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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(1)2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595265

ABSTRACT

Infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) provokes a potentially fatal pneumonia with multiorgan failure, and high systemic inflammation. To gain mechanistic insight and ferret out the root of this immune dysregulation, we modeled, by in vitro coculture, the interactions between infected epithelial cells and immunocytes. A strong response was induced in monocytes and B cells, with a SARS-CoV-2-specific inflammatory gene cluster distinct from that seen in influenza A or Ebola virus-infected cocultures, and which reproduced deviations reported in blood or lung myeloid cells from COVID-19 patients. A substantial fraction of the effect could be reproduced after individual transfection of several SARS-CoV-2 proteins (Spike and some nonstructural proteins), mediated by soluble factors, but not via transcriptional induction. This response was greatly muted in monocytes from healthy children, perhaps a clue to the age dependency of COVID-19. These results suggest that the inflammatory malfunction in COVID-19 is rooted in the earliest perturbations that SARS-CoV-2 induces in epithelia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Coculture Techniques , Ebolavirus/pathogenicity , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Inflammation , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Lung/immunology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Species Specificity , Viral Proteins/immunology
2.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 9636897211054481, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511642

ABSTRACT

Biological and cellular interleukin-6 (IL-6)-related therapies have been used to treat severe COVID-19 pneumonia with hyperinflammatory syndrome and acute respiratory failure, which prompted further exploration of the role of IL-6 in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were responders cocultured with hUCMSCs or exogenous IL-6. A PBMC suppression assay was used to analyze the anti-inflammatory effects via MTT assay. The IL-6 concentration in the supernatant was measured using ELISA. The correlation between the anti-inflammatory effect of hUCMSCs and IL-6 levels and the relevant roles of IL-6 and IL-6 mRNA expression was analyzed using the MetaCore functional network constructed from gene microarray data. The location of IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expression was further evaluated. We reported that hUCMSCs did not initially exert any inhibitory effect on PHA-stimulated proliferation; however, a potent inhibitory effect on PHA-stimulated proliferation was observed, and the IL-6 concentration reached approximately 1000 ng/mL after 72 hours. Exogenous 1000 ng/mL IL-6 inhibited PHA-stimulated inflammation but less so than hUCMSCs. The inhibitory effects of hUCMSCs on PHA-stimulated PBMCs disappeared after adding an IL-6 neutralizing antibody or pretreatment with tocilizumab (TCZ), an IL-6R antagonist. hUCMSCs exert excellent anti-inflammatory effects by inducing higher IL-6 levels, which is different from TCZ. High concentration of IL-6 cytokine secretion plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effect of hUCMSC therapy. Initial hUCMSC therapy, followed by TCZ, seems to optimize the therapeutic potential to treat COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Combined Modality Therapy , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Phytohemagglutinins/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Receptors, Interleukin-6/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Umbilical Cord/cytology
3.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470800

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary epithelial cells are widely considered to be the first line of defence in the lung and are responsible for coordinating the innate immune response to injury and subsequent repair. Consequently, epithelial cells communicate with multiple cell types including immune cells and fibroblasts to promote acute inflammation and normal wound healing in response to damage. However, aberrant epithelial cell death and damage are hallmarks of pulmonary disease, with necrotic cell death and cellular senescence contributing to disease pathogenesis in numerous respiratory diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and coronavirus disease (COVID)-19. In this review, we summarise the literature that demonstrates that epithelial damage plays a pivotal role in the dysregulation of the immune response leading to tissue destruction and abnormal remodelling in several chronic diseases. Specifically, we highlight the role of epithelial-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and senescence in shaping the immune response and assess their contribution to inflammatory and fibrotic signalling pathways in the lung.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epithelium/immunology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Lung/immunology , Alarmins , Animals , Cellular Senescence , Coculture Techniques , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Fibroblasts/cytology , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Fibrosis/metabolism , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Immunity , Inflammation/metabolism , Ligands , Necroptosis , Necrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
4.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444118

