol (NoPc). The interactions of Pc's with SARS-CoV-2 may predict some promising candidates for antagonists to the virus, which if confirmed through experimental approaches, may contribute to resolving the global crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 , Cobalt/chemistry , Coordination Complexes/chemistry , Copper/chemistry , Isoindoles/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Humans
J Inorg Biochem ; 211: 111179, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654489


We have investigated the structural stability of the SARS (Severe acute respiratory syndrome)-CoV-2 main protease monomer (Mpro). We quantified the spatial and angular changes in the structure using two independent analyses, one based on a spatial metrics (δ, ratio), the second on angular metrics. The order of unfolding of the 10 helices in Mpro is characterized by beta vs alpha plots similar to those of cytochromes and globins. The longest turning region is anomalous in the earliest stage of unfolding. In an investigation of excluded-volume effects, we found that the maximum spread in average molecular-volume values for Mpro, cytochrome c-b562, cytochrome c', myoglobin, and cytoglobin is ~10 Å3. This apparent universality is a consequence of the dominant contributions from six residues: ALA, ASP, GLU, LEU, LYS and VAL. Of the seven Mpro histidines, residues 41, 163, 164, and 246 are in stable H-bonded regions; metal ion binding to one or more of these residues could break up the H-bond network, thereby affecting protease function. Our analysis also indicated that metal binding to cysteine residues 44 and 145 could disable the enzyme.

Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Cobalt/chemistry , Cobalt/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Cysteine/chemistry , Histidine/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Stability/drug effects , Protein Unfolding/drug effects