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1.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(6): 501-507, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313523

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cochlear dimensions on cochlear implant selection in cochlear hypoplasia patients. METHODS: Temporal bone computed tomography images of 36 patients diagnosed with cochlear hypoplasia between 2010 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 40 controls without sensorineural hearing loss. RESULTS: Basal turn length and mid-modiolar height were significantly lower in the cochlear hypoplasia patients with subtypes I, II and III than in the control group (p < 0.001). Mid-scalar length was significantly shorter in subtype I-III patients as compared with the control group (p < 0.001). In addition, cochlear canal length (measured along the lateral wall) was significantly shorter in subtype I-IV patients than in the control group (subtypes I-III, p < 0.001; subtype IV, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Cochlear hypoplasia should be considered if basal turn length is less than 7.5 mm and mid-modiolar height is less than 3.42 mm. The cochlear implant should be selected according to cochlear hypoplasia subgroup. It is critically important to differentiate subtype II from incomplete partition type I and subtype III from a normal cochlea, to ensure the most appropriate implant electrode selection so as to optimise cochlear implantation outcomes.


Subject(s)
Cochlea/abnormalities , Cochlea/diagnostic imaging , Cochlear Implants , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cochlea/pathology , Cochlea/surgery , Female , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/pathology , Humans , Infant , Male , Organ Size , Retrospective Studies , Temporal Bone/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
2.
Laryngoscope ; 131(6): E2013-E2017, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969763

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Intracellular entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) depends on the interaction between its spike protein with the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and depends on Furin-mediated spike protein cleavage and spike protein priming by host cell proteases, including transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). As the expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin in the middle and inner ear remain unclear, we analyzed the expression of these proteins in mouse ear tissues. STUDY DESIGN: Animal Research. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine the distribution of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin in the Eustachian tube, middle ear spaces, and cochlea of mice. RESULTS: ACE2 was present in the nucleus of the epithelium of the middle ear and Eustachian tube, as well as in some nuclei of the hair cells in the organ of Corti, in the stria vascularis, and the spiral ganglion cells. ACE2 was also expressed in the cytoplasm of the stria vascularis. TMPRSS2 was expressed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in the middle spaces, with the expression being stronger in the nucleus in the mucosal epithelium of the middle ear spaces and Eustachian tube. TMPRSS2 was present in the cytoplasm in the organ of Corti and stria vascularis and in the nucleus and cytoplasm in the spiral ganglion. Furin was expressed in the cytoplasm in the middle ear spaces, Eustachian tube, and cochlea. CONCLUSIONS: ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin are diffusely present in the Eustachian tube, middle ear spaces, and cochlea, suggesting that these tissues are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 131:E2013-E2017, 2021.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Ear, Inner/pathology , Ear, Middle/pathology , Eustachian Tube/pathology , Furin/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Animals , Cochlea/pathology , Epithelium/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Mucous Membrane/pathology , Organ of Corti/pathology , Spiral Ganglion/pathology , Stria Vascularis/pathology , Temporal Bone/pathology
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