ABSTRACT

The PD-L1/PD-1 immune checkpoint axis is the strongest T cell exhaustion inducer. As immune dysfunction occurs during obesity, we analyzed the impact of obesity on PD-L1/PD-1 expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) in mice and in human white adipocytes. We found that PD-L1 was overexpressed in WAT of diet-induced obese mice and was associated with increased expression of PD-1 in visceral but not subcutaneous WAT. Human in vitro cocultures with adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) and mononuclear cells demonstrated that the presence of ASC harvested from obese WAT (i) enhanced PD-L1 expression as compared with ASC from lean WAT, (ii) decreased Th1 cell cytokine secretion, and (iii) resulted in decreased cytolytic activity towards adipocytes. Moreover, (iv) the implication of PD-L1 in obese ASC-mediated T cell dysfunction was demonstrated through PD-L1 blockade. Finally, (v) conditioned media gathered from these cocultures enhanced PD-L1 expression in freshly differentiated adipocytes, depending on IFNγ. Altogether, our results suggest that PD-L1 is overexpressed in the WAT of obese individuals during IFNγ secretion, leading to T cell dysfunction and notably reduced cytolytic activity. Such a mechanism could shed light on why adipose-tissue-infiltrating viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, can worsen disease in obese individuals.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue, White/metabolism , B7-H1 Antigen/biosynthesis , Gene Expression Regulation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Obesity/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Differentiation , Coculture Techniques , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/cytology
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 692729, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369667

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological studies and clinical trials suggest Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has protective effects against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There are now over 30 clinical trials evaluating if BCG vaccination can prevent or reduce the severity of COVID-19. However, the mechanism by which BCG vaccination can induce severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T cell responses is unknown. Here, we identify 8 novel BCG-derived peptides with significant sequence homology to either SARS-CoV-2 NSP3 or NSP13-derived peptides. Using an in vitro co-culture system, we show that human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells primed with a BCG-derived peptide developed enhanced reactivity to its corresponding homologous SARS-CoV-2-derived peptide. As expected, HLA differences between individuals meant that not all persons developed immunogenic responses to all 8 BCG-derived peptides. Nevertheless, all of the 20 individuals that were primed with BCG-derived peptides developed enhanced T cell reactivity to at least 7 of 8 SARS-CoV-2-derived peptides. These findings provide an in vitro mechanism that may account, in part, for the epidemiologic observation that BCG vaccination confers some protection from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cross Reactions , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Male , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Sequence Homology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Young Adult
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126679, 2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313241

ABSTRACT

Intensive disinfection of wastewater during the COVID-19 pandemic might elevate the generation of toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs), which has triggered global concerns about their ecological risks to natural aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the toxicity of 17 DBPs typically present in wastewater effluents on three representative microalgae, including Scenedesmus sp. (Chlorophyta), Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyta), and Cyclotella sp. (Bacillariophyta) was investigated. The sensitivities of the three microalgae to DBPs varied greatly from species to species, indicating that DBPs may change the structure of phytoplankton communities. Later, co-cultures of these phytoplankton groups as a proxy of ecological freshwater scenario were conducted to explore the impacts of DBPs on phytoplankton community succession. M. aeruginosa became surprisingly dominant in co-cultures, representing over 50% after dosing with monochloroacetic acid (MCAA, 0.1-10 mg/L). The highest proportion of M. aeruginosa was 70.3% when exposed to 2 mg/L MCAA. Although Scenedesmus sp. dominated in monochloroacetonitrile (MCAN) exposure, M. aeruginosa accounted for no less than 30% even at 40 mg/L MCAN. In this study, DBPs disrupted the original inter-algal relationship in favor of M. aeruginosa, suggesting that DBPs may contribute to the outbreak of cyanobacterial blooms in aquatic ecosystems.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/toxicity , Phytoplankton/drug effects , Scenedesmus , Coculture Techniques , Disinfection , Ecosystem , Fresh Water , Scenedesmus/drug effects
8.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 10(15): e2100879, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283191

ABSTRACT

High-throughput tissue barrier models can yield critical insights on how barrier function responds to therapeutics, pathogens, and toxins. However, such models often emphasize multiplexing capability at the expense of physiologic relevance. Particularly, the distal lung's air-blood barrier is typically modeled with epithelial cell monoculture, neglecting the substantial contribution of endothelial cell feedback in the coordination of barrier function. An obstacle to establishing high-throughput coculture models relevant to the epithelium/endothelium interface is the requirement for underside cell seeding, which is difficult to miniaturize and automate. Therefore, this paper describes a scalable, low-cost seeding method that eliminates inversion by optimizing medium density to float cells so they attach under the membrane. This method generates a 96-well model of the distal lung epithelium-endothelium barrier with serum-free, glucocorticoid-free air-liquid differentiation. The polarized epithelial-endothelial coculture exhibits mature barrier function, appropriate intercellular junction staining, and epithelial-to-endothelial transmission of inflammatory stimuli such as polyinosine:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)). Further, exposure to influenza A virus PR8 and human beta-coronavirus OC43 initiates a dose-dependent inflammatory response that propagates from the epithelium to endothelium. While this model focuses on the air-blood barrier, the underside seeding method is generalizable to various coculture tissue models for scalable, physiologic screening.


Subject(s)
Blood-Air Barrier , Lung , Coculture Techniques , Endothelial Cells , Epithelium , Humans
9.
Microb Biotechnol ; 13(4): 997-1011, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280255

ABSTRACT

In contrast to the current paradigm of using microbial mono-cultures in most biotechnological applications, increasing efforts are being directed towards engineering mixed-species consortia to perform functions that are difficult to programme into individual strains. In this work, we developed a synthetic microbial consortium composed of two genetically engineered microbes, a cyanobacterium (Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942) and a heterotrophic bacterium (Pseudomonas putida EM173). These microbial species specialize in the co-culture: cyanobacteria fix CO2 through photosynthetic metabolism and secrete sufficient carbohydrates to support the growth and active metabolism of P. putida, which has been engineered to consume sucrose and to degrade the environmental pollutant 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT). By encapsulating S. elongatus within a barium-alginate hydrogel, cyanobacterial cells were protected from the toxic effects of 2,4-DNT, enhancing the performance of the co-culture. The synthetic consortium was able to convert 2,4-DNT with light and CO2 as key inputs, and its catalytic performance was stable over time. Furthermore, cycling this synthetic consortium through low nitrogen medium promoted the sucrose-dependent accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoate, an added-value biopolymer, in the engineered P. putida strain. Altogether, the synthetic consortium displayed the capacity to remediate the industrial pollutant 2,4-DNT while simultaneously synthesizing biopolymers using light and CO2 as the primary inputs.


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas putida , Biotransformation , Coculture Techniques , Dinitrobenzenes , Pseudomonas putida/genetics , Synechococcus
10.
Stem Cells Dev ; 30(15): 758-772, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254367

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm is recognized as one of the factors contributing to organ failures and mortality in patients with COVID-19. Due to chronic inflammation, COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or renal disease (RD) have more severe symptoms and higher mortality. However, the factors that contribute to severe outcomes of COVID-19 patients with DM and RD have received little attention. In an effort to investigate potential treatments for COVID-19, recent research has focused on the immunomodulation functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, the correlation between DM and RD and the severity of COVID-19 was examined by a combined approach with a meta-analysis and experimental research. The results of a systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that the odd of mortality in patients with both DM and RD was increased in comparison to those with a single comorbidity. In addition, in the experimental research, the data showed that high glucose and uremic toxins contributed to the induction of cytokine storm in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (Calu-3 cells) in response to SARS-CoV Peptide Pools. Of note, the incorporation of Wharton's jelly MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (WJ-EVs) into SARS-CoV peptide-induced Calu-3 resulted in a significant decrease in nuclear NF-κB p65 and the downregulation of the cytokine storm under high concentrations of glucose and uremic toxins. This clearly suggests the potential for WJ-EVs to reduce cytokine storm reactions in patients with both chronic inflammation diseases and viral infection.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Extracellular Vesicles/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Wharton Jelly/cytology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Complications/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Pregnancy , Toxins, Biological/metabolism , Toxins, Biological/pharmacology , Umbilical Cord/cytology , Uremia/blood , Uremia/complications , Uremia/metabolism , Uremia/therapy
11.
Elife ; 102021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200330

ABSTRACT

Many enveloped viruses induce multinucleated cells (syncytia), reflective of membrane fusion events caused by the same machinery that underlies viral entry. These syncytia are thought to facilitate replication and evasion of the host immune response. Here, we report that co-culture of human cells expressing the receptor ACE2 with cells expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike, results in synapse-like intercellular contacts that initiate cell-cell fusion, producing syncytia resembling those we identify in lungs of COVID-19 patients. To assess the mechanism of spike/ACE2-driven membrane fusion, we developed a microscopy-based, cell-cell fusion assay to screen ~6000 drugs and >30 spike variants. Together with quantitative cell biology approaches, the screen reveals an essential role for biophysical aspects of the membrane, particularly cholesterol-rich regions, in spike-mediated fusion, which extends to replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 isolates. Our findings potentially provide a molecular basis for positive outcomes reported in COVID-19 patients taking statins and suggest new strategies for therapeutics targeting the membrane of SARS-CoV-2 and other fusogenic viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Giant Cells/pathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cholesterol , Coculture Techniques , Humans , Lung/pathology , Membrane Fusion , Membrane Lipids/metabolism
13.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(1): 415-429, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027162

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study's aim was to analyze the capacity of human valve interstitial cells (VICs) to participate in aortic valve angiogenesis. Approach and Results: VICs were isolated from human aortic valves obtained after surgery for calcific aortic valve disease and from normal aortic valves unsuitable for grafting (control VICs). We examined VIC in vitro and in vivo potential to differentiate in endothelial and perivascular lineages. VIC paracrine effect was also examined on human endothelial colony-forming cells. A pathological VIC (VICp) mesenchymal-like phenotype was confirmed by CD90+/CD73+/CD44+ expression and multipotent-like differentiation ability. When VICp were cocultured with endothelial colony-forming cells, they formed microvessels by differentiating into perivascular cells both in vivo and in vitro. VICp and control VIC conditioned media were compared using serial ELISA regarding quantification of endothelial and angiogenic factors. Higher expression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)-A was observed at the protein level in VICp-conditioned media and confirmed at the mRNA level in VICp compared with control VIC. Conditioned media from VICp induced in vitro a significant increase in endothelial colony-forming cell proliferation, migration, and sprouting compared with conditioned media from control VIC. These effects were inhibited by blocking VEGF-A with blocking antibody or siRNA approach, confirming VICp involvement in angiogenesis by a VEGF-A dependent mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: We provide here the first proof of an angiogenic potential of human VICs isolated from patients with calcific aortic valve disease. These results point to a novel function of VICp in valve vascularization during calcific aortic valve disease, with a perivascular differentiation ability and a VEGF-A paracrine effect. Targeting perivascular differentiation and VEGF-A to slow calcific aortic valve disease progression warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Aortic Valve Stenosis/metabolism , Aortic Valve/metabolism , Aortic Valve/pathology , Calcinosis/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Lineage , Endothelial Progenitor Cells/metabolism , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Aortic Valve Stenosis/pathology , Calcinosis/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Cells, Cultured , Coculture Techniques , Endothelial Progenitor Cells/pathology , Endothelial Progenitor Cells/transplantation , Female , Humans , Male , Mice, Nude , Middle Aged , Osteogenesis , Paracrine Communication , Phenotype , Signal Transduction , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics
14.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(1): 93-107, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737128

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can alleviate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the mechanisms involved are unclear, especially about their specific effects on cellular mitochondrial respiratory function. Thirty mice were allocated into the Control, LPS, and LPS + Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) group (n = 10/group). Mouse alveolar epithelial cells (MLE-12) and macrophage cells (RAW264.7) were divided into the same groups. Pathological variation, inflammation-related factors, reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATP levels, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) were analyzed. Pathologic features of ARDS were observed in the LPS group and were significantly alleviated by BMSCs. The trend in inflammation-related factors among the three groups was the LPS group > LPS + BMSC group > Control group. In the MLE-12 co-culture system, IL-6 was increased in the LPS group but not significantly reduced in the LPS + BMSC group. In the RAW264.7 co-culture system, IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-10 levels were all increased in the LPS group, IL-1ß and TNF-α levels were reduced by BMSCs, while IL-10 level kept increasing. ROS and ATP levels were increased and decreased respectively in both MLE-12 and RAW264.7 cells in the LPS groups but reversed by BMSCs. Basal OCR, ATP-linked OCR, and maximal OCR were lower in the LPS groups. Impaired basal OCR and ATP-linked OCR in MLE-12 cells were partially restored by BMSCs, while impaired basal OCR and maximal OCR in RAW264.7 cells were restored by BMSCs. BMSCs improved the mitochondrial respiration dysfunction of macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells induced by LPS, alleviated lung tissue injury, and inflammatory response in a mouse model of ARDS.


Subject(s)
Epithelium/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mitochondria/metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Animals , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Coculture Techniques , Inflammation , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Lung Injury/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxygen Consumption , RAW 264.7 Cells
15.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(12): 1042, 2020 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969908

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is an acute and rapidly developing pandemic, which leads to a global health crisis. SARS-CoV-2 primarily attacks human alveoli and causes severe lung infection and damage. To better understand the molecular basis of this disease, we sought to characterize the responses of alveolar epithelium and its adjacent microvascular endothelium to viral infection under a co-culture system. SARS-CoV-2 infection caused massive virus replication and dramatic organelles remodeling in alveolar epithelial cells, alone. While, viral infection affected endothelial cells in an indirect manner, which was mediated by infected alveolar epithelium. Proteomics analysis and TEM examinations showed viral infection caused global proteomic modulations and marked ultrastructural changes in both epithelial cells and endothelial cells under the co-culture system. In particular, viral infection elicited global protein changes and structural reorganizations across many sub-cellular compartments in epithelial cells. Among the affected organelles, mitochondrion seems to be a primary target organelle. Besides, according to EM and proteomic results, we identified Daurisoline, a potent autophagy inhibitor, could inhibit virus replication effectively in host cells. Collectively, our study revealed an unrecognized cross-talk between epithelium and endothelium, which contributed to alveolar-capillary injury during SARS-CoV-2 infection. These new findings will expand our understanding of COVID-19 and may also be helpful for targeted drug development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cell Communication/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Coculture Techniques , Down-Regulation , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Mitochondria/pathology , Mitochondria/virology , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , Pulmonary Alveoli/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Up-Regulation
17.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730306

ABSTRACT

Natural killer cells are important in the control of viral infections. However, the role of NK cells during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has previously not been identified. Peripheral blood NK cells from SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 naïve subjects were evaluated for their activation, degranulation, and interferon-gamma expression in the presence of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins. K562 and lung epithelial cells were transfected with spike proteins and co-cultured with NK cells. The analysis was performed by flow cytometry and immune fluorescence. SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins did not alter NK cell activation in a K562 in vitro model. On the contrary, SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 protein (SP1) intracellular expression by lung epithelial cells resulted in NK cell-reduced degranulation. Further experiments revealed a concomitant induction of HLA-E expression on the surface of lung epithelial cells and the recognition of an SP1-derived HLA-E-binding peptide. Simultaneously, there was increased modulation of the inhibitory receptor NKG2A/CD94 on NK cells when SP1 was expressed in lung epithelial cells. We ruled out the GATA3 transcription factor as being responsible for HLA-E increased levels and HLA-E/NKG2A interaction as implicated in NK cell exhaustion. We show for the first time that NK cells are affected by SP1 expression in lung epithelial cells via HLA-E/NKG2A interaction. The resulting NK cells' exhaustion might contribute to immunopathogenesis in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/genetics , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Blood Donors , Bronchi/cytology , COVID-19 , Cell Degranulation/genetics , Coculture Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , K562 Cells , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Transfection
18.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2440-2452, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457293

ABSTRACT

Conventional cancer and transformed cell lines are widely used in cancer biology and other fields within biology. These cells usually have abnormalities from the original tumor itself, but may also develop abnormalities due to genetic manipulation, or genetic and epigenetic changes during long-term passages. Primary cultures may maintain lineage functions as the original tissue types, yet they have a very limited life span or population doubling time because of the nature of cellular senescence. Primary cultures usually have very low yields, and the high variability from any original tissue specimens, largely limiting their applications in research. Animal models are often used for studies of virus infections, disease modeling, development of antiviral drugs, and vaccines. Human viruses often need a series of passages in vivo to adapt to the host environment because of variable receptors on the cell surface and may have intracellular restrictions from the cell types or host species. Here, we describe a long-term cell culture system, conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRCs), and its applications in modeling human viral diseases and drug discovery. Using feeder layer coculture in presence of Y-27632 (conditional reprogramming, CR), CRCs can be obtained and rapidly propagated from surgical specimens, core or needle biopsies, and other minimally invasive or noninvasive specimens, for example, nasal cavity brushing. CRCs preserve their lineage functions and provide biologically relevant and physiological conditions, which are suitable for studies of viral entry and replication, innate immune responses of host cells, and discovery of antiviral drugs. In this review, we summarize the applications of CR technology in modeling host-virus interactions and human viral diseases including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 and coronavirus disease-2019, and antiviral discovery.


Subject(s)
Cellular Reprogramming , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Amides , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Coculture Techniques , Drug Discovery , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Pyridines , Virus Internalization
